João Pessoa, Paraíba

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João Pessoa
Municipality
Município de João Pessoa
João Pessoa skyline
João Pessoa skyline
Flag of João Pessoa
Flag
Official seal of João Pessoa
Seal
Nickname(s): 
Sun Gate
Green City
Motto(s): 
INTREPIDA AB ORIGINE
Location of João Pessoa in the state of Paraíba
Location of João Pessoa in the state of Paraíba
João Pessoa is located in Brazil
João Pessoa
João Pessoa
Location of João Pessoa in Brazil
Coordinates: 07°05′00″S 34°50′00″W / 7.08333°S 34.83333°W / -7.08333; -34.83333Coordinates: 07°05′00″S 34°50′00″W / 7.08333°S 34.83333°W / -7.08333; -34.83333
CountryBrazil
RegionNortheast
StateBandeira da Paraíba.svg Paraíba
Government
 • PrefeitoLuciano Cartaxo (PSD)
Area
 • Total211.475 km2 (81.651 sq mi)
Elevation
40 m (130 ft)
Population
 (2018 est.[1])
 • Total800,323
 • Density3,800/km2 (9,800/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC−3 (UTC−3)
Website[1]
Ponta do Seixas, the easternmost point of America

João Pessoa (Brazilian Portuguese: [ʒuˈɐ̃w peˈso.ɐ])[a] is the capital of the state of Paraíba in Brazil. Known as the "Brazilian Paris", due its abundance of green area, it was founded in 1585 and it is also known as the city where the sun rises first, because it is the easternmost city in the Americas at 34° 47′ 38″ W, 7° 9′ 28″ S, its easternmost point is known as Ponta do Seixas. The city is often referred as "the second greenest in the world", with more than 7 square kilometres (2.7 sq mi) of forested land, second only to Paris, France,[2] though such claim seems to be just a publicity stunt from the then mayor during Earth Summit.[3]

It is the state's largest city, with an estimated population of 800,323 of inhabitants (2018),[1] its metropolitan area comprises eight other satellite cities (Bayeux, Cabedelo, Conde, Lucena, Santa Rita, and others), totalling 1,223,000 of inhabitants.[citation needed]

The new "Estação Ciência, Cultura e Artes" (Science, Culture and Art Station),[4] located at the most eastern point of the Americas (Ponta das Seixas), is both an educational and cultural institution as well as a national landmark; the complex, inaugurated in 2008, was created by Brazilian architect Oscar Niemeyer and is one of his last projects.

The capital of Paraíba received in 2017 the title of creative city by UNESCO,[5] placing João Pessoa, as "Brazilian city of handicrafts". Besides the capital of Paraíba, another city in Latin America, it has the same title, with the same category, which is Chordeleg, in Ecuador; the recognition of the capital João Pessoa, places it on the Brazilian tourist route for the richness of its popular art. This recognition had great contribution and influence, due to the mermaids project of Penha;[6] where women artisans perform the manual work, dialoguing with the design, fashion, creative economy, highlighting the art with fish scales in copper wires.

History[edit]

Names of the City
Portugal Royal City of Our Lady of the Snows 1585–1588
Spain Philipeia of Our Lady of the Snows 1588-1634
Flag of New Holland.svg Fredrikstad (Frederick City) 1634–1654
Portugal Parahyba do Norte 1654–1930
Brazil João Pessoa 1930–present

João Pessoa was founded on August 5, 1585, by the Portuguese settlers. Called "Royal City of Our Lady of the Snows", in honor of the saint of the day he was founded[7], its first editions were on the banks of the Sanhauá River, a tributary of the Paraíba River, now known as Porto do Varadouro, in the neighborhood of the same name.

In 1588, the city was renamed "Philipeia of Our Lady of the Snows", in honor of King Philip II, who, at the time, accumulated the thrones of Spain and Portugal[8].

