Cebu is a province of the Philippines located in the Central Visayas region, consists of a main island and 167 surrounding islands and islets. Its capital is Cebu City, the oldest city and first capital of the Philippines, politically independent from the provincial government; the Cebu Metropolitan Area or Metro Cebu is formed by 6 municipalities. Cebu is one of the most developed provinces in the Philippines with Metro Cebu being the second largest metropolitan area in the Philippines and Cebu City as the main center of commerce, trade and industry in the Visayas. In a decade it has transformed into a global hub for business processing services, shipping, furniture-making, heavy industry. Mactan–Cebu International Airport, located on Mactan Island, is the second busiest airport in the Philippines; the name "Cebu" comes from a shortened form of sinibuayng hingpit. It was applied to the harbors of the town of Sugbu, the ancient name for Cebu City. Alternate renditions of the name by traders between the 13th to 16th centuries include Sebu, Zubu, or Zebu, among others.
Sugbu, in turn, is derived from the Old Cebuano term for "scorched earth" or "great fire". The Rajahnate of Cebu was a native kingdom which existed in Cebu prior to the arrival of the Spaniards, it was founded by Sri Lumay otherwise known as Rajamuda Lumaya, a half-Malay, half-Tamil prince of the Chola dynasty who invaded Sumatra in Indonesia. He was sent by the Maharajah to establish a base for expeditionary forces to subdue the local kingdoms, but he rebelled and established his own independent Rajahnate instead; the arrival of Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan in 1521 began a period of Spanish exploration and colonization. Losing the favour of King Manuel I of Portugal for his plan of reaching the Spice Islands by sailing west from Europe, Magellan offered his services to king Charles I of Spain. On 20 September 1519, Magellan led five ships with a total complement of 250 people from the Spanish fort of Sanlúcar de Barrameda en route to southeast Asia via the Americas and Pacific Ocean.
They reached the Philippines on 16 March 1521. Rajah Kolambu the king of Mazaua told them to sail for Cebu, where they could trade and obtain provisions. Arriving in Cebu City, with Enrique of Malacca as translator, befriended Rajah Humabon the Rajah or King of Cebu, persuaded the natives to ally themselves with Charles I of Spain. Humabon and his wife were baptized as Carlos and Juana; the Santo Niño was presented to the native queen of Cebu, as a symbol of peace and friendship between the Spaniards and the Cebuanos. On 14 April Magellan erected a large wooden cross on the shores of Cebu. Afterwards, about 700 islanders were baptized. Magellan soon heard of datu Lapu-Lapu, a native king in nearby Mactan Island, a rival of the Rajahs of Cebu, it was thought that Humabon and Lapu–Lapu had been fighting for control of the flourishing trade in the area. On 27 April the Battle of Mactan occurred, where the Spaniards were defeated and Magellan was killed by the natives of Mactan in Mactan Island. According to Italian historian and chronicler Antonio Pigafetta, Magellan's body was never recovered despite efforts to trade for it with spice and jewels.
Magellan's second-in-command, Juan Sebastián Elcano, took his place as captain of the expedition and sailed the fleet back to Spain, circumnavigating the world. Survivors of the Magellan expedition returned to Spain with tales of a savage island in the East Indies. Several Spanish expeditions were sent to the islands but all ended in failure. In 1564, Spanish explorers led by Miguel López de Legazpi, sailing from Mexico, arrived in 1565, established a colony; the Spaniards fought the King, Rajah Tupas, occupied his territories. The Spaniards established settlements, trade flourished and renamed the island to "Villa del Santísimo Nombre de Jesús". Cebu became the first European settlement established by the Spanish Cortés in the Philippines. In 1595, the Universidad de San Carlos was established and in 1860, Cebu opened its ports to foreign trade; the first printing house was established in 1873 and in 1880, the Colegio de la Inmaculada Concepcion was established and the first periodical The Bulletin of Cebu began publishing in 1886.
