Peter, Duke of Coimbra
Infante D. Pedro, Duke of Coimbra KG, was a Portuguese infante of the House of Aviz, son of King John I of Portugal and his wife Philippa of Lancaster, daughter of John of Gaunt. In Portugal, he is known as Infante D. Pedro das Sete Partidas, of the Seven Parts because of his travels, possibly the best-travelled prince of his time, he was regent between 1439 and 1448. He was 1st Lord of Montemor-o-Velho, Tentúgal, Pereira, from the time he was born, Peter was one of John Is favourite sons. Along with his siblings, he received an education rarely seen in those times for the children of royalty. Close to his brothers Edward, the king of Portugal. On 14 August 1415, he accompanied his father and brothers Edward and his mother had died the previous month, giving each of her sons on her deathbed an arming sword she had ordered forged for them. Peter refused to be knighted before showing valour in battle, and he was knighted along with his brothers the following day and his younger brother Henry was made Duke of Viseu.
These were the first dukedoms created in Portugal, on finishing a translation of Senecas De Beneficiis in 1418, he initiated extensive travels throughout Europe, which would keep him away from Portugal for the next ten years. After meeting with John II of Castile in Valladolid, he continued to Hungary, where he met with the Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund, and entered his service. He fought with the Imperial armies against the Turks and in the Hussite Wars in Bohemia and was awarded the dukedom of Treviso in Northern Italy in 1422, from Constantinople he travelled to the Holy Land via Alexandria and Cairo. In 1425, Peter travelled to France and England and visited the universities of Paris and Oxford before arriving in Flanders in 1426, after the death of the second wife of Philip the Good of Burgundy in 1425, Peter recommended his sister Isabella to him as a wife. Philip sent a delegation to Portugal in 1428–29 that included Jan van Eyck and Isabella eventually married on 7 January 1430, and one of their sons became Duke Charles the Bold of Burgundy.
In 1427, Peter wrote a letter to his older brother, King Edward, on the proper administration of the kingdoms. Later that year, King Henry VI of England made him a Knight of the Garter, in 1428, Peter visited his dukedom of Treviso and the nearby Republic of Venice, where he was presented with a copy of the book of Marco Polo by the doge. He offered that book, as well as maps of the Venetian trade routes in the Orient he purchased, in 1433, he completed his famous six-volume work, the Tratado da Virtuosa Benfeitoria. When Peters brother King Edward I of Portugal died in 1438, at first, the choice for regent was the Queen mother Eleanor of Aragon. This choice was not popular among many Portuguese, because Eleanor was Aragonese, a war of influences started, and a few years later, Afonso of Barcelos managed to become young King Afonso Vs favourite uncle
Peter I of Portugal
Peter I, was King of Portugal and of the Algarves from 1357 until his death. He was the third but only surviving son of Afonso IV of Portugal and his wife, in 1328, Peters father, Afonso IV arranged for the marriage of his eldest daughter, Maria, to Alfonso XI of Castile. In 1334, she bore him a son, who ultimately became Peter of Castile, for two years Juan Manuel had waged war against the Castilians, who had kept Constanza hostage, until Bishop John del Campo of Oviedo mediated a peace in 1329. Enraged by Alfonsos infidelity and mistreatment of his wife, her father made a new alliance with the powerful Castilian aristocrat. Afonso married his son and heir, Peter, to Constanza, when Constanza arrived in Portugal in 1339, Inês de Castro, the beautiful and aristocratic daughter of a prominent Galician family, accompanied her as her lady-in-waiting. Peter soon fell in love with Inês, and the two conducted a love affair that lasted until Inêss murder in 1355. Constanza died in 1345, weeks after giving birth to Fernando, the scandal of Peters affair with Inês, and its political ramifications, caused Afonso to banish Inês from court after Constanza died.
Peter refused to marry any of the princesses his father suggested as a wife. The two aristocratic lovers began living together in secret, Peter claimed that he had married Inês against his fathers orders. In any event, in 1355, Afonso sent three men to find Inês at the Monastery of Santa Clara-a-Velha in Coimbra, where she was detained, Peter revolted against his father. Afonso defeated his son within a year, but died shortly thereafter, Peter reigned for a decade, and is often confused with his Castilian nephew because of their identical nicknames. Fernão Lopes labels Peter the Just and said that the Portuguese king loved justice—especially the dispensing of it, the Portuguese king conducted a public trial of Pêro Coelho and Álvaro Gonçalves in 1381. After finding them guilty of Ines murder, the king ripped their hearts out with his own hands, according to Lopes, diogo Lopes Pacheco escaped and died in 1383. According to legend, Peter had Inês body exhumed and placed upon a throne, dressed in robes and jewels.