In 1634, The Dutch, attracted the sugar wealth of the then capital of the Paraíba, invaded and named it Fredrikstad (Frederick City), in honor of the prince of Orange, Frederick of Orange.

After the decline of New Holland and with the departure of the Dutch, the city was again dominated by the Portuguese and acquired the name "Parahyba do Norte" in 1654[9].

João Pessoa is the third oldest city in Brazil.[10] Previously named Frederikstadt by the Dutch and Parahyba by the Portuguese, the city was renamed by the Brazilians of João Pessoa after former governor of Paraíba state João Pessoa Cavalcanti de Albuquerque after his assassination in 1930. when he was president of the state and competed as a candidate for vice-president of the Brazilian Republic, on the plate of Getúlio Vargas.

Geography[edit]

Environment[edit]

João Pessoa has a 20 kilometres (12 mi) beachfront.[10]

João Pessoa has many green areas distributed among its avenues, parks, and residential neighborhoods, which support its claim as "the second greenest city in the world" with more than 7 square kilometres (2.7 sq mi) of forested land, second only to Paris. It was considered thus in 1992 after a survey of urban centres in various countries carried out by the United Nations (source: Embassy of Brazil in the UK).[11]

Climate[edit]

João Pessoa has a tropical monsoon climate (Köppen Am) with very warm temperatures all year long and strong rainfall in most of the months; however, October to December have a rather low rainfall.

Climate data for João Pessoa (1961–1990)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 32.8
(91.0)
33.0
(91.4)
33.6
(92.5)
34.8
(94.6)
32.0
(89.6)
31.4
(88.5)
30.2
(86.4)
30.7
(87.3)
32.0
(89.6)
31.7
(89.1)
32.0
(89.6)
32.8
(91.0)
34.8
(94.6)
Average high °C (°F) 30.2
(86.4)
30.5
(86.9)
30.0
(86.0)
29.8
(85.6)
29.6
(85.3)
28.3
(82.9)
27.5
(81.5)
27.8
(82.0)
28.3
(82.9)
29.3
(84.7)
29.7
(85.5)
30.0
(86.0)
29.3
(84.7)
Daily mean °C (°F) 27.1
(80.8)
27.2
(81.0)
27.0
(80.6)
26.7
(80.1)
26.0
(78.8)
25.2
(77.4)
24.2
(75.6)
24.3
(75.7)
25.1
(77.2)
26.3
(79.3)
26.7
(80.1)
26.9
(80.4)
26.1
(79.0)
Average low °C (°F) 23.7
(74.7)
23.5
(74.3)
23.2
(73.8)
22.8
(73.0)
22.2
(72.0)
21.4
(70.5)
20.9
(69.6)
20.5
(68.9)
21.5
(70.7)
23.0
(73.4)
23.7
(74.7)
23.9
(75.0)
22.5
(72.5)
Record low °C (°F) 19.6
(67.3)
16.9
(62.4)
19.0
(66.2)
20.2
(68.4)
19.6
(67.3)
17.0
(62.6)
17.0
(62.6)
15.0
(59.0)
13.6
(56.5)
18.6
(65.5)
17.8
(64.0)
19.4
(66.9)
13.6
(56.5)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 75.8
(2.98)
108.4
(4.27)
252.2
(9.93)
349.8
(13.77)
307.3
(12.10)
346.1
(13.63)
346.2
(13.63)
183.5
(7.22)
87.2
(3.43)
35.4
(1.39)
24.9
(0.98)
28.5
(1.12)
2,145.4
(84.46)
Average rainy days (≥ 1 mm) 8 9 15 17 17 18 21 16 11 7 5 5 149
Average relative humidity (%) 75 75 81 79 81 81 87 75 77 73 74 74 77.7
Mean monthly sunshine hours 244.2 219.1 206.9 181.5 193.9 180.7 190.5 230.1 235.1 266.2 272.7 274.2 2,695.1
Source: Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology (INMET).[12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20]

Demographics[edit]

According to the IBGE of 2009, there were 801,718 people residing in the city; the racial makeup of the city was 45.72% White, 38.72% Pardo (two or more races), 2.77% Black, and 0.25% Asian or Amerindian.[21]

Religion[edit]

Basilica of the Church of Our Lady of the Snows
Historical painting on the Ceiling of the Church of Our Lady of Mercy (João Pessoa)
Religion Percentage Number
Catholic 74.06% 442,841
Protestant 15.92% 95,191
No religion 7.41% 44,332
Spiritist 1.10% 6,571

Source: IBGE 2000.[22]

International Airport.