In 1898, the island was ceded to the United States after the Spanish–American War and Philippine–American War. In 1901, Cebu was governed by the United States for a brief period, however it became a charter province on 24 February 1937 and was governed independently by Filipino politicians. Cebu, being one of the most densely populated islands in the Philippines, served as a Japanese base during their occupation in World War II which began with the landing of Japanese soldiers in April 1942; the 3rd, 8th, 82nd and 85th Infantry Division of the Philippine Commonwealth Army was re-established from 3 January 1942 to 30 June 1946 and the 8th Constabulary Regiment of the Philippine Constabulary was reestablished again from 28 October 1944 to 30 June 1946 at the military general headquarters and the military camps and garrisoned in Cebu city and Cebu province. They started the Anti-Japanese military operations in Cebu from April 1942 to September 1945 and helped Cebuano guerrillas and fought against the Japanese Imperial forces.
Three years in March 1945, combined Filipino and A
A navigator is the person on board a ship or aircraft responsible for its navigation. The navigator's primary responsibility is to be aware of aircraft position at all times. Responsibilities include planning the journey, advising the ship's captain or aircraft commander of estimated timing to destinations while en route, ensuring hazards are avoided; the navigator is in charge of maintaining the aircraft or ship's nautical charts, nautical publications, navigational equipment, he/she has responsibility for meteorological equipment and communications. With the advent of GPS, the effort required to determine one's position has decreased by orders of magnitude, so the entire field has experienced a revolutionary transition since the 1990s with traditional navigation tasks being used less frequently. Shipborne navigators in the U. S. Navy are surface warfare officer qualified with the exception of naval aviators and naval flight officers assigned to ship's navigator billets aboard aircraft carriers and large deck amphibious assault ships and who have been qualified at a level equal to surface warfare officers.
U. S. Coast Guard officers that are shipboard navigators are cutter qualified at a level analogous to the USN officers mentioned. Quartermasters are the navigator's enlisted assistants and perform most of the technical navigation duties. Aboard ships in the Merchant Marine and Merchant Navy, the second mate is the navigator. Navigators are sometimes called'air navigators' or'flight navigators'. In civil aviation this was a position on older aircraft between the late-1910s and the 1970s, where separate crew members were responsible for an aircraft's flight navigation, including its dead reckoning and celestial navigation when flown over oceans or other large featureless areas where radio navigation aids were not available; as sophisticated electronic air navigation aids and universal space-based GPS navigation systems came online, the dedicated Navigator's position was discontinued and its function was assumed by dual-licensed Pilot-Navigators, still by the aircraft's primary pilots, resulting in a continued downsizing in the number of aircrew positions on commercial flights.
Modern electronic navigation systems made the civil aviation navigators redundant by the early 1980s. In military aviation, navigators are still trained and licensed in some present day air forces, as electronic navigation aids cannot be assumed to be operational during wartime. In the world's air forces, modern navigators are tasked with weapons and defensive systems operations, along with co-pilot duties such as flight planning and fuel management, depending on the type and series of aircraft. In the U. S. Air Force, the aeronautical rating of navigator has been augmented by addition of the combat systems officer, while in the U. S. Navy and U. S. Marine Corps, those officers called navigators, tactical systems officers, or naval aviation observers have been known as naval flight officers since the mid-1960s. USAF navigators/combat systems officers and USN/USMC naval flight officers must be basic mission qualified in their aircraft, or fly with an instructor navigator or instructor NFO to provide the necessary training for their duties.
A naval ship's navigator is responsible for maintaining its nautical charts. A nautical chart, or "chart", is a graphic representation of a maritime or flight region and adjacent coastal regions. Depending on the scale of the chart, it may show depths of water and heights of land, natural features of the seabed, details of the coastline, navigational hazards, locations of natural and man-made aids to navigation, information on tides and currents, local details of the Earth's magnetic field, restricted flying areas, man-made structures such as harbors and bridges. Nautical charts are essential tools for marine navigation. Nautical charting may take the form of charts printed on paper or computerised electronic navigational charts; the nature of a waterway depicted by a chart changes and a mariner navigating on an old or uncorrected chart is courting disaster. Every producer of navigational charts provides a system to inform mariners and aviators of changes that affect the chart. In the United States, chart corrections and notifications of new editions are provided by various governmental agencies by way of Notices to Airmen, Notice to Mariners, Local Notice to Mariners, Summary of Corrections, Broadcast Notice to Mariners.
