Joanna Russ was an American writer and radical feminist. She is the author of a number of works of science fiction and feminist literary criticism such as How to Suppress Women's Writing, as well as a contemporary novel, On Strike Against God, one children's book, Kittatinny, she is best known for The Female Man, a novel combining utopian fiction and satire, the story "When It Changed". Joanna Russ was born in New York City, to Evarett I. and Bertha Russ, both teachers. Her family was Jewish, she began creating works of fiction at a early age. Over the following years she filled countless notebooks with stories, poems and illustrations hand-binding the material with thread; as a senior at William Howard Taft High School, Russ was selected as one of the top ten Westinghouse Science Talent Search winners. She graduated from Cornell University, where she studied with Vladimir Nabokov, in 1957, received her MFA from the Yale Drama School in 1960, she was married to Albert Amateau. After teaching at several universities, including Cornell, she became a full professor at the University of Washington.
Russ came to be noticed in the science fiction world in the late 1960s, in particular for her award-nominated novel Picnic on Paradise. At the time, SF was a field dominated by male authors, writing for a predominantly male audience, but women were starting to enter the field in larger numbers. Russ, an out lesbian, was one of the most outspoken authors to challenge male dominance of the field, is regarded as one of the leading feminist science fiction scholars and writers, she was one of the first major science fiction writers to take slash fiction and its cultural and literary implications seriously. Over the course of her life, she published over fifty short stories. Russ was associated with the American New Wave of science fiction. Along with her work as a writer of prose fiction, Russ was a playwright and author of nonfiction works literary criticism and feminist theory, including the essay collection Magic Mommas, Trembling Sisters, Puritans & Perverts, her essays and articles have been published in Women's Studies Quarterly, Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies, Science Fiction Studies, College English.
Russ was a self-described socialist feminist, expressing particular admiration for the work and theories of Clara Fraser and her Freedom Socialist Party. Both fiction and nonfiction, for Russ, were modes of engaging theory with the real world; the short story, "When It Changed," which became a part of the novel, explores the constraints of gender and asks if gender is necessary in a society. Russ's writing is characterized by anger interspersed with irony. James Tiptree Jr, in a letter to her, wrote, "Do you imagine that anyone with half a functional neuron can read your work and not have his fingers smoked by the bitter, multi-layered anger in it? It smells and smoulders like a volcano buried so long and deadly it is just beginning to wonder if it can explode." In a letter to Susan Koppelman, Russ asks of a young feminist critic "where is her anger?" and adds "I think from now on, I will not trust anyone who isn't angry."For nearly 15 years she was an influential review columnist for The Magazine of Fantasy & Science Fiction.
Though by she was no longer an active member of science fiction fandom, she was interviewed by phone during Wiscon in 2006 by her friend and member of the same cohort, Samuel R. Delany, her first SF story was "Nor Custom Stale" in F&SF. Notable short works include Hugo winner and Nebula Award finalist "Souls", Nebula Award and Tiptree Award winner "When It Changed", Nebula Award finalists "The Second Inquisition", "Poor Man, Beggar Man", "The Extraordinary Voyages of Amélie Bertrand", "The Mystery of the Young Gentlemen", her fiction has been nominated for nine Nebula and three Hugo Awards, her genre-related scholarly work was recognized with a Pilgrim Award in 1988. Her story "The Autobiography of My Mother" was one of the 1977 O. Henry Prize stories, she wrote several contributions to feminist thinking about pornography and sexuality including "Pornography by Women, for Women, with Love", "Pornography and the Doubleness of Sex for Women", "Being Against Pornography", which can be found in her archival pieces located in the University of Oregon's Special Collections.