Transportation[edit]

International airport[edit]

Joao Pessoa is served by Presidente Castro Pinto International Airport.[23]

Rail system[edit]

The João Pessoa Urban Trains System is operated by diesel components in only one railway line with a 30 km extension spanning 4 municipalities, João Pessoa, Cabedelo, Bayeux and Santa Rita, constituted by the Cabedelo / stretch, with 10 stations in operation, carrying around 10.1 thousand passengers per day. Composed of three locomotives and 17 passenger cars, forming two compositions that carry out 28 daily trips.[24]

Economy[edit]

The GDP for the city was R$ 14,841,805 (2010).[25]

The per capita income for the city was R$ 19,284 (2010).[26]

Historic center of João Pessoa.

Sister cities[edit]

Culture[edit]

In the crafts part, the city stands out for its creativity through the popular art, possessing some places to be visited.

  • "CREATIVE SPACE BARN":[30] The environment has an exhibition of pieces and works by more than 140 artisans and artists from Paraíba; the work of these artists can be visited by the public, who can also purchase the pieces.
  • "THE PARAIBANIAN CRAFT MARKET":[31] The building has more than 120 shops that sell the region's handicrafts.
  • "JÚLIO RAFAEL CRAFTS CENTER":[32] The place has 20 stores where are tradized handicraft products of different typologies, such as renaissance, embroidery, colored cotton, leather, weaving.
  • "TAMBAÚ FAIRY":[33] The place has a large walk area where the shows and artistic and culture activities take place; the Fair is currently one of the main leisure options for visitors, tourists and residents of the capital. The Fair, has 45 boxes where the artisans sell their products and boxes where they sell typical foods of the Northeast.
  • "SERENE OF THE PENHA":[34] The artisans who participate in the project produce biojóias with scales and fish leather.

Pieces produced: biojoias (necklaces, bracelets and earrings), flowers, handbags, garments, arrangements and bouquets. Raw material: Shells, pearls, copper wires, fishing net wires and fish scales; the Penha Serene, seeks to provide improvements in the quality of life of the families of those who participate. The artisans have the talent to transform objects into true works of art.[35]

  • "HOUSE OF THE PEOPLE ARTIST":[36] In the House of the Popular Artist the craftsmen explore the variety of the crafts paraibano. In addition, the site houses the Craft Curatorship and spaces destined to the commercialization of the artisanal products and gastronomy of Paraíba; the collection consists of more than 1000 pieces that represent the genuine crafts of Paraíba, in 09 types: clay, wood, fibers, yarns, stones, metals, leather, indigenous handicrafts and recycled material. The space promotes the effective integration of the artisan activity with the tourist activity, contributing to the preservation of the manual arts that bring traces of the history, beliefs, customs and socio-cultural traditions of Paraíba.