Peter had two tombs constructed, one for each of them, so they would see each other when rising at the Last Judgment, the tombs show Peter and Inês facing each other, with the words Até o fim do mundo. Peter was the father of Ferdinand I of Portugal and John I of Portugal, before his marriage to Constance, in 1329 he was betrothed to Blanche of Castile but because of her weak mental health and incapacity, the marriage never took place
Philippa of Lancaster
Philippa of Lancaster was Queen of Portugal from 1387 until 1415 by marriage to King John I. Born into the family of England, her marriage secured the Anglo-Portuguese Alliance. Born on 31 March 1360, Philippa was the oldest child of John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, Philippa spent her infancy moving around the various properties owned by her family with her mother and her wet-nurse, Maud. Here, she was raised and educated alongside her two siblings, who was three years younger, and Henry, six years younger, who would become King Henry IV. Philippas mother died of plague in 1369, the affair and eventual marriage was considered scandalous, and in the future Philippa would protect herself against such embarrassment. Katherine seems to have been liked by Philippa and her Lancastrian siblings. Katherine had close ties with Geoffrey Chaucer, since her sister, John of Gaunt became Chaucers patron, and Chaucer spent much time with the family as one of Philippas many mentors and teachers. She was remarkably well educated for a female at the time and studied science under Friar John, poetry under Jean Froissart and she was well read in the works of Greek and Roman scholars such as Pliny and Herodotus and was diligent in her study of religion.
Philippa became Queen consort of Portugal through her marriage to King John I and this marriage was the final step in the Anglo-Portuguese Alliance against the Franco-Castillian axis. The couple were blessed by the church in the Cathedral of Porto on 2 February 1387, the Portuguese court celebrated the union for fifteen days. Philippa married King John I by proxy, and in keeping with a unique Portuguese tradition, the stand-in for King John I was João Rodrigues de Sá. Philippa was considered to be plain, and King João I already had a mistress, Inês Peres Esteves. Their son Afonso was ten when Philippa and John married, Philippa allowed Afonso and his sister Beatrice to be raised in the Portuguese court. Their mother left the court at Philippas command to live in a convent, as the de facto King of Castile, it was feared that John of Gaunt could challenge King Johns claim to the newly installed dynasty. Surviving letters show that Philippa often wrote to the English court from Portugal, on one instance, Philippa intervened in court politics on behalf of followers of the dethroned Richard II when they appealed for her help after her brother, Henry IV, had usurped the English throne.
On another occasion, she persuaded the reluctant Earl of Arundel to marry her husbands illegitimate daughter Beatrice, Philippas main political contribution, was in her own court. Upon the end of the Portuguese involvement in wars with Castile and the Moors, the Portuguese economy was failing. Philippa knew that the conquest and control of Ceuta would be lucrative for Portugal with the control of the African and Indian spice trade
Members of the order, who are referred to as Dominicans, generally carry the letters O. P. after their names, standing for Ordinis Praedicatorum, meaning of the Order of Preachers. Membership in the order includes friars, active sisters, the order is famed for its intellectual tradition, having produced many leading theologians and philosophers. The Dominican Order is headed by the Master of the Order, in the year 2000, there were 5,171 Dominican friars in solemn vows,917 student brothers, and 237 novices. By the year 2013 there were 6,058 Dominican friars, a number of other names have been used to refer to both the order and its members. In England and other countries the Dominican friars are referred to as Black Friars because of the black cappa or cloak they wear over their white habits, Dominicans were Blackfriars, as opposed to Whitefriars or Greyfriars. They are distinct from the Augustinian Friars who wear a similar habit and their identification as Dominicans gave rise to the pun that they were the Domini canes, or Hounds of the Lord.
The Dominican Order came into being in the Middle Ages at a time when religion began to be contemplated in a new way, men of God were no longer expected to stay behind the walls of a cloister. Instead, they travelled among the people, taking as their examples the apostles of the primitive Church. Out of this emerged two orders of mendicant friars, the Friars Minor, was led by Francis of Assisi, the other. Dominics new order was to be an order, trained to preach in the vernacular languages. Rather than earning their living on vast farms as the monasteries had done, at the same time, Dominic inspired the members of his order to develop a mixed spirituality. They were both active in preaching, and contemplative in study and meditation, the brethren of the Dominican Order were urban and learned, as well as contemplative and mystical in their spirituality. While these traits affected the women of the order, the nuns especially absorbed the latter characteristics, in England, the Dominican nuns blended these elements with the defining characteristics of English Dominican spirituality and created a spirituality and collective personality that set them apart.
