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Joachim I Nestor, Elector of Brandenburg

Joachim I Nestor was a Prince-elector of the Margraviate of Brandenburg, the fifth member of the House of Hohenzollern. His nickname was taken from King Nestor of Greek mythology; the eldest son of John Cicero, Elector of Brandenburg, Joachim received an excellent education under the supervision of Dietrich von Bülow, Bishop of Lebus and Chancellor of Frankfurt University. He became Elector of Brandenburg upon his father's death in January 1499, soon afterwards married Elizabeth of Denmark, daughter of King John of Denmark, they had five children: Joachim II Hektor Anna married Albert VII, Duke of Mecklenburg-Güstrow Elisabeth Margaret, married on 23 January 1530 George I, Duke of Pomerania and after his death in 1534 John V, Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst. John Joachim took some part in the political complications of the Scandinavian kingdoms, but the early years of his reign were spent in the administration of his electorate, where he succeeded in restoring some degree of order through stern measures.

He improved the administration of justice, aided the development of commerce, was sympathetic to the needs to the towns. On the approach of the imperial election of 1519, Joachim's vote was eagerly solicited by the partisans of King Francis I of France, Charles of Burgundy. Having treated with both parties, received lavish promises from them, he appears to have hoped to be Emperor himself. In spite of this, relations between the Emperor and the Elector were not friendly, during the next few years Joachim was in communication with Charles' enemies. In the course of Hohenzollern power politics Joachim Nestor and his brother managed to get the latter, Albert of Mainz, first onto the sees of Magdeburg and its suffragan of Halberstadt, both prince-bishoprics comprising princely territories. Since prince-episcopal sees were so influential, competing candidates ran for them. A candidature could turn into a bribery competition, without knowing how much competitors paid to obtain office; the expenditures involved, as far as they exceeded one's own potential, were advanced by creditors and had to be recovered by levying dues from the subjects and parishioners in the prince-bishoprics and dioceses that were just acquired.

The acquisition in 1514 of the influential Prince-Archbishopric-Electorate of Mainz for Albert was a coup that provided the Hohenzollerns with control over two of the seven electoral votes in imperial elections and many suffragan dioceses to levy dues. According to canon law, Albert was too young to hold such a position and since he would not give up the archiepiscopal see of Magdeburg, the Hohenzollerns had to dispense greater briberies at the Holy See; this caused them to incur vast debts with the Fuggers. To assist in the recovery of the enormous expenditures employed to assist Albert, mediators stipulated with the Holy See that the pope would allow Albert to sell indulgences to the believers in his archdioceses and their suffragans; the sales proceeds had to cover the servicing of the debts. The neighbouring Electorate of Saxony bid for the See of Mainz, but failed to secure it; the Saxon elector Frederick the Wise had debts of his own as a result, but no see to show for it and no privilege to sell indulgences to recover his expenditures.

Frustrated, he forbade the sale of indulgences in his electorate and allowed Martin Luther to polemicize against them. Joachim Nestor, in contrast, became known as a pugnacious adherent of Roman Catholic orthodoxy who needed the sales of indulgences and the necessary intimidation of the believers in order to recover his expenditures. Joachim Nestor's brother, Archbishop Albert, was the initial object of Luther's attack, he urged on the Emperor the need to enforce the Edict of Worms, at several diets was prominent among the enemies of the Reformers. A patron of learning, Joachim Nestor established the Viadrina university of Frankfurt in 1506, he promoted Georg von Blumenthal, the "Pillar of Catholicism", as Chancellor of Frankfurt University, Bishop of Lebus and a Privy Counsellor. He was among those who met at Dessau in July 1525 and was a member of the league established at Halle in November 1533, but his wife, against his will, like her brother King Christian of Denmark, became Lutheran, in 1528 fled for safety to Saxony.