Tourism[edit]

  • Picãozinho:[37] It is one of the most important sights of the city. São Reef Formation, located about 1,500 meters from Tambaú beach, on the coast of João Pessoa.
  • Natural Pools of Seixas Beach:[38] The Seixas Natural Pools, where we find hundreds of species of fish, seaweed, reptiles (sea turtles), mollusks, crustaceans and other marine organisms.
  • Sunset on Jacaré beach:[39] Every day at 5:00 pm, when the sun begins to set, illuminating the waters of the Paraíba River, the saxophonist Jurandy do Sax, in a boat, performs the Ravel Bolero. At 6 pm another musician performs the 'Ave Maria'.
  • Penha of Beach:[40] The name of this traditional beach derives from the symbol of one of the greatest religious events in Brazil: the Chapel of Our Lady of Penha. For more than 250 years, thousands of faithful have been accompanying the Penha Procession through the streets of João Pessoa.
  • Beach of the Sun:[41] Between cliffs and the mouths of rivers and mangroves, there are reefs, corals, light waves and a stretch of white sand.
  • Manaira Beach:[42] It is in the most economically developed neighborhood of Joao Pessoa; the sidewalk foot is commonly used for physical activities and well frequented by tourists and locals who enjoy the unique landscape.
  • Beach Tambaú:[43]The sands of Praia de Tambaú are one of the busiest in Joao Pessoa; the various bars, restaurants and venues with live music are an additional attraction.[citation needed] The handicraft market and the Tambaú Fair are a common stop for people visiting the neighborhood.[citation needed]
  • Cabo Branco Beach:[44] Located in one of the noblest districts of the city, the beach, neighboring Tambaú, is part of the busiest area of the personal border. There are numerous restaurants, hotels, snack bars and residences that coexist harmoniously with the environment and make Cabo Branco one of the most sought after destinations in the city.
  • Bessa Beach:[45] In the extreme north of João Pessoa, with 5.3 km of white sands and beats, besides green and calm waters, reefs and coconut trees, beach Bessa is one of the most sought after by tourists.
    • Caribessa : A few kilometers from the beach, in the middle of 4 km of preserved corals, the stretch without waves near the edge of Bessa, known by tourists and locals as "Caribessa" due to its calm waters, is rich in marine diversity.
  • Jacarapé Beach:[46] The native vegetation, the tranquility of the place and the soft sound of the weak waves breaking on the coast, make this part of the personal coast the perfect destination for your next trip.
  • Gramame Bar Beach:[47] Beach more south of the coast of João Pessoa, Barra de Gramame is the scene of the encounter between the river and the sea; the formation of reefs in its extension guarantees a great tour to whoever visits it, even if it is an open sea beach. Dunes, mangroves and raft or kayak tours complement the experience of the visit.
  • Seixas Beach:[48] In this beach is the Eastern End of the Americas. Nationally known as the portion of land closest to the African continent, Praia do Seixas.
  • Convention Center Poet Ronaldo Cunha Lima[49] : The convention center of João Pessoa was designed to be one of the most modern in the country, with all the necessary equipment to carry out major projects. Its structure consists of 4 main buildings the Lookout Tower, the Congress and Convention Hall and the Pedra do Reino Theater.

Museums[edit]

Source:[23]

  • Museu Sacro e de Arte Popular, within the São Francisco church.
  • Espaço Cultural José Lins do Rego. A cultural centre including history and science museums.
  • City Museum. The former Casa da Pólvora, an old gunpowder store.
  • Museu Fotográfico Walfredo Rodríguez.
  • Bica Natural History Museum[50].
  • Museum Foundation house of Jose Américo.[51]
  • Hotel Globo Museum:[52] Formerly a luxury hotel in the city, it consists of two buildings of eclectic style, and its lines are influenced by Neo-classical, Art, Nouveau and Art Deco styles. Today it functions as a museum, where it houses the permanent exhibition of part of the furniture of the Hotel, in addition to a collection of popular art, is much visited for its view of the Sanhauá River and the sunset seen from its garden.[citation needed]

Sports[edit]

Stadiums[edit]

Soccer[edit]

João Pessoa provides visitors and residents with various sport activities.

American football[edit]

  • João Pessoa Espectros:[53] It is a football team, has a national title, seven regional and three state. Considered the best football team in the northeastern region of Brazil.[54]

Kayaking[edit]

Very Realized on Bessa beach, To reach the 4km of coral in the blue sea of the "Caribessa", tourists and practitioners can admire the beauties around it.[55].