Radio broadcasts give advance notice of urgent corrections. A convenient way to keep track of corrections is with a "chart and publication correction record card" system. Using this system, the navigator does not update every chart in the portfolio when a new Notice to Mariners arrives, instead creating a card for every chart and noting the correction on this card; when the time comes to use the chart, he pulls the chart and chart's card, makes the indicated corrections on the chart. This system ensures. British merchant vessels receive weekly Notices to Mariners issued by the Admiralty; when corrections are received all charts are corrected in the ship's folio and recorded in NP133A. This system ensures that all charts are up to date. In a deep sea vessel with a folio of over three thousand charts this can be a laborious and time-consuming task for the. Various and diverse methods exist for the correction of electronic navigational charts. T
Ternate is the largest city in the Indonesian province of North Maluku and an island in the Maluku Islands. It was the capital of the former Sultanate of Ternate and de facto provincial capital of North Maluku before being moved to Sofifi in 2010, it is off the west coast of the larger island of Halmahera. The city has a population of just under 200,000 on some 111.39 km2. Like its neighbouring island, Ternate is a visually dramatic cone-shape; the two are ancient Islamic sultanates with a long history of bitter rivalry. The islands were once the world's single major producer of cloves, a commodity that allowed their sultans to become amongst the wealthiest and most powerful of all sultans in the Indonesian region. In the precolonial era, Ternate was the dominant political and economic power over most of the "Spice Islands" of Maluku; the "Ternate Essay" was a pioneering account of evolution by natural selection written on the island by Alfred Russel Wallace in 1858 and famously sent to Charles Darwin.
Darwin at once responded by publishing Wallace's essay alongside his own accounts of the theory. Ternate and neighbouring Tidore were the world's major producer of cloves upon which their rulers became among the wealthiest and most powerful sultans in the Indonesian region. Much of their wealth, was wasted fighting each other. Up until the Dutch completed the colonization of Maluku in the 19th century, the sultans of Ternate ruled empires that claimed at least nominal influence as far as Ambon and Papua; the peak of its power came near the end of the sixteenth century, under Sultan Baabullah, when it had influence over most of the eastern part of Sulawesi, the Ambon and Seram area, parts of Papua. It engaged in fierce competition for control of its periphery with the nearby sultanate of Tidore. According to historian Leonard Andaya, Ternate's "dualistic" rivalry with Tidore is a dominant theme in the early history of the Maluku Islands. In part as a result of its trade-dependent culture, Ternate was one of the earliest places in the region to which Islam spread coming from Java in the late 15th century.
The faith was restricted to Ternate's small ruling family, spread only to the rest of the population. The first Europeans to stay on Ternate were part of the Portuguese expedition of Francisco Serrão out of Malacca, shipwrecked near Seram and rescued by local residents. Sultan Abu Lais of Ternate heard of their stranding, seeing a chance to ally himself with a powerful foreign nation, he brought them to Ternate in 1512; the Portuguese were permitted to build a fort on the island, construction of which began in 1522. Relations between the Ternateans and Portuguese were strained from the start. An outpost far from Europe only attracted the most desperate and avaricious, such that the poor behaviour of the Portuguese combined with feeble attempts at Christianisation, strained relations with Ternate's Muslim ruler, as did their efforts to monopolise the spice trade and dominate local politics. In 1535 King Tabariji was sent to Goa by the Portuguese, he changed his name to Dom Manuel. After being declared innocent of the charges against him he was sent back to reassume his throne.
