James Christian Kimmel is an American television host, comedian and producer. He is the host and executive producer of Jimmy Kimmel Live!, a late-night talk show that premiered on ABC on January 26, 2003 at Hollywood Masonic Temple in Hollywood, California. Kimmel hosted the Primetime Emmy Awards in 2012 and 2016, the Academy Awards in 2017 and 2018. Before hosting Jimmy Kimmel Live!, he was known as the co-host of Comedy Central's The Man Show and Win Ben Stein's Money. Kimmel has produced such shows as Crank Yankers, Sports Show with Norm Macdonald, The Andy Milonakis Show. In 2018, Time named him as one of "The World's 100 Most Influential People". Kimmel was born in Brooklyn, New York, grew up in the neighborhood of Mill Basin as the eldest of three children of Joan Iacono and James John Kimmel, who worked at American Express and was an IBM executive, he is and was raised Catholic, as a child was an altar server. Kimmel's mother is of Italian ancestry from Ischia, whose family migrated to the United States following the 1883 earthquake, while two of his paternal great-great-grandparents were German immigrants.
His family's surname was "Kümmel" several generations back. The family moved to Las Vegas, when he was nine years old, he graduated from Ed W. Clark High School, attended University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Arizona State University, he received an honorary degree from UNLV in 2013. Kimmel's uncle, Frank Potenza, appeared on Jimmy Kimmel Live! as a regular from 2003 until his death in 2011. His cousin, Sal Iacono, performed Kimmel's former co-hosting duties during the last season of Win Ben Stein's Money and became a writer and sketch performer on Jimmy Kimmel Live! His Aunt Chippy is a featured part of the show, his brother, works on the show as a director. His sister, Jill, is a comedian, he has a son, who works on the show as a production assistant. He has a daughter, a ceramics artist, he has a daughter named Jane and a son named Billy. Kimmel began working in the radio industry while in high school, hosting a Sunday night interview show on UNLV's college station, KUNV. While attending Arizona State University, he became a popular caller to the KZZP-FM afternoon show hosted by radio personalities Mike Elliott and Kent Voss in Phoenix, Arizona.
In 1989, Kimmel landed his first paying job alongside Voss as morning drive co-host of The Me and Him Show at KZOK-FM in Seattle, Washington. Ten months Kimmel and Voss were fired by KZOK and were fired again a year at WRBQ-FM in Tampa, Florida. Kimmel went on to host his own show at KCMJ in Palm Springs, where he persuaded a young Carson Daly to drop out of college and become his intern. After a morning stint at KRQQ in Tucson, Kimmel landed at KROQ-FM in Los Angeles, he spent five years as "Jimmy The Sports Guy" for the Bean morning show. During this time he befriended a struggling comedian named Adam Carolla. Kimmel began his television career as the comedic counterpart to Ben Stein on the game show Win Ben Stein's Money, which began airing on Comedy Central in 1997, his quick wit and "everyman" personality were counterpoints to Stein's monotonous vocal style and faux-patrician demeanor. The combination earned the pair an Emmy award for Best Game Show Host. In 1999, during his time with Win Ben Stein's Money, Kimmel co-hosted and co-produced, Comedy Central's The Man Show.
Kimmel left Win Ben Stein's Money in 2001 and was replaced by comedian Nancy Pimental, replaced by Kimmel's cousin Sal Iacono. The Man Show's success allowed Kimmel and Kellison to create and produce, under the banner Jackhole Productions, Crank Yankers for Comedy Central and The Andy Milonakis Show for MTV2. Kimmel produced and co-wrote the feature film Windy City Heat, Festival Prize winner of the Comedia Award for Best Film at the 2004 Montreal Comedy Festival. In January 2003, Kimmel permanently left The Man Show to host his own late-night talk show, Jimmy Kimmel Live!, on ABC. In the April 2007 issue of Stuffmagazine.com, Kimmel was named the "biggest badass on TV". Kimmel said it was an honor but a mistake. Despite its name, the show has not aired live since 2004, when censors were unable to properly bleep censor a barrage of swearing from actor Thomas Jane. During an incident during the 2004 NBA Finals in Detroit, Kimmel appeared on ABC's halftime show to make an on-air plug for his show.
He suggested that if the Detroit Pistons defeated the Los Angeles Lakers, "they're gonna burn the city of Detroit down... and it's not worth it." Officials with Detroit's ABC affiliate, WXYZ-TV announced that that night's show would not air on the station. Hours ABC officials pulled that night's show from the entire network. Kimmel apologized. Kimmel ends his show with "My apologies to Matt Damon, we ran out of time." When Matt Damon did appear on the show to be interviewed, he walked in and sat down only to be told just a few seconds by Kimmel, "Unfortunately, we are out of time," followed by "my apologies to Matt Damon." Damon appeared angry but both performers have since indicated that their faux-feud is a joke. In February 2008, Kimmel showed a mock music video with a panoply of stars called "I'm Fucking Ben Affleck", as "revenge" after his then-girlfriend Sarah Silverman and Damon recorded a similar video titled, "I'm Fucking Matt Damon
CEO Office software from Data General was introduced in 1981. It included word processing, e-mail, business graphics and desktop accessories; the software was developed in PL/I on and for the AOS and AOS/VS operating systems. CEO was considered Office Automation Software. Office Automation software was an attempt to create a "paperless office". CEO has been cited as an example of an executive information system and as a decision support system, it included a main program known as the Control Program which offered a menu driven interface on the assorted dumb terminals which existed at the time. The Control Program communicated with separate "Services" like the Mail Server, Calendar Server, File Server. There was a Word Processor and a data management program, accessible from the Control Program. In 1985, DataGeneral announced a complementary product, TEO, focused on the office automation needs of engineering professionals. In years, CEO offerings grew to include various products to connect to CEO from early personal computers.