Windsurfing[edit]

The practice of windsurfing is common on the beaches of the city of João Pessoa.[56].

Sailing[edit]

Realized in the Natural Pools of Seixas beach, on the most extreme eastern beach of the americas, where the sun rises first, the tourist contemplates the harmony between the blue of the sky and the green of the sea in the capital of Paraíba, and reveals fascinating scenarios[57].

Surfing[edit]

Cradle of great surfers with national prominence, the Paraíba has winning athletes in the most important disputes of the sport[58].

Standup paddleboarding[edit]

It is usually done on the beach of Bessa, in the quiet part known as caribessa, paddling on a surfboard.[59].

Diving[edit]

The coastline of João Pessoa, home to three of the most visited shipwrecks in the Northeast, are mainly sought after by nautical tourism enthusiasts and divers adventurers: Queimado, Alice and Alvarenga are considered of rare beauty and still maintain intact areas taken by algae and living beings from the bottom of the sea[60].

  • Alvarenga Shipwreck : It is a type of vessel that was used to transport supplies to ships and wrecked 6 miles from the tip of Bessa's beach, 20 meters deep. It remains whole measuring 20 meters in length by 5 meters in the mouth, it is possible to penetrate the small bow and stern compartments safely. On the prow we can still see the winch that picked up the anchor, it is also common to find large stingrays and large shoals of fish, such as the top cock and the hook[61].
  • Burnt Shipwreck : The Erie J.N.Y is an American steam of 2,000 tons, he had left Rio de Janeiro with 24,900 bags of coffee destined for the United States. On January 2, 1873, at 2 am, it caught fire and sank (so it was known as "Burned"). Passengers and crew were saved.

Today it is 17 meters deep, five miles from the tip of Bessa beach, in João Pessoa and its debris measures about 100 meters long by 15 meters wide (approximately 12 meters of mouth). There remains among the wrecks a large machine shaft that ends in a large propeller; the visibility of the water can reach 30 meters in the summer, but on average stays between 10 and 20 meters. It is the most visited by divers, it is considered the most significant shipwreck in the world,[citation needed][dubious ] because it has its rectangular boilers and it is home to more than 50% of the marine species found in Paraíba[62].

  • Wreck Alice: Alice is a Brazilian steam which was built in 1866 and measured 53 meters long by 6.6 meters. He was chartered by the government to transport Brazilian troops in the Paraguayan war. On March 30, 1869, Prince Emperor Gaston d'Orleans (Count d'Eu) took his place to take command of the Brazilian Army; Alice was shipwrecked in 1911.

Today it is 3.5 miles from the tip of Bessa beach and is 12 meters deep. The bow is its most entire part, 7.5 meters from the surface[63].