He had, bequeathed the island of Ambon to his Portuguese godfather Jordão de Freitas. When Sultan Hairun was executed and his head exhibited on a pike in 1570, Muslim Ternateans rebelled against the Portuguese who were besieged in their castle until 1575 when a new Sultan made the castle his palace. Ambon became the new centre for Portuguese activities in Maluku. European power in the region was weak and Ternate became an expanding, fiercely Islamic and anti-Portuguese state under the rule of Sultan Baab Ullah and his son Sultan Said. In 1580, the sultan entertained the English adventurer and circumnavigator Sir Francis Drake, who much to the surprise of the Ternateans had no interest in buying cloves as his ship, the Golden Hind, was too full of stolen Spanish-American gold to carry cloves; as the Portuguese battles in the Indian Ocean against Muslim Powers raged on, Ternate became a site of interest for the Ottomans, who had gained much information about Maritime Southeast Asia from the Sultanate of Aceh, in fact Kurtoğlu Hızır Reis, the Ottoman Admiral, intended to reach both Java and Ternate but was engaged in pitched battle and was outnumbered against the Portuguese Fleet in Sumatra.
Spanish and Dutch traders competing for control over the lucrative clove trade played Ternate off against Tidore. The Dutch became the dominant European power although the sultanates were in place continually until today. Spanish forces captured the former Portuguese fort from the Ternatese in 1606, deported the Ternate Sultan and his entourage to Manila. In 1607 the Dutch came back in Ternate; the Spaniards occupied the southern part of the island where they had their main settlement the town of Ciudad del Rosario. The island was divided between the two powers: the Spaniards were allied with Tidore and the Dutch with their Ternaten allies. For the Ternatean rulers, the Dutch were a useful, if not welcome, presence that gave them military advantages against Tidore and the Spanish. Under Sultan Hamzah, Ternate expanded its territory and strengthened its control over the periphery. Dutch influence over the kingdom was limited, though Hamzah and his son and successor, Sultan Mandar Syah did concede some regions to the Dutch East India Company in exchange for help controlling rebellions there.
The Spaniards abandoned Ternate and Tidore in 16
4th Portuguese India Armada (Gama, 1502)
The 4th Portuguese India Armada was assembled in 1502 on the order of King Manuel I of Portugal and placed under the command of D. Vasco da Gama, it was Gama's second trip to India. The fourth of some thirteen Portuguese India Armadas, it was designed as a punitive expedition, targeting Calicut, to avenge the travails of the 2nd Armada and the massacre of the Portuguese factory in 1500. Along the way, in East Africa, the 4th Armada established a Portuguese factory in Mozambique, made contact and opened trade with the gold entrepot of Sofala and extorted tribute from Kilwa. Once in India, the armada set about attacking Calicut shipping and disrupting trade along much of the Malabar Coast, but the ruling Zamorin of Calicut refused to accede to Portuguese demands, arguing that the violent exactions of the armada exceeded any claims they might have for compensation. The 4th Armada left without leaving matters unresolved. Before departing, the armada established a crown factory in Cannanore and left behind a small patrol under Vicente Sodré, the first permanent Portuguese fleet in the Indian Ocean.
The Second India Armada, commanded by Pedro Álvares Cabral, had arrived in Portugal in the summer of 1501 in a terrible shape. Ship and human losses were tremendous, its mission objectives failed, they had failed to establish a factory in Sofala, the outlet of the Monomatapa gold trade in East Africa, more worrisomely, opened hostilities with the city-state of Calicut, the principal commercial entrepôt of the Kerala spice trade and dominant city-state on the Malabar coast of India. By the time this news was received, the 3rd India Armada under João da Nova had departed, a commercial expedition unequipped to deal with the hostile turn of events in the Indian Ocean; as a result, King Manuel I of Portugal ordered a new fleet to be assembled, the 4th India Armada, armed to the teeth, with the explicit objective of bringing Calicut to heel. The command of the 4th Armada was offered to Pedro Álvares Cabral, but various factions in the Portuguese court and the Casa da India, opposed Cabral's appointment, on the grounds that it was Cabral's'incompetence' that had created this unhappy situation to begin with.