These essays include detailed descriptions of her views on pornography and how influential it was to feminist thought in the late 1980s and early 1990s. In "Being Against Pornography", she calls pornography a feminist issue, she sees pornography to be the essence of evil in society, calling it "a monolithic recognizable, uniquely evil essence. Her issues with pornography range from feminist issues, to women's sexuality in general and how porn prevents women from express their sexual selves, like men can. Russ believed that anti-pornography activists were not addressing how women experienced pornography created by men, a topic that she addressed in "Being Against Pornography", she directly addresses the issue in her multiple published and unpublished essays, her work is taught in courses on science fiction and feminism throughout the English speaking world. Russ is the subject of Farah Mendlesohn's book On Joanna Russ and Jeanne Cortiel's Demand My Writing: Joanna Russ, Feminism
The 1995 CIA disinformation controversy arose when the Central Intelligence Agency revealed that between 1986 and 1994, it had delivered intelligence reports to the U. S. government based on agent reporting from suspected Soviet operatives. From 1985 to his arrest in February 1994, CIA agent and KGB mole Aldrich Ames compromised Agency sources and operations in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, leading to the arrest of many CIA agents and the execution of at least ten of them; this allowed the KGB to replace the CIA agents with its own operatives or to force them to cooperate, the double agents funneled a mixture of disinformation and true material to U. S. intelligence. Although the CIA's Soviet-East European and Central Eurasian divisions knew or suspected the sources to be Soviet double agents, they disseminated this "feed" material within the government; some of these intelligence reports reached Presidents Ronald Reagan and George H. W. Bush, as well as President-elect Bill Clinton; the disclosure of the deception in 1995, following investigations into the Ames case, led to a media stir and heavy congressional criticism.
The Agency's Inspector General, Frederick Hitz, identified 12 CIA personnel he deemed responsible for the lapse, including three former directors. A damage assessment determined that the disinformation altered intelligence analyses of the Soviet military towards the end of the Cold War, creating a false impression of Soviet strength. Regardless, the revelation further undermined the CIA's credibility in the wake of the Ames case. Aldrich Ames, a CIA counterintelligence agent working in the SE Division, approached the Soviet Embassy in Washington, D. C. on April 16, 1985, within a month received $50,000 from the KGB in exchange for espionage service. Meeting with Soviet official and go-between Sergey Dmitriyevich Chuvakhin on June 13, Ames passed him copied documents identifying over ten Soviet agents working for the CIA and FBI; as a CIA review related, the Soviets began arresting and sometimes executing U. S. operatives in 1985, the CIA realized that it "was faced with a major CI problem." Suspicions fell on Edward Lee Howard, a former CIA officer who compromised CIA operations in 1985 and defected to the Soviet Union on September 21.
However, the CIA realized by fall 1985. Three agents arrested in fall 1985 and executed, some of the CIA's most valuable sources, had been betrayed by Ames, not Howard. By December, six SE agents had vanished, a trend which continued into 1986. Ames, who stated that he spied for the KGB due to his financial debt, gave thousands of pages of classified documents to the Soviets and admitted to disclosing over 100 CIA, FBI, allied operations. S. sources. Moreover, by compromising CIA methods, Ames enabled the KGB and its successor, the SVR, to filter feed material to the CIA from 1986 to 1993. In 1987, KGB agent Aleksandr Zhomov offered to sell the CIA intelligence on how the Soviets had detected and arrested the CIA's agents; the SE Division accepted Zhomov and assigned him the cryptonym GTPROLOGUE. Zhomov, a Soviet double agent assigned to protect Ames, furnished fake documents ascribing the CIA's agent losses to superior KGB surveillance and luck, he told the CIA that he would identify upcoming KGB plants, but only on the condition that the CIA treat them as genuine, lest the KGB discover the leak and arrest him.
The fake agents soon overwhelmed Moscow Station's resources, Zhomov disappeared in July 1990 after receiving payment from the U. S; the spurious sources and the disinformation they provided convinced the CIA that the 1985–1986 debacle was an anomaly, thus protecting Ames. Other genuine CIA agents were compromised by the Soviets, who used them to feed false intelligence back to the U. S; the CIA began to investigate the disappearances of its agents suspecting that bad tradecraft, a Soviet breach of Moscow Station or the CIA's communications, or a mole was responsible for the disaster. Suspicions fell on spy dust, a KGB compromise of CIA cables, or new Soviet surveillance tactics, but these probes proved unsuccessful. Ames' conspicuous spending drew the attention of the molehunters in late 1989, but he passed a polygraph test. However