A regent is a person appointed to govern a state because the monarch is a minor, is absent or is incapacitated. The rule of a regent or regents is called a regency. A regent or regency council may be in accordance with a constitutional rule. "Regent" is sometimes a formal title. If the regent is holding his position due to his position in the line of succession, the compound term prince regent is used. If the formally appointed regent is unavailable or cannot serve on a temporary basis, a Regent ad interim may be appointed to fill the gap. In a monarchy, a regent governs due to one of these reasons, but may be elected to rule during the interregnum when the royal line has died out; this was the case in the Kingdom of Finland and the Kingdom of Hungary, where the royal line was considered extinct in the aftermath of World War I. In Iceland, the regent represented the King of Denmark as sovereign of Iceland until the country became a republic in 1944. In the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, kings were elective, which led to a long interregnum.
In the interim, it was the Roman Catholic Primate who served as the regent, termed the "interrex". In the small republic of San Marino, the two Captains Regent, or Capitani Reggenti, are elected semi-annually as joint heads of state and of government. Famous regency periods include that of the Prince Regent George IV of the United Kingdom, giving rise to many terms such as Regency era and Regency architecture; this period lasted from 1811 to 1820, when his father George III was insane, though when used as a period label it covers a wider period. Philippe II, Duke of Orléans was Regent of France from the death of Louis XIV in 1715 until Louis XV came of age in 1723; the equivalent Greek term is epitropos. As of 2018, Liechtenstein is the only country with an active regency; the term regent may refer to positions lower than the ruler of a country. The term may be used in the governance of organisations as an equivalent of "director", held by all members of a governing board rather than just the equivalent of the chief executive.
Some university managers in North America are called regents and a management board for a college or university may be titled the "Board of Regents". In New York State, all activities related to public and private education and professional licensure are administered by the Board of Regents of the University of the State of New York, the appointed members of which are called regents; the term "regent" is used for members of governing bodies of institutions such as the national banks of France and Belgium. In the Dutch Republic, the members of the ruling class, not formally hereditary but forming a de facto patrician class, were informally known collectively as regenten because they held positions as "regent" on the boards of town councils, as well as charitable and civic institutions; the regents group portrait, regentenstuk or regentessenstuk for female boards in Dutch "regents' piece", is a group portrait of the board of trustees, called regents or regentesses, of a charitable organization or guild.
This type of group portrait was popular in Dutch Golden Age painting during the 17th and 18th centuries. In the Dutch East Indies, a regent was a native prince allowed to rule de facto colonized'state' as a regentschap. In the successor state of Indonesia, the term regent is used in English to mean a bupati, the head of a kabupaten. Again in Belgium and France, Regent is the official title of a teacher in a lower secondary school, who does not require a college degree but is trained in a specialized école normale. In the Philippines the University of Santo Tomas, the Father Regent, who must be a Dominican priest and is also a teacher, serves as the institution's spiritual head, they form the Council of Regents that serves as the highest administrative council of the university. In the Society of Jesus, a regent is an individual training to be a Jesuit and who has completed his Novitiate and Philosophy studies, but has not yet progressed to Theology studies. A regent in the Jesuits is assigned to teach in a school or some other academic institution as part of the formation toward final vows.
List of regents Regency Acts Viceroy, an individual who, in a colony or province, exercised the power of a monarch on his behalf
Andrew Stewart (bishop of Moray)
Andrew Stewart was a 15th-century Scottish prelate and administrator. Born between 1442 and 1444, he was the son of Joan Beaufort, widow of King James I of Scotland and former Queen-consort, her second husband, James Stewart, the Black Knight of Lorne. Being a third son, an ecclesiastical career was a natural course, as early as 1455 Andrew held the positions of Sub-Dean of the diocese of Glasgow and Dean of the diocese of Aberdeen; this was because on 7 May 1455, Pope Calixtus III conferred the deanery of Aberdeen, the Glasgow prebendary of Kirkandris and well as canonry of Lincluden and the vicarage of Kilpatrick, both in the diocese of Glasgow, after the promotion of Andrew de Durisdeer as Bishop of Glasgow. He was unable to retain the Aberdeen deanery, assumed by Richard Forbes in the following year; these positions were ideal for funding a university education. Andrew was incorporated at the University of Glasgow in 1456, he is found as a determinant, i.e. having completed his Bachelor's Degree, at the University of St Andrews in 1462 x 1463.