The orders origins in battling heterodoxy influenced its development and reputation. Many Dominicans battled heresy as part of their apostolate, many years after St. Dominic reacted to the Cathars, the first Grand Inquistor of Spain, Tomás de Torquemada, would be drawn from the Dominican Order. As an adolescent, he had a love of theology. During his studies in Palencia, Spain, he experienced a famine, prompting Dominic to sell all of his beloved books. At the age of twenty-four or twenty-five, he was ordained to the priesthood, at that time the south of France was the stronghold of the Cathar or Albigensian heresy, named after the Duke of Albi, a Cathar sympathiser and opponent to the subsequent Albigensian Crusade
Beatrice, Countess of Alburquerque
Infanta Beatrice of Portugal was the daughter of Portuguese King Peter I and a Galician noblewoman called Inês de Castro. Beatrice was born in Coimbra around the period of 1347–1351, beatrices entitlement to be considered an Infanta of Portugal is debatable. Some historians consider her a daughter of Peter I, so the title Infanta of Portugal could never be attributed to her. Beatrice became Countess of Alburquerque when she married Sancho Alfonso, 1st Count of Alburquerque and they had two children, Don Fernando Sánchez, 2nd Count of Alburquerque, and Doña Eleanor of Alburquerque, who married Ferdinand I of Aragon
Lisbon is the capital and the largest city of Portugal, with a population of 552,700 within its administrative limits in an area of 100.05 km². Its urban area extends beyond the administrative limits with a population of around 2.7 million people. About 2.8 million people live in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area and it is continental Europes westernmost capital city and the only one along the Atlantic coast. Lisbon lies in the western Iberian Peninsula on the Atlantic Ocean, the westernmost areas of its metro area is the westernmost point of Continental Europe. Lisbon is recognised as a city because of its importance in finance, media, arts, international trade, education. It is one of the economic centres on the continent, with a growing financial sector. Humberto Delgado Airport serves over 20 million passengers annually, as of 2015, and the motorway network, the city is the 7th-most-visited city in Southern Europe, after Istanbul, Barcelona, Madrid and Milan, with 1,740,000 tourists in 2009. The Lisbon region contributes with a higher GDP PPP per capita than any region in Portugal.
Its GDP amounts to 96.3 billion USD and thus $32,434 per capita, the city occupies 32nd place of highest gross earnings in the world. Most of the headquarters of multinationals in the country are located in the Lisbon area and it is the political centre of the country, as its seat of Government and residence of the Head of State. Lisbon is one of the oldest cities in the world, julius Caesar made it a municipium called Felicitas Julia, adding to the name Olissipo. Ruled by a series of Germanic tribes from the 5th century, in 1147, the Crusaders under Afonso Henriques reconquered the city and since it has been a major political and cultural centre of Portugal. Unlike most capital cities, Lisbons status as the capital of Portugal has never been granted or confirmed officially – by statute or in written form. Its position as the capital has formed through constitutional convention, making its position as de facto capital a part of the Constitution of Portugal. It has one of the warmest winters of any metropolis in Europe, the typical summer season lasts about four months, from June to September, although in April temperatures sometimes reach around 25 °C.
Although modern archaeological excavations show a Phoenician presence at this location since 1200 BC, another conjecture based on ancient hydronymy suggests that the name of the settlement derived from the pre-Roman appellation for the Tagus, Lisso or Lucio. Lisbons name was written Ulyssippo in Latin by the geographer Pomponius Mela and it was referred to as Olisippo by Pliny the Elder and by the Greeks as Olissipo or Olissipona. The Indo-European Celts invaded in the 1st millennium BC, mixing with the Pre-Indo-European population and this indigenous settlement maintained commercial relations with the Phoenicians, which would account for the recent findings of Phoenician pottery and other material objects
Eleanor of Aragon, Queen of Castile
Eleanor of Aragon was a daughter of King Peter IV of Aragon and his wife Eleanor of Sicily. She was a member of the House of Aragon and Queen of Castile by her marriage, Eleanor was the youngest child and only daughter of her father by his third marriage. Eleanor was a sister of John I of Aragon and Martin of Aragon and she was a half-sister of Constance, Queen of Sicily, Countess of Ampurias and Isabella, Countess of Urgell. On the death of Eleanors mother in 1375, her father married Sibila of Fortia and this caused disagreements between King Peter and his children especially John. Eleanors maternal grandparents were Peter II of Sicily and his wife Elisabeth of Carinthia, granddaughter of Henry V, Duke of Legnica, Eleanors paternal grandparents were Alfonso IV of Aragon and his first wife Teresa dEntença. At Soria on the 18 June 1375, Eleanor married John I of Castile and her marriage was arranged as part of the arrangements for peace between Aragon and Castile agreed at Almazán on the 12 April 1374 and at Lérida on the 10 May 1375.