However, Cabral had his own political supporters. The king tried to compromise by offering Cabral the position of captain-major, but letting it be understood that his command of the fleet would not be absolute, that at least one squadron would be placed under the separate command of Vicente Sodré. Finding this condition an unacceptable affront, Cabral withdrew his name in a huff. Manuel I appointed Vasco da Gama himself as captain-major; the intrigues behind the appointment have been variously told. By some accounts, the initial offer to Cabral was a pro forma gesture to palliate his faction rather than an earnest offer. In other words, the king never had any intention of letting Cabral lead the expedition, that the onerous conditions were introduced knowing Cabral would find them unacceptable; that these conditions were only revealed at the last minute, just before the fleet's departure, lends credence to the theory, i.e. the monarch did not want to give Cabral time to reconsider or allow opposition to mount against Gama's rapid appointment.
Chronicler Gaspar Correia tells a different story – he does not mention Sodré's command, but rather relates how King Manuel I summoned Vasco da Gama a mere three days before the scheduled departure date and expressed his "disappointment and mistrust" of Cabral's "dubious fortune" at sea. But that he had made a promise to Cabral and could not break it. On this hint, Gama produced a royal letter, promising Gama a determining role in any future India expedition, demanded command of the expedition for himself; the king was caught between two commitments – honoring the letter to Gama, or his appointment to Cabral. Hearing of the king's quandary, Cabral voluntarily withdrew his name to graciously allow Manuel I to honor his letter; the 16th-century chroniclers seem to agree that King Manuel I wanted to deprive Cabral of command, that the Sodré appointment and/or the Gama letter was just a ploy by the king to wiggle out of appointing Cabral. But some authors have interpreted the accounts differently, that King Manuel I was wholly behind Cabral, but was forced to yield to the unsavory machinations of the Gama-Sodré family.
Just before his departure, in a solemn ceremony at the Lisbon Cathedral on January 30, 1502, King Manuel I bestowed upon Vasco da Gama the newly created title of Almirante dos mares de Arabia, India e de todo o Oriente - an overwrought title reminiscent of the ornate Castilian title borne by Christopher Columbus. On a side note, this was the first India armada for which the vintena de Belém was introduced - that is, the 5% tax on profits of private trading by captains and officers of Portuguese India Armadas, earmarked for the construction and maintenance of the Jerónimos Monastery in the Belém district of Lisbon; the vintena would continue until 1522. The 4th Armada was composed of between 800 and 1800 men; the Armada was envisaged as two squadrons - 15 ships under the admiral to head to India, 5 under the vice-admiral designated to patrol the mouth of the Red Sea. As it turns out, not all ships were ready by the launch date, so the armada was re-arranged into three squadrons, the first two squadrons (10 under admiral Vasco da Gama, 5 u
Ferdinand Magellan was a Portuguese explorer who organised the Spanish expedition to the East Indies from 1519 to 1522, resulting in the first circumnavigation of the Earth, completed by Juan Sebastián Elcano. Born into a family of the Portuguese nobility in around 1480, Magellan became a skilled sailor and naval officer and was selected by King Charles I of Spain to search for a westward route to the Maluku Islands. Commanding a fleet of five vessels, he headed south through the Atlantic Ocean to Patagonia, passing through the Strait of Magellan into a body of water he named the "peaceful sea". Despite a series of storms and mutinies, the expedition reached the Spice Islands in 1521 and returned home via the Indian Ocean to complete the first circuit of the globe. Magellan did not complete the entire voyage, as he was killed during the Battle of Mactan in the Philippines in 1521, his gift, the Santo Niño de Cebú image, remains one of his legacies during his arrival. Magellan had reached the Malay Archipelago in Southeast Asia on previous voyages traveling east.