He appears to have entered the University of Paris ad eundem in 1465. By 1460, he had become Dean of Moray, while retaining the Glasgow sub-deanery. In 1470, he may have been given the position of Provost of the Collegiate church of Lincluden, a position he did hold in 1477. Andrew's career reached its height when, after the death of Bishop William Tulloch in 1482, he was elected to become the new Bishop of Moray, he received papal provision on 12 August 1482, but was not consecrated until sometime between 22 December 1485 and 24 October 1487. Andrew obtained a papal bull incorporating the provostry of Lincluden into the Moravian episcopal mensa for his lifetime, although this was cancelled in 1488, he was the Keeper of the Privy Seal of Scotland, a position he resigned in early 1483. For a period he had hopes of becoming Archbishop of St Andrews in the place of William Scheves, but this never transpired. In 1482 he and his two brothers promised 6000 ducats of gold to the city of Edinburgh, "in or the cais of prmocion of the saif reverend fadir to the Archbishoprik of Sanctandrois or quhatsomeuer vther benefice, dignitie, or privilegis".
In pursuit of his ambition for St Andrews, he became the most prominent supporter of Alexander Stewart, Duke of Albany, attempting to seize the throne of Scotland in this period. Despite incurring the enmity of King James III of Scotland and the censure of Pope Sixtus IV, Bishop Andrew survived, was reconciled by 1487 when he received consecration, his episcopate is not well documented, but he presided over a general convocation of the canons of Moray late in the year 1487. Andrew is known to have issued a number of episcopal statutes. Among other activities, he was in receipt of a safe-conduct from the English government in May 1497 and was at the Edinburgh parliament of 23 June 1496. King Henry VII of England requested on 5 July 1497 that Bishop Andrew be sent as an emissary to England concerning Perkin Warbeck. On 13 August 1501 Pope Alexander VI, at the instance of King Louis XII of France, made a reservation of the bishopric of Moray, showing that the Pope believed the see would soon become vacant, indicating that Bishop Andrew had contracted some kind of mortal illness.
Bishop Andrew did die, on 29 September 1501. He was buried in Elgin Cathedral. Boardman, S. I. "Stewart, earl of Buchan", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004 accessed 5 May 2007 Brown, M. H. "Joan ", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004 accessed 5 May 2007 Dowden, The Bishops of Scotland, ed. J. Maitland Thomson, Robert, An Historical Catalogue of the Scottish Bishops: Down to the Year 1688, Roland J. "Stewart, duke of Albany", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004 accessed 5 May 2007 Watt, D. E. R. Fasti Ecclesiae Scotinanae Medii Aevi ad annum 1638, 2nd Draft
Consanguinity is the property of being from the same kinship as another person. In that aspect, consanguinity is the quality of being descended from the same ancestor as another person; the laws of many jurisdictions set out degrees of consanguinity in relation to prohibited sexual relations and marriage parties. Such rules are used to determine heirs of an estate according to statutes that govern intestate succession, which vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. In some places and times, cousin marriage is expected. For most of European history, cousin marriage was quite common, but in modern, Western Europe, it is illegal and practiced at a marginal rate. The degree of relative consanguinity can be illustrated with a consanguinity table in which each level of lineal consanguinity appears as a row, individuals with a collaterally consanguineous relationship share the same row; the Knot System is a numerical notation. Issues of consanguinity arise in several aspects of the law. Laws prohibiting incest govern the degree of kinship within which marriage or sexual intercourse is permitted.
These are universally prohibited within the second degree of consanguinity. Some jurisdictions forbid marriage between first cousins. Marriage with aunts and uncles is legal in several countries. Consanguinity is relevant to inheritance with regard to intestate succession. In general, the law favors inheritance by persons related to the deceased; some jurisdictions ban citizens from service on a jury on the basis of consanguinity with persons involved in the case. In many countries, laws prohibiting nepotism ban employment of, or certain kinds of contracts with, the near relations of public officers or employees. Under Roman civil law, which early canon law of the Catholic Church followed, couples were forbidden to marry if they were within four degrees of consanguinity. In the ninth century the church raised the number of prohibited degrees to seven and changed the method by which they were calculated; the nobility became too interrelated to marry as the pool of non-related prospective spouses became smaller.