He experienced the mortification of seeing Protestantism favoured by other members of his family. He died at Stendal in 1535. T. von Buttlar, Der Kampf Joachims I. van Brandenburg gegen den Adel J. G. Droysen, Geschichte ier Preussischen Politik This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Joachim I". Encyclopædia Britannica. 19. Cambridge University Press. P. 418

International Anarchist Congresses

Over the past 150 years, anarcho-syndicalists and libertarian socialists have held many congresses and international meetings in which trade unions, other groups and individuals have participated. The original International Workingmen's Association known today as the First International, grouped together workers' societies of various socialist tendencies, including Mutualists, Blanquists and republicans, though the most prominent were undoubtedly the Collectivists, grouped around Mikhail Bakunin and the Communists, led by Karl Marx. Towards the end of the First International, the Collectivists adopted Communist positions, but differed from the Marxists in their absolute rejection of authority, both within the International and in their strategic vision for the social revolution, which must abolish the State and not, as with the Marxists, use it in order to establish a communist society. In these early years of the international socialist movement, the IWMA held 5 congresses attended by both these latter tendencies, at which the differences between the various ideologies emerged.

After the 5th Congress, the movement split, with the anarchist communists establishing an anti-authoritarian International. The IWMA was dissolved after its 6th Congress. Preliminary Conference in London, 25–29 September 1865. Preparation for the 1st Congress. 1st Congress of Geneva, 3–8 September 1866. 2nd Congress of Lausanne, 2–8 September 1867. 3rd Congress of Brussels, September 1868. 4th Congress of Basel, September 1869. Conference of London, 7–23 September 1871. Called as a result of the impossibility of holding the annual Congress because of the Franco-Prussian War and the Paris Commune in 1870 and 1871. 5th Congress of The Hague, 2–7 September 1872. 6th Congress of Geneva, 8 September 1873. International Convention of Philadelphia, 15 July 1876, it was decided to disband the International. After the Hague Congress, which saw the expulsion of the anarchists Mikhail Bakunin and James Guillaume, it was decided to hold a Congress of the anti-authoritarian Sections and Federations of the International in St. Imier, Switzerland.

The Congress was attended by delegates of the International federations in Italy, Belgium, the United States and French-speaking Switzerland. It should be remembered that many sections of the International around this time had membership figures running into the thousands and tens of thousands; this congress was not considered by the anarchists as the first of a new international organization, but rather the continuation of the old International. It rejected the modifications to the General Rules of the IWMA, decided at the London Conference and the Hague Congress. International Congress of St. Imier, 15–16 September 1872. Congress of Neuchâtel, 27 September 1873. Abolition of the General Council and autonomy of federations. Congress of Brussels, 7–12 September 1874. Congress of Bern, 26–29 October 1876. Congress of Verviers, 6–8 September 1877. After 1877, the anti-authoritarian International continued to function in certain areas on a local level. A number of local or regional congresses were held, including an important congress of the Jura Federation in September 1880, attended by a number of international delegates and observers.

It was at this congress. International Anarchist Congress of London, 14–20 July 1881. International Anarchist Congress of Amsterdam, 26–31 August 1907. There were various other unsuccessful attempts to call international congresses, in Geneva, Paris and again Paris. A number of anarchists attended the World Socialist Congress, which took place in Ghent from 9–15 September 1877; the Second International was set up in 1889, many anarchists participated in it. Although they were expelled from the 3rd Congress, the 4th Congress in London in 1896 saw a continuation of the clash between libertarian and authoritarian socialism, with a number of anarchists, such as Malatesta and Cornelissen, in attendance. Following the First World War and the Russian Revolution and anarcho-syndicalists once again sought to rebuild the IWA. Intending to join with other revolutionary syndicalist organizations in the Bolshevik-led Profintern, libertarian unions became worried about the authoritarianism of the Bolsheviks and the subordination of Profintern to the Comintern.

So, after two conferences in Berlin, the first from 16–21 December 1920 and the second from 16–18 June 1922, the new International Workingmen's Association was born at its first congress in December 1922. The IWA still exists today. 1st Congress, Berlin, 25 December 1922 to 2 January 1923. 2nd Congress, Amsterdam, 25 March 1925. 3rd Congress, Liège, 27–29 May 1928. 4th Congress, Madrid, 1–2 June 1931. 5th Congress, Paris, 24–31 August 1935. Extraordinary Congress, Paris, 6–17 December 1937. 6th Congress, Paris, 29 October - 7 November 1938. 7th Congress, Toulouse, 12–23 May 1951. 8th Congress, July 1953. 9th Congress Marseille, July 1956. 10th Congress, August 1958. 11th Congress, Bordeaux, 2–24 September 1961. 12th Congress, November–December 1963. 13th Congress, Bordeaux, 10–12 November 1967. 14th Congress, October 1971. 15th Congress, April 1976. 16th Congress, April 1979. 17th Congress, Madrid, 19–22 April 1984. 18th Congress, Bordeaux, 1–3 April 19