Eleanor and John were married for seven years, in time they had three children, succeeded his father as King of Castile. Ferdinand, became King of Aragon in 1412, died young After seven years of marriage on 13 August 1382, Eleanor died giving birth to her daughter and namesake Eleanor, who died young. Eleanors son Ferdinand claimed his mothers rights on the Kingdom of Aragon when both of Eleanors brothers died without surviving sons
The Portuguese Empire, known as the Portuguese Overseas, was one of the largest and longest-lived empires in world history and the first colonial empire. It existed for almost six centuries from the capture of Ceuta in 1415 to the grant of sovereignty to East Timor in 2002, the first era of the Portuguese empire originated at the beginning of the Age of Discovery. Initiated by the Kingdom of Portugal, it would eventually expand across the globe, in 1488, Bartolomeu Dias rounded the Cape of Good Hope, and in 1498, Vasco da Gama reached India. In 1500, either by an accidental landfall or by the secret design. Over the following decades, Portuguese sailors continued to explore the coasts and islands of East Asia, establishing forts, by 1571, a string of naval outposts connected Lisbon to Nagasaki along the coasts of Africa, the Middle East and South Asia. This commercial network and the trade had a substantial positive impact on Portuguese economic growth. Though the realms continued to be administered separately, the Council of Portugal ruled the country and its empire from Madrid.
As the King of Spain was King of Portugal, Portuguese colonies became the subject of attacks by three rival European powers hostile to Spain, the Dutch Republic and France. With its smaller population, Portugal was unable to defend its overstretched network of trading posts. Eventually, Brazil became the most valuable colony of the era until, as part of the wave of independence movements that swept the Americas during the early 19th century. The third era represents the stage of Portuguese colonialism after the decolonization of the Americas of the 1820s. The colonial possessions had been reduced to the African coastline, Portuguese Timor, the disastrous 1890 British Ultimatum led to the contraction of Portuguese ambitions in Africa. Macau was returned to China in 1999, the origin of the Kingdom of Portugal lay in the reconquista, the gradual reconquest of the Iberian peninsula from the Moors. There were several motives for their first attack, on the Marinid Sultanate. In 1415 an attack was made on Ceuta, a strategically located North African Muslim enclave along the Mediterranean Sea, although Ceuta proved to be a disappointment for the Portuguese, the decision was taken to hold it while exploring along the Atlantic African coast.
At the time, Europeans did not know what lay beyond Cape Bojador on the African coast, under his sponsorship, soon the Atlantic islands of Madeira and Azores were reached and started to be settled producing wheat to export to Portugal. Fears of what lay beyond Cape Bojador, and whether it was possible to return once it was passed, were assuaged in 1434 when it was rounded by one of Infante Henrys captains, Gil Eanes. Once this psychological barrier had been crossed, it became easier to further along the coast
John of Gaunt
John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, KG was a member of the House of Plantagenet, the third of five surviving sons of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault. He was called John of Gaunt because he was born in Ghent, when he became unpopular in life, scurrilous rumours and lampoons circulated that he was actually the son of a Ghent butcher, perhaps because Edward III was not present at the birth. This story always drove him to fury, due to some generous land grants, John was one of the richest men in his era. John of Gaunts legitimate male heirs, the Lancasters, include Kings Henry IV, Henry V and his other legitimate descendants include his daughters Queen Philippa of Portugal and Elizabeth, Duchess of Exeter, and Queen Catherine of Castile. John fathered five children outside marriage, one early in life by a lady-in-waiting to his mother, the children of Katherine Swynford, surnamed Beaufort, were legitimised by royal and papal decrees after John and Katherine married in 1396.