They had to either look elsewhere for eligible marriage candidates. In 1215 the Fourth Lateran Council made what they believed was a necessary change to canon law reducing the number of prohibited degrees of consanguinity from seven back to four; the method of calculating prohibited degrees was changed also: Instead of the former practice of counting up to the common ancestor down to the proposed spouse, the new law computed consanguinity by counting back to the common ancestor. In the Roman Catholic Church, unknowingly marrying a consanguineous blood relative was grounds for a declaration of nullity, but during the eleventh and twelfth centuries dispensations were granted with increasing frequency due to the thousands of persons encompassed in the prohibition at seven degrees and the hardships this posed for finding potential spouses. After 1215, the general rule was that while fourth cousins could marry without dispensation the need for dispensations was reduced. In fourteenth century England, for example, papal dispensations for annulments due to consanguinity were few.
The connotations of degree of consanguinity varies by context, though most cultures define a degree of consanguinity within which sexual interrelationships are regarded as incestuous or the "prohibited degree of kinship". Among the Christian Habesha highlanders of Ethiopia and Eritrea, it is a tradition to be able to recount one's paternal ancestors at least seven generations away starting from early childhood, because "those with a common patrilineal ancestor less than seven generations away are considered'brother and sister' and may not marry." The rule is less strict on the mother's side, where the limit is about four generations back, but still determined patrilinearly. This rule does not apply to other ethnic groups; the Quran at 4:22-24 states. "Forbidden to you in marriage are: your mothers, your daughters, your sisters, your father's sisters, your mother's sisters, your brother's daughters, your sister's daughters." Therefore, the list of forbidden marriage partners, as read in the Qur'an, Surah 4:23, does not include first cousins.
Muhammad himself married his first cousin Zaynab bint Jahsh. Financial incentives to discourage consangineous marriages exist in some countries: mandatory premarital screening for inherited blood disorders exist in the UAE since 2004, Qatar in 2009, where couples with positive results will not receive their marriage grant. In the Manusmriti blood relation marriage is prohibited for 7 generations. Ayurveda states that marriage within the Gotra is a consanguineous marriage which can lead to many gestational and genetic problems in the fetus. So it has become a common practice in the Hindu households during pre-marriage discussions to ask the couples' Gotra. Couples of the same Gotra are advised not to marry; the advisers of this system say that this practice helps in reducing the gestational problems and ensures a healthy progeny. Genetically, consanguinity derives from the reduction in variation due to meiosis that occurs because of the smaller number of near ancestors. Since all humans share between 99.6% and 99.9% of their genome, consanguinity only affects a small part of the sequence.
If two siblings have a child, the child only has two rather than four grandparents. In these circumstances the probability that the child inher
James Douglas, 1st Earl of Morton
James Douglas, the 4th Lord of Dalkeith, was created the 1st Earl of Morton in 1458. He was the son of James Douglas, 2nd Lord of Dalkeith and Elizabeth Gifford, daughter of James Gifford of Sheriffhall, his father resigned all his estates to James in 1456. James was created Earl of Morton in 1458 upon his marriage to Joan Stewart, the daughter of James I, King of Scots, she was a deaf-mute. The Earl entered into a marriage contract with Patrick Graham, Bishop of St. Andrews between the Bishop's niece and John Douglas, the Earl's eldest son and heir. In turn the Grahams, the Bishop, his brother and nephew, allied themselves to the Earl and pledged to assist him in recovering the diverted lands of Whittingehame and Morton, it appears, that this pledge was intended to draw the Earl of Morton into a conspiracy that included the Bishop, Lord Boyd and his party. Robert Boyd, 1st Lord Boyd who, as one of the Regents during the minority of James III of Scotland, took possession of the young king and married his son to the king's elder sister, for which crimes he was attainted for high treason.