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics" (PDF) (in Portuguese). 2018. Retrieved March 6, 2019. 2018 Estimates of Population
  2. ^ "Onde o Sol brilha primeiro". Câmara Municipal de João Pessoa. Archived from the original on April 8, 2009. Retrieved March 2010. Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  3. ^ "Cidade mais verde? Extremo oriental? Saiba o que é verdade sobre João Pessoa" (in Portuguese). G1.
  4. ^ ESTAÇÃO CIÊNCIA, CULTURA e ARTES (in Portuguese). joão pessoa, Brazil: E.C.C.A. 2006. ISBN 85-240-3919-1. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 24, 2007. Retrieved January 10, 2008.
  5. ^ "Unesco Creative City title puts João Pessoa on the world tourist route through folk art". City Hall of João Pessoa. November 3, 2017. Retrieved August 29, 2018.
  6. ^ "Mermaids from Penha". Secretary of Tourism of the Municipality of João Pessoa. Retrieved August 29, 2018.
  7. ^ "História de João Pessoa". UFPB(Federal University of Paraiba). Retrieved June 6, 2019.
  8. ^ "Quatro séculos de história". PREFEITURA MUNICIPAL DE JOÃO PESSOA. Retrieved June 6, 2019.
  9. ^ "Um pouco da sua história". Secretary of Tourism of the Municipal Government of João Pessoa. Retrieved June 6, 2019.
  10. ^ a b "Introducing João Pessoa". Lonely Planet. Retrieved May 10, 2014.
  11. ^ Green City (PDF). joão pessoa, Brazil: UK Embassy. 2006. ISBN 85-240-3919-1. Retrieved January 10, 2008.[permanent dead link]
  12. ^ "Temperatura Média Compensada (°C)" (in Portuguese). Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology. 1961–1990. Archived from the original on August 8, 2014. Retrieved August 5, 2014.
  13. ^ "Temperatura Máxima (°C)" (in Portuguese). Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology. 1961–1990. Archived from the original on August 8, 2014. Retrieved August 5, 2014.
  14. ^ "Temperatura Mínima (°C)" (in Portuguese). Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology. 1961–1990. Archived from the original on August 8, 2014. Retrieved August 5, 2014.
  15. ^ "Precipitação Acumulada Mensal e Anual (mm)" (in Portuguese). Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology. 1961–1990. Archived from the original on August 8, 2014. Retrieved August 5, 2014.
  16. ^ "Número de Dias com Precipitação Mayor ou Igual a 1 mm (dias)". Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology. Archived from the original on August 27, 2014. Retrieved August 5, 2014.
  17. ^ "Insolação Total (horas)". Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology. Archived from the original on August 8, 2014. Retrieved August 5, 2014.
  18. ^ "Umidade Relativa do Ar Média Compensada (%)". Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology. Archived from the original on August 8, 2014. Retrieved August 5, 2014.
  19. ^ "Temperatura Máxima Absoluta (ºC)". Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology (Inmet). Retrieved August 5, 2014.[dead link]
  20. ^ "Temperatura Mínima Absoluta (ºC)". Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology (Inmet). Retrieved August 5, 2014.[dead link]
  21. ^ Síntese de Indicadores Sociais 2000 (PDF) (in Portuguese). João Pessoa, Brazil: IBGE. 2000. ISBN 85-240-3919-1. Retrieved January 31, 2009.
  22. ^ Religion in João Pessoa by IBGE
  23. ^ a b "João Pessoa in Brazil". Footprint Travel Guides. Archived from the original on August 29, 2015. Retrieved March 29, 2015.
  24. ^ "João Pessoa". CBTU-Brazilian company of urban trains. Retrieved August 29, 2018.
  25. ^ GDP (PDF) (in Portuguese). João Pessoa, Brazil: IBGE. 2005. ISBN 85-240-3919-1. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 2, 2008. Retrieved July 18, 2007.
  26. ^ per capita income (PDF) (in Portuguese). João Pessoa, Brazil: IBGE. 2005. ISBN 85-240-3919-1. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 2, 2008. Retrieved July 18, 2007.