Through his daughter Philippa, he was grandfather of King Edward of Portugal, through John II of Castiles great-granddaughter Joanna the Mad, John of Gaunt is an ancestor of the Habsburg rulers who would reign in Spain and much of central Europe. When John of Gaunt died in 1399, his estates and titles were declared forfeit to the crown, since King Richard II had named Henry a traitor, Henry Bolingbroke returned from exile to reclaim his inheritance and depose Richard. Bolingbroke reigned as King Henry IV of England, the first of the descendants of John of Gaunt to hold the throne of England, John was the fourth son of King Edward III of England. His first wife, Blanche of Lancaster, was his third cousin and they married in 1359 at Reading Abbey as a part of the efforts of Edward III to arrange matches for his sons with wealthy heiresses. He became the 14th Baron of Halton and 11th Lord of Bowland, John inherited the rest of the Lancaster property when Blanches sister Maud, Countess of Leicester, died without issue on 10 April 1362.
John received the title Duke of Lancaster from his father on 13 November 1362, by well established, he owned at least thirty castles and estates across England and France and maintained a household comparable in scale and organisation to that of a monarch. He owned land in almost every county in England, a patrimony that produced a net income of between £8,000 and £10,000 a year, Johns ascendancy to political power coincided with widespread resentment of his influence. Although he fought in the Battle of Nájera, for example, when Edward III died in 1377 and Johns ten-year-old nephew succeeded as Richard II of England, Johns influence strengthened. However, mistrust remained, and some suspected him of wanting to seize the throne himself, John took pains to ensure that he never became associated with the opposition to Richards kingship. As de facto ruler during Richards minority, he made unwise decisions on taxation that led to the Peasants Revolt in 1381, when the rebels destroyed his home in London, the Savoy Palace.
Unlike some of Richards unpopular advisors, John was away from London at the time of the uprising and thus avoided the direct wrath of the rebels. In 1386 John left England to seek the throne of Castile, claimed in Jure uxoris by right of his wife, Constance of Castile. However, crisis ensued almost immediately in his absence, and in 1387 King Richards misrule brought England to the brink of civil war
House of Aviz
The House of Aviz was the second dynasty of the kings of Portugal. In 1385, the Interregnum of the 1383-1385 crisis ended when the Cortes of Coimbra proclaimed the Master of the monastic military Order of Aviz as King John I. John was the son of King Peter I and Dona Teresa Lourenço. The House of Aviz continued to rule Portugal until Philip II of Spain inherited the Portuguese crown with the Portuguese succession crisis of 1580. The descendants of King John I were still Masters of Aviz, though at times that title passed to one descendant of John and the Crown of Portugal to another. The title of Grand Master of the Order of Aviz was permanently incorporated into the Portuguese Crown toward the end of rule by the House of Aviz, the House of Aviz was established as a result of the dynastic crisis following the 1383 death of Ferdinand I. Ferdinands widow Leonor Telles was disliked by both the nobility and the commoners for having left her first husband and for having had their marriage annulled in order to marry King Ferdinand.
In April 1385, amidst popular revolt and civil war, the Cortes of Coimbra declared John, Master of Aviz and he was half-brother of Ferdinand and natural son of Ferdinands father and predecessor Pedro I. He had the backing of the rising bourgeoisie of Lisbon. Troops under General Nuno Álvares Pereira defeated a small Castilian army at Valverde and this was followed, however, by a larger invasion of Castilian and Portuguese troops loyal to John of Castile and Beatrice. John of Avizs rule became established fact with the Portuguese victory in the Battle of Aljubarrota on 14 August 1385, a formal peace between Portugal and Castile would not be signed until 1411. To mark his victory, John founded the Monastery of Santa Maria da Vitória, known as the Batalha Monastery, the House of Aviz would rule Portugal until Philip II of Spain annexed Portugal in 1580, after he had ordered the Duke of Alba to take Portugal by force. The Cortes in Tomar acknowledged Philip II of Spain as King Philip I of Portugal on 16 April 1581 after this Spanish military intervention and this period of Portuguese history saw the ascent of Portugal to the status of a European and world power.
The period includes the zenith of the Portuguese Empire during the reign of Manuel I, John III was succeeded in 1557 by his grandson Sebastian I of Portugal, who died, aged 24 and childless, in the Battle of Alcácer Quibir. Sebastian was succeeded by his great-uncle Henry, aged 66, who, as a Catholic Cardinal, although António had been proclaimed king, and was still regarded as rightful king in some of the Azores Islands until 1583, his legitimacy as a monarch is still disputed by historians. Only a small minority of historians accept the period of twenty days between Anthonys acclamation and the Battle of Alcântara as his reign, in Portugal he generally considered not as a national king, but as a patriot who led armed resistance to the Philippine domination. Joaquim Veríssimo Serrão, writing in 1956 and counting António as a king, Philip had despatched Santa Cruz with an overwhelming force which left Lisbon on 23 June, and reaching sight of São Miguel some time after 7 July, finally reduced the Azores to subjection.