The Earl of Morton did not participate since he sat on the jury which convicted the Boyds. Bishop Graham was excommunicated and deposed; the lands of Whittinghame and all rights over the barony of Morton, Dumfriesshire were resigned into the Earl's hands in 1473-4 and in that same year he recovered the lordship of Dalkeith increasing the Earls vast estates. He re-endowed the collegiate church at Dalkeith his 3rd great-grandfather founded and he founded St. Martha's Hospital in Aberdour in 1474; the Earl died on 22 October 1493. His wife Joan predeceased him by 4 months dying on 22 June 1493; the Earl and Countess of Morton were buried together in the choir of the parish church of St. Nicholas Buccleuch, known as the Dalkeith Collegiate Church, in Dalkeith, south of Fife and east of Edinburgh, in Midlothian, Scotland. Known as the Morton Monument, their tombs are covered with their stone effigies, complete with their armorial bearings; the choir is now in the ruins, leaving the tombs out in the open, where, in a few centuries, the elements have erased their faces.
Their hands, pressed together in prayer, were to have been destroyed during the Reformation. Today, as one of the visitors remarked, "nce crisply carved and detailed with heraldic devices", the tombs have "the look of sand sculptures after the tide has washed in and retreated". Due to their historical value, in 2005 a team of volunteers and preservationists created a protective canopy over their effigies, he and his wife Joan were the parents of: 2nd Earl of Morton. James, appeared in several writs 1466-1480. Janet, married bef. 1 February 1490-1 to Sir Patrick Hepburn, 1st Earl of Bothwell. Elizabeth, she was mentioned in a charter of 1479. Charles Cawley, "Scotland, Earls Created, 1162-1398: Earls of Morton", Medieval Lands: A propsography of medieval European noble and royal families
Scone Abbey was a house of Augustinian canons located in Scone, Scotland. Dates given for the establishment of Scone Priory have ranged from 1114 A. D. to 1122 A. D. However, historians have long believed that Scone was before that time the center of the early medieval Christian cult of the Culdees. Little is known about the Culdees but it is thought that a cult may have been worshiping at Scone from as early as 700 A. D. Archaeological surveys taken in 2007 suggest that Scone was a site of real significance prior to 841 A. D. when Kenneth MacAlpin brought the Stone of Destiny, Scotland's most prized relic and coronation stone, to Scone. The priory was established by six canons from Nostell Priory in West Yorkshire under the leadership of Prior Robert, the first prior of Scone; the foundation charter, dated 1120, was once thought to be a fake version of the original, but it is now regarded as a copy made in the late 12th century. The copy was needed after a fire which occurred there sometime before 1163 A.
D. and damaged or destroyed the original. Scone Priory suffered a similar destruction of records during the Wars of Scottish Independence. In either 1163 A. D. or 1164 A. D. during the reign of King Máel Coluim IV, Scone Priory's status was raised and it became an abbey. Scone Abbey had important royal functions, since it was located next to the coronation site of Scottish kings and housed the Stone of Destiny until its theft by King Edward I of England. Scone Abbey was, according to King Máel Coluim IV, "in principali sede regni nostri"; as such, Scone Abbey was one of the chief residences of the Scottish kings, who were hosted by the abbot during their stay at Scone. Most the king stayed in the abbot's own rooms within the abbot's palace, it is likely that the abbey buildings overlapped with the modern palace. The abbey had relics of a now obscure saint by the name of St Fergus, which made it a popular place of pilgrimage. Although the abbey long remained famous for its music since Robert Carver produced there some of Europe's best late medieval choral music into the late 16th century, its status declined over time.
After the reformation in 1559, Scottish abbeys disappeared as institutions, although not overnight, as some suggest. The abbey at Scone continued to function well into the 17th century. There are existing documents describing repairs made to the spire of the abbey church dating from A. D. 1620. Scone Abbey and its attendant parish ceased to function in 1640 and was reformed in the late 16th century as a secular lordship first for the Earl of Gowrie, for Sir David Murray of Gospertie; the property and lordship have been in the possession of the Murrays of Scone since. This branch of the Murray clan became the Earls of Mansfield. Scone Abbey flourished for over four hundred years. In 1559 during the early days of the Scottish Reformation the abbey fell victim to a Protestant mob from Dundee who were whipped into a zealous frenzy by the great reformer John Knox; the abbey was badly damaged despite Knox's attempt to calm the mob. Despite this setback Scone Abbey was continued to function for another ninety years.