  27. ^ "MUNICIPALITY OF JOÃO PESSOA". cidade-brasil. Retrieved September 5, 2018.
  28. ^ Mônica Melo (August 31, 2017). "Secretariat confirms tourist cooperation between João Pessoa and US city". MUNICIPAL CITY OF JOÃO PESSOA. Retrieved September 5, 2018.
  29. ^ "Cities-Sisters – João Pessoa and Pompano Beach". Gazeta News. March 24, 2014. Retrieved September 5, 2018.
  30. ^ "CREATIVE SPACE BARN". Secretary of Tourism of the Municipality of João Pessoa. Retrieved August 30, 2018.
  31. ^ "THE PARAIBANIAN CRAFT MARKET". Secretary of Tourism of the Municipality of João Pessoa. Retrieved August 30, 2018.
  32. ^ "JÚLIO RAFAEL CRAFTS CENTER". Secretary of Tourism of the Municipality of João Pessoa. Retrieved August 30, 2018.
  33. ^ "TAMBAÚ FAIRY". Secretary of Tourism of the Municipality of João Pessoa. Retrieved August 30, 2018.
  34. ^ "SERENE OF THE PENHA". Secretary of Tourism of the Municipality of João Pessoa. Retrieved August 30, 2018.
  35. ^ "Sereias da Penha". Paraíba Criativa. Retrieved August 30, 2018.
  36. ^ "PICÃOZINHO". Secretary of Tourism of the Municipality of João Pessoa. Retrieved September 5, 2018.
  37. ^ "SEIXAS NATURAL SWIMMING POOLS". Secretary of Tourism of the Municipality of João Pessoa. Retrieved September 5, 2018.
  38. ^ "PÔR DO SOL DO JACARÉ". Secretary of Tourism of the Municipality of João Pessoa. Retrieved September 5, 2018.
  39. ^ "Penha Beach". Secretary of Tourism of the Municipality of João Pessoa. Retrieved September 5, 2018.
  40. ^ "Beach of the Sun". Secretary of Tourism of the Municipality of João Pessoa. Retrieved September 5, 2018.
  41. ^ "MANAIR BEACH". Secretary of Tourism of the Municipality of João Pessoa. Retrieved September 5, 2018.
  42. ^ "Beach Tambaú". Secretary of Tourism of the Municipality of João Pessoa. Retrieved September 5, 2018.
  43. ^ "CAPE WHITE BEACH". Secretary of Tourism of the Municipality of João Pessoa. Retrieved September 5, 2018.
  44. ^ "Beach Bessa". Secretary of Tourism of the Municipality of João Pessoa. Retrieved September 5, 2018.
  45. ^ "JACARAPÉ BEACH". Secretary of Tourism of the Municipality of João Pessoa. Retrieved September 5, 2018.
  46. ^ "GRAMAME BAR BEACH". Secretary of Tourism of the Municipality of João Pessoa. Retrieved September 5, 2018.
  47. ^ "Seixas Beach". Secretary of Tourism of the Municipality of João Pessoa. Retrieved September 5, 2018.
  48. ^ "ABOUT THE CENTER". Government of Paraiba. Retrieved October 30, 2018.
  49. ^ Bica Natural History Museum
  50. ^ Museum Foundation house of Jose Américo
  51. ^ "Hotel Globo". Paraiba Criativa. Retrieved August 30, 2018.
  52. ^ Hévilla Wanderley (January 2, 2017). "10 years of Espectros: review in photos the decade of the best team in the Northeast". Globo Esporte. Retrieved September 5, 2018.
  53. ^ Hévilla Wanderley (January 4, 2017). "10 anos de Espectros: passeie pela história do time a partir de seus vultos". Globo Esporte. Retrieved September 5, 2018.
  54. ^ "Caiaque". Secretary of Tourism of the Municipality of João Pessoa. Retrieved October 2, 2018.
  55. ^ "windsurf". Secretary of Tourism of the Municipality of João Pessoa. Retrieved October 2, 2018.
  56. ^ "VELA". Secretary of Tourism of the Municipality of João Pessoa. Retrieved October 2, 2018.
  57. ^ "SURF". Secretary of Tourism of the Municipality of João Pessoa. Retrieved October 2, 2018.
  58. ^ "stand up paddle". Secretary of Tourism of the Municipality of João Pessoa. Retrieved October 2, 2018.
  59. ^ "mergulho". Secretary of Tourism of the Municipality of João Pessoa. Retrieved October 2, 2018.
  60. ^ "Naufrágio Alvarenga". Secretary of Tourism of the Municipality of João Pessoa. Retrieved October 2, 2018.
  61. ^ "Naufrágio Queimado". Secretary of Tourism of the Municipality of João Pessoa. Retrieved October 2, 2018.
  62. ^ "Naufrágio Alice". Secretary of Tourism of the Municipality of João Pessoa. Retrieved October 2, 2018.

External links[edit]