The first such product was called CEO Connection. A product named CEO Object Office shipped which repackaged HP NewWave. CEO code was dependent on the INFOS II database; when Data General moved from the Eclipse MV platform to the AViiON, CEO was not ported to the new platform as the cost would have been prohibitive. CEO was compared with IBM's offering called PROFS. CEO offered integration with DISOSS and SNADS. CEO supported Xodiac, Data General's proprietary networking system. In 1989, Data General unveiled an email gateway product, Communications Server, which provided interoperability of CEO with X.400 email systems and X.500 directories. One early CEO site, Deutsche Credit in Chicago, first installed CEO while it was under beta in 1980, by 1986 had 80 users of the product. Other users included the U. S. Forest Service, who installed CEO in 1983, whose CEO system fell victim to a hacking attack in December 1984. CEO was formerly used by Health and Welfare Canada as its departmental email system
Sleep in non-human animals refers to a behavioral and physiological state characterized by altered consciousness, reduced responsiveness to external stimuli, homeostatic regulation. Sleep is observed in mammals, reptiles and some fish, and, in some form, in insects and in simpler animals such as nematodes; the internal circadian clock promotes sleep at night for diurnal organisms and in the day for nocturnal organisms. Sleep patterns vary among species, it appears to be a requirement for most other animals. Sleep can follow behavioral definition. In the physiological sense, sleep is a state characterized by reversible unconsciousness, special brainwave patterns, sporadic eye movement, loss of muscle tone, a compensatory increase following deprivation of the state. In the behavioral sense, sleep is characterized by minimal movement, non-responsiveness to external stimuli, the adoption of a typical posture, the occupation of a sheltered site, all of, repeated on a 24-hour basis; the physiological definition applies well to birds and mammals, but in other animals, the behavioral definition is more used.
In simple animals, behavioral definitions of sleep are the only ones possible, then the behavioral repertoire of the animal may not be extensive enough to allow distinction between sleep and wakefulness. Sleep is reversible, as opposed to hibernation or coma, sleep deprivation is followed by longer or deeper rebound sleep. If sleep were not essential, one would expect to find: Animal species that do not sleep at all Animals that do not need recovery sleep after staying awake longer than usual Animals that suffer no serious consequences as a result of lack of sleepOutside of a few basal animals that have no brain or a simple one, no animals have been found to date that satisfy any of these criteria. While some varieties of shark, such as great whites and hammerheads, must remain in motion at all times to move oxygenated water over their gills, it is possible they still sleep one cerebral hemisphere at a time as marine mammals do; however it remains to be shown definitively. Sleep as a phenomenon appears to have old evolutionary roots.
Unicellular organisms do not "sleep", although many of them have pronounced circadian rhythms. The jellyfish Cassiopea is among the most primitive organism in which sleep-like states have been observed; the nematode C. elegans is another primitive organism. Here, a lethargus phase occurs in short periods preceding each moult, a fact which may indicate that sleep primitively is connected to developmental processes. Raizen et al.'s results furthermore suggest that sleep is necessary for changes in the neural system. The electrophysiological study of sleep in small invertebrates is complicated. Insects go through circadian rhythms of activity and passivity but some do not seem to have a homeostatic sleep need. Insects do not seem to exhibit REM sleep. However, fruit flies appear to sleep, systematic disturbance of that state leads to cognitive disabilities. There are several methods of measuring cognitive functions in fruit flies. A common method is to let the flies choose whether they want to fly through a tunnel that leads to a light source, or through a dark tunnel.
Flies are attracted to light. But if sugar is placed in the end of the dark tunnel, something the flies dislike is placed in the end of the light tunnel, the flies will learn to fly towards darkness rather than light. Flies deprived of sleep require a longer time to learn this and forget it more quickly. If an arthropod is experimentally kept awake longer than it is used to its coming rest period will be prolonged. In cockroaches that rest period is characterized by the antennae being folded down and by a decreased sensitivity to external stimuli. Sleep has been described in crayfish, characterized by passivity and increased thresholds for sensory stimuli as well as changes in the EEG pattern, markedly differing from the patterns found in crayfish when they are awake. In honeybees, it has been suggested. Sleep in fish is subject of current scientific research. Fish exhibit periods of inactivity but show no significant reactions to deprivation of this condition; some species that always live in shoals or that swim continuously are suspected never to sleep.
There is doubt about certain blind species that live in caves. Other fish seem to sleep, however. For example, tilapia, brown bullhead, swell shark become motionless and unresponsive at night. A 1961 observational study of 200 species in European public aquaria reported many cases of apparent sleep. On the other hand, sleep patterns are disrupted and may disappear during periods of migration and parental care. Mammals and reptiles evolved from amniotic ancestors, the first vertebrates with life cycles independent of water; the fact that birds and mammals are the only known animals to exhibit REM and NREM sleep indicates a common trait before divergence. However, recent evidence of REM-like sleep in fish suggests this divergence may have occurred much earlier than thought. Up to this point, reptiles were considered the most logical group to i