The abbey estates were granted to Lord Ruthven, who became the Earl of Gowrie. Lord Ruthven held extensive estates in Scotland including Ruthven Castle near Perth, now called Huntingtower Castle, Dirleton Castle; the Ruthvens rebuilt the Abbot's Palace of the old abbey as a grand residence in 1580. In 1600, James VI charged the family with treason after the Gowrie Conspiracy, banned the use of the name "Ruthven" and confiscated their states; the Gowrie lands at Scone including the Abbot's Palace were granted to Sir David Murray of Gospetrie, made the 1st Lord Scone and Viscount Stormont, as a reward for interceding on the king's behalf to quell the people of Perth in the chaotic aftermath of the Gowrie Conspiracy. The precise location of Scone Abbey had long remained a mystery, but in 2007 archaeologists pinpointed the location using magnetic resonance imaging technology; the find revealed the structure to have been somewhat larger than had been imagined and revealed that the Moot Hill had at some point been surrounded by a ditch and palisade.
A stylised illustration of the abbey on one of its seals suggests that it was a major Romanesque building, with a central tower crowned with a spire. In 2008 an archaeological dig at the abbey revealed burials with three complete human skeletons. Robert II of Scotland Maud, Countess of Huntingdon Thomas de Rossy Barrow, G. W. S; the Acts of Malcolm IV King of Scots 1153-1165, Together with Scottish Royal Acts Prior to 1153 not included in Sir Archibald Lawrie's'"Early Scottish Charters', in Regesta Regum Scottorum, Volume I, Ian B. & Easson, David E. Medieval Religious Houses: Scotland with an Appendix on the Houses in the Isle of Man, Second Edition, pp. 97-8 Fawcett, Richard, "The Buildings of Scone Abbey", in Richard Welander, David J. Breeze & Thomas Owen Clancy, The Stone of Destiny: Artefact and Icon, Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, Monograph Series Number 22, pp. 169–80 Watt, D. E. R. & Shead, N. F; the Heads of Religious Houses in Scotland from the 12th to the 16th Centuries, The Scottish Records Society, New Series, Volume 24, pp. 198–202 Abbot of Scone, for a list of priors and com
Louis XI of France
Louis XI, called "Louis the Prudent", was King of France from 1461 to 1483, the sixth from the House of Valois. He succeeded his father Charles VII. Louis entered into open rebellion against his father in a short-lived revolt known as the Praguerie in 1440; the king forgave his rebellious vassals, including Louis, to whom he entrusted the management of the Dauphiné a province in southeastern France. Louis's ceaseless intrigues, led his father to banish him from court. From the Dauphiné, Louis led his own political establishment and married Charlotte of Savoy, daughter of Louis, Duke of Savoy, against the will of his father. Charles VII sent an army to compel his son to his will, but Louis fled to Burgundy, where he was hosted by Philip the Good, the Duke of Burgundy, Charles' greatest enemy; when Charles VII died in 1461, Louis left the Burgundian court to take possession of his kingdom. His taste for intrigue and his intense diplomatic activity earned him the nicknames "the Cunning" and "the Universal Spider", as his enemies accused him of spinning webs of plots and conspiracies.
In 1472, the subsequent Duke of Burgundy, Charles the Bold, took up arms against his rival Louis. However, Louis was able to isolate Charles from his English allies by signing the Treaty of Picquigny with Edward IV of England; the treaty formally ended the Hundred Years' War. With the death of Charles the Bold at the Battle of Nancy in 1477, the dynasty of the dukes of Burgundy died out. Louis took advantage of the situation to seize numerous Burgundian territories, including Burgundy proper and Picardy. Without direct foreign threats, Louis was able to eliminate his rebellious vassals, expand royal power, strengthen the economic development of his country, he died on 30 August 1483, was succeeded by his minor son Charles VIII. Louis was born in the son of King Charles VII of France. At the time of the Hundred Years War, the English held northern France, including the city of Paris, Charles VII was restricted to the centre and south of the country. Louis was the grandson of Yolande of Aragon, a force in the royal family for driving the English out of France, at a low point in its struggles.