By visiting this area again but now travelling west, Magellan achieved a nearly complete personal circumnavigation of the globe for the first time in history. The Magellanic penguin is named after him. Magellan's navigational skills have been acknowledged in the naming of objects associated with the stars, including the Magellanic Clouds, now known to be two nearby dwarf galaxies. Magellan was born in northern Portugal in around 1480, either at Vila Nova de Gaia, near Porto, in Douro Litoral Province, or at Sabrosa, near Vila Real, in Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro Province, he was the son of Rodrigo de Magalhães, Alcaide-Mor of Aveiro and wife Alda de Mesquita and brother of Leonor or Genebra de Magalhães, wife with issue of João Fernandes Barbosa. In March 1505 at the age of 25, Magellan enlisted in the fleet of 22 ships sent to host D. Francisco de Almeida as the first viceroy of Portuguese India. Although his name does not appear in the chronicles, it is known that he remained there eight years, in Goa and Quilon.
He participated including the battle of Cannanore in 1506, where he was wounded. In 1509 he fought in the battle of Diu, he sailed under Diogo Lopes de Sequeira in the first Portuguese embassy to Malacca, with Francisco Serrão, his friend and cousin. In September, after arriving at Malacca, the expedition fell victim to a conspiracy ending in retreat. Magellan had a crucial role, saving Francisco Serrão, who had landed. In 1511, under the new governor Afonso de Albuquerque and Serrão participated in the conquest of Malacca. After the conquest their ways parted: Magellan was promoted, with a rich plunder and, in the company of a Malay he had indentured and baptized, Enrique of Malacca, he returned to Portugal in 1512. Serrão departed in the first expedition sent to find the "Spice Islands" in the Moluccas, where he remained, he married a woman from Amboina and became a military advisor to the Sultan of Ternate, Bayan Sirrullah. His letters to Magellan would prove decisive, giving information about the spice-producing territories.
After taking a leave without permission, Magellan fell out of favour. Serving in Morocco, he was wounded, he was accused of trading illegally with the Moors. The accusations were proved false, but he received no further offers of employment after 15 May 1514. On in 1515, he got an employment offer as a crew member on a Portuguese ship, but rejected this. In 1517 after a quarrel with King Manuel I, who denied his persistent demands to lead an expedition to reach the spice islands from the east, he left for Spain. In Seville he befriended his countryman Diogo Barbosa and soon married the daughter of Diogo's second wife, María Caldera Beatriz Barbosa, they had two children: Rodrigo de Magalhães and Carlos de Magalhães, both of whom died at a young age. His wife died in Seville around 1521. Meanwhile, Magellan devoted himself to studying the most recent charts, investigating, in partnership with cosmographer Rui Faleiro, a gateway from the Atlantic to the South Pacific and the possibility of the Moluccas being Spanish according to the demarcation of the Treaty of Tordesillas.
Christopher Columbus's voyages to the West had the goal of reaching the Indies and to establish direct commercial relations between Spain and the Asian kingdoms. The Spanish soon realized that the lands of the Americas were not a part of Asia, but a new continent; the 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas reserved for Portugal the eastern routes that went around Africa, Vasco da Gama and the Portuguese arrived in India in 1498. Castile urgently needed to find a new commercial route to Asia. After the Junta de Toro conference of 1505, the Spanish Crown commissioned expeditions to discover a route to the west. Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa reached the Pacific Ocean in 1513 after crossing the Isthmus of Panama, Juan Díaz de Solís died in Río de la Plata in 1516 while exploring South America in the service of Spain. In October 1517 in Seville, Magellan contacted Juan de Factor of the Casa de Contratación. Following the arrival of his partner Rui Faleiro, with the support of Aranda, they presented their project to the Spanish king, Charles I, f
Spanish or Castilian is a Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in the Americas and Spain. It is the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. Spanish is a part of the Ibero-Romance group of languages, which evolved from several dialects of Vulgar Latin in Iberia after the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century; the oldest Latin texts with traces of Spanish come from mid-northern Iberia in the 9th century, the first systematic written use of the language happened in Toledo capital of the Kingdom of Castile, in the 13th century. Beginning in 1492, the Spanish language was taken to the viceroyalties of the Spanish Empire, most notably to the newly-discovered Americas, as well as territories in Africa and the Philippines. Around 75% of modern Spanish vocabulary is derived from Latin and, through Latin, Ancient Greek. Spanish vocabulary has been in contact with Arabic from an early date, having developed during the Al-Andalus era in the Iberian Peninsula.