Brooklyn Citizen

The Brooklyn Citizen is a former newspaper serving Brooklyn in New York City from 1887–1947. It became influential under editor Andrew McLean, a Scottish immigrant from Renton, West Dunbartonshire, its offices were located at Fulton and Adams Streets near Borough Hall in Downtown Brooklyn, in a section of buildings demolished for the construction of Cadman Plaza. By 1912, ninety percent of the Citizen's distribution went to Brooklyn homes. In 1942/1943, daily circulation totaled 31,000. Staff were involved in a major strike in 1894, alongside staff from The Brooklyn Ties and The Brooklyn Standard Union who were all members of the Brooklyn Typographical Union No. 98. As a result of this strike, circulation of the Citizen fell by one third. In 1943, employees sought union recognition through the Newspaper Guild of New York, of the American Newspaper Guild; the Citizen refused to recognize the union, the National Labor Relations Board ruled that an election must be held and recognized by the newspaper in September 1943

Philip Fyson

Philip Kemball Fyson was an Anglican bishop of the Diocese of Hokkaido, in the Nippon Sei Ko Kai, the province of the Anglican Communion in Japan. Philip Kemball Fyson was the son of a farmer, he was educated at King Edward VI School in Bury St Edmunds and Christ's College, graduating B. A. in Classics and Theology. He prepared for ordination at Islington, he began missionary work with the Church Missionary Society in Japan in 1874 at Yokohama, was consecrated Bishop of Hokkaido in 1897. Returning to England in 1908, Fyson was Vicar of Elmley Lovett, Worcestershire from 1908 until 1925. Fyson was said to have become more fluent in Japanese than English, he translated much of the Old Testament into Japanese, was active in the preparation of the Japanese Prayer-Book

John David Loder

John David Loder was an English violinist. He was a member of a musical family in Somerset, he was born in Bath in son of musician John Loder. His brother George Loder, a flautist, was father of George Loder, a conductor and composer, Kate Loder, a pianist and composer. From 1799 until 1836 he was a member, for most of the time leader, of the orchestra at the Theatre Royal in Bath. In 1815 Loder became a member of the Philharmonic Society in London. On 12 May 1817 he led the society's orchestra for the first time, he played for the society many times between and 1845. In 1837 he led the orchestra in the second performance in London of Beethoven's Ninth Symphony, 12 years after the first. From about 1820 to 1835 he had a business in Milson Street, publishing music and selling musical instruments, he was leader at the Yorkshire music festival in 1825, soloist at the Gloucester music festival in 1826. From 1840 he was professor of violin at the Royal Academy of Music, from 1841 he lived permanently in Chelsea, London.

In 1844 he succeeded Franz Cramer as leader of the Concerts of Antient Music. His wife, Rosamund Charles Mills, was the stepdaughter of the actor John Fawcett. Loder died at Albany Street, Regent's Park, on 13 February 1846, was buried at Kensal Green Cemetery, he left a widow, five sons and two daughters. Three of his sons were musicians: Edward Loder was a composer and conductor. A General and Comprehensive Instruction Book for the Violin: it was regarded as a standard work of instruction for the violin, passed through many editions A First Set of Three Duets for two Violins The whole Modern Art of Bowing Temperley, Nicholas. Musicians of Bath and Beyond: Edward Loder and His Family. Boydell & Brewer. Free scores by John David Loder at the International Music Score Library Project

RĂ´mulo Silvano da Silva

Rômulo Silvano da Silva known as Rômulo is a Brazilian football forward who plays for Ferroviário. In the summer of 2008, Rômulo signed with Azerbaijan Premier League side Khazar Lankaran. Following a year in Azerbaijan he returned to Brazil for family reasons, signed for Ceará. Following his release from Khazar, Rômulo claim that he had not been paid in full for his time with Khazar, a matter, taken to FIFA. In April 2012 FIFA recognised that the debt to Rômulo had been paid by Khazar on 30 March 2012 and that the 6 points stripped from Khazar was a mistake and they would be given back to them. Fortaleza Campeonato Cearense 2008 Ceará Campeonato Cearense 1999