Just a few weeks after Louis's christening at the Cathedral of St. Étienne on 4 July 1423, the French army suffered a crushing defeat by the English at Cravant. Shortly thereafter, a combined Anglo-Burgundian army threatened Bourges itself. During the reign of Louis's grandfather Charles VI, the Duchy of Burgundy was much connected with the French throne, but because the central government lacked any real power, all the duchies of France tended to act independently. Duke Philip II was the reigning Duke of Burgundy. Philip was an uncle of King Charles VI, he served on a council of regents for King Charles; the Dukes of Anjou and Bourbon, all uncles of Charles VI served on this council of regents. All effective power in France lay with this council of dukes. In its position of independence from the French throne, Burgundy had grown in power. By the reign of Louis's father Charles VII, Philip III was reigning as Duke of Burgundy, the duchy had expanded its borders to include all the territory in France from the North Sea in the north to the Jura Mountains in the south and from the Somme River in the west to the Moselle River in the east.
During the Hundred Years War, the Burgundians allied themselves with England against the French crown. Indeed, the Burgundians were responsible for the capture of Joan of Arc and her execution on 31 May 1431. In 1429, young Louis found himself at Loches in the presence of Joan of Arc, fresh from her first victory over the English at the Siege of Orléans, which initiated a turning point for the French in the Hundred Years War. Joan led troops in other victories at the Battle of Jargeau and the Battle of Patay. Although Joan was unable to liberate Paris during her lifetime, the city was liberated after her death, Louis and his father Charles VII were able to ride in triumph into the city on 12 November 1437. Louis grew up aware of the continuing weakness of the French nation, he regarded his father as a weakling, despised him for this. On 24 June 1436, Louis met Margaret of Scotland, daughter of King James I of Scotland, the bride his father had chosen for diplomatic reasons. There are no direct accounts from Louis or his young bride of their first impressions of each other, it is mere speculation whether they had negative feelings for each other.
Several historians think. But it is universally agreed that Louis entered the ceremony and the marriage itself dutifully, as evidenced by his formal embrace of Margaret upon their first meeting. Louis's marriage with Margaret resulted from the nature of medieval royal diplomacy and the precarious position of the French monarchy at the time; the wedding ceremony—very plain by the standards of the time—took place in the chapel of the castle of Tours on the afternoon of 25 June 1436, was presided over by Renaud of Chartres, the Archbishop of Reims. The 13-year-old Louis looked more mature than his 11-year-old bride, said to resemble a beautiful doll, was treated as such by her in-laws. Charles wore "grey riding pants" and "did not bother to remove his spurs"; the Scottish guests were hustled out after the wedding reception, as the French royal court was quite impoverished at this time. They could not afford an extravagant ceremony or to host their Scottish guests for any longer than they did; the Scots, saw this b
Louis of Cyprus
Louis of Savoy was King of Cyprus, reigning together with and in the right of his wife, Charlotte of Cyprus. He was the second son and namesake of Louis, Duke of Savoy, his wife Anne of Lusignan, daughter of King Janus of Cyprus, he was born in Geneva. Louis was born, according to Samuel Guichenon, in June 1431, in Geneva, but the historian specifies in note that he was born in 1436; the birth in June 1436 is therefore that adopted by contemporary authors. Guichenon specifies that the prince is 8 years old when he married in 1444; some mention a period between 1436-1437 for this last year the Swiss historian Édouard Mallet. On 14 December 1444, at Stirling Castle, he was betrothed to Annabella, youngest daughter of King James I of Scotland and sister of King James II of Scotland; the marriage never took place and the betrothal was annulled in 1456. On 7 October 1458, Louis married Queen Charlotte of Cyprus, his cousin, became King of Cyprus as well as the titular King of Jerusalem and of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia for the brief period of her reign from 1458 to 1460, when they were deposed.
Louis died in April 1482, at the priory of Ripaille