With around 8% of its vocabulary being Arabic in origin, this language is the second most important influence after Latin. It has been influenced by Basque, Celtiberian, by neighboring Ibero-Romance languages. Additionally, it has absorbed vocabulary from other languages the Romance languages—French, Portuguese, Catalan and Sardinian—as well as from Quechua and other indigenous languages of the Americas. Spanish is one of the six official languages of the United Nations, it is used as an official language by the European Union, the Organization of American States, the Union of South American Nations, the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States, the African Union and many other international organizations. Despite its large number of speakers, the Spanish language does not feature prominently in scientific writing, with the exception of the humanities, it is estimated that more than 437 million people speak Spanish as a native language, which qualifies it as second on the lists of languages by number of native speakers.
Instituto Cervantes claims that there are an estimated 477 million Spanish speakers with native competence and 572 million Spanish speakers as a first or second language—including speakers with limited competence—and more than 21 million students of Spanish as a foreign language. Spanish is the official or national language in Spain, Equatorial Guinea, 19 countries in the Americas. Speakers in the Americas total some 418 million, it is an optional language in the Philippines as it was a Spanish colony from 1569 to 1899. In the European Union, Spanish is the mother tongue of 8% of the population, with an additional 7% speaking it as a second language. Spanish is the most popular second language learned in the United States. In 2011 it was estimated by the American Community Survey that of the 55 million Hispanic United States residents who are five years of age and over, 38 million speak Spanish at home. According to a 2011 paper by U. S. Census Bureau Demographers Jennifer Ortman and Hyon B. Shin, the number of Spanish speakers is projected to rise through 2020 to anywhere between 39 million and 43 million, depending on the assumption one makes about immigration.
Most of these Spanish speakers will be Hispanic, with Ortman and Shin projecting between 37.5 million and 41 million Hispanic Spanish speakers by 2020. In Spain and in some other parts of the Spanish-speaking world, Spanish is called not only español but castellano, the language from the kingdom of Castile, contrasting it with other languages spoken in Spain such as Galician, Asturian, Catalan and Occitan; the Spanish Constitution of 1978 uses the term castellano to define the official language of the whole Spanish State in contrast to las demás lenguas españolas. Article III reads as follows: El castellano es la lengua española oficial del Estado.... Las demás lenguas españolas serán también oficiales en las respectivas Comunidades Autónomas... Castilian is the official Spanish language of the State.... The other Spanish languages shall be official in their respective Autonomous Communities... The Spanish Royal Academy, on the other hand uses the term español in its publications, but from 1713 to 1923 called the language castellano.
The Diccionario panhispánico de dudas states that, although the Spanish Royal Academy prefers to use the term español in its publications when referring to the Spanish language, both terms—español and castellano—are regarded as synonymous and valid. Two etymologies for español have been suggested; the Spanish Royal Academy Dictionary derives the term from the Provençal word espaignol, that in turn from the Medieval Latin word Hispaniolus,'from—or pertaining to—Hispania'. Other authorities attribute it to a supposed mediaeval Latin *hispaniōne, with the same meaning; the Spanish language evolved from Vulgar Latin, brought to the Iberian Peninsula by the Romans during the Second Punic War, beginning in 210 BC. Several pre-Roman languages —unrelated to Latin, some of them unrelated to Indo-European—were spoken in the Iberian Peninsula; these languages included Basque, Iberian and Gallaecian. The first documents to show traces of what is today regarded as the precursor of modern Spanish are from the 9th century.
Throughout the Middle Ages and into the modern era, the most important influences on the Spanish lexicon came from neighboring Romance languages—Mozarabic (Anda