The House of Aviz was succeeded in Portugal by Philips personal union of the Crowns of Portugal, in Portuguese history this is variously referred to as the Philippine Dynasty, the House of Habsburg, or the House of Austria
Eleanor of Alburquerque
Eleanor, 3rd Countess of Alburquerque became Queen consort of Aragon by her marriage to Ferdinand I of Aragon. In Spanish, she is known as Leonor Urraca de Castilla and her father was Sancho Alfonso, 1st Count of Alburquerque, who was an illegitimate son of King Alfonso XI of Castile and his mistress Eleanor of Guzman, and a brother of King Henry II of Castile. Her mother was Infanta Beatrice, Countess of Alburquerque, who was daughter of Peter I of Portugal, Eleanor was born in Aldeadavila de la Ribera, now in National Park since 2002 of Arribes del Duero Natural Park, province of Salamanca. Eleanors brother was Ferdinand, 2nd Count of Alburquerque, Eleanor was originally betrothed to Frederick, illegitimate son of Henry II of Castile, however this engagement was broken off. It was agreed that Ferdinand could not marry before his brother Henry reached the age of fourteen, he would be granted the privileges and social policies majority. Peter I of Castile was murdered in March 1369 by his bastard brother Henry, as the elder brother, fulfilled these requirements so should his brother Infante Ferdinand, with a good wife who was honorable and rich.
It was heard that Eleanor of Alburquerque was sixteen and old enough to marry and she expressed her agreement in marriage but could not yet take place as Ferdinand was not ten years old yet. She owned the towns of Haro, Vilforado, Ledesma with the five towns, the Codesera, Alconchel, Alconétar and Villalon and this made Eleanor a very attractive offer to Ferdinand. In 1394, Eleanor and Ferdinand were married, created Infante of Aragón on his fathers assumption of power in 1412. Created Grand Master of the Orders of Calatrava and Alcántara after 1412, in 1412, Ferdinand and Eleanor became King and Queen of Aragon after the Compromise of Caspe. However they reigned for four years, when Ferdinand died in 1416. Eleanor, who was 42 years old, retired to Medina del Campo, in 1435 her sons, the princes of Aragon were taken prisoners of the Genoese after the naval battle of Ponza. The Royal Palace of Medina del Campo, birthplace of her husband, Eleanor witnessed her children fighting against the royalist party led by Álvaro de Luna.
Eleonor lost some of her possessions as a benefit for the latter, Eleanor died in Medina del Campo, province of Valladolid, in 1435. Her grave is in the Convent of Santa María la Real and it has a tablet that is stone Toledo dark, with the Royal Arms carved on it
Portuguese nobility was the class of legally privileged and titled persons acknowledged by the Kingdom of Portugal. During the absolute monarchy, nobles enjoyed the most privileged status and held the most important offices after members of the ruling dynasty and this was the region of the sun and the most powerful men of the kingdom. They united nobility of birth to the authority and prestige of public office and they were followed in the hierarchy, in descending order, by infancies and escudeiros. The noble members of Cabrals fleet followed this feature, since most descended from families of Castile and León, who had settled in Portugal, who had already rendered several generations of service. The few exceptions - such as Bartolomeu Dias, who received his rank, to rise in status, a noble was expected to demonstrate loyalty and service to the king. Though the 15th and 16th centuries were rich in acts of bravery and heroic deeds, few were granted, and not all heraldic grants were recorded. This did not occur with those involved in combat, especially during the occupation of northern Africa, the arms of Nicolau Coelho, which contain a base undy silver and blue, which can symbolize the conquered sea, is a rare exception.
Following the Proclamation of the Portuguese Republic in 1910, the nobility was officially disbanded, during this time, no new titles were bestowed. The predominant activity of the Council was the identification of living heirs to historical titles, after Dom Duarte Nunos death, his son Duarte Pio, Duke of Braganza, declared the Council of Nobility disbanded, receiving some criticism for doing so. Subsequently, he established what is now called the Instituto da Nobreza Portuguesa, which continues the work and maintains the records of the original Council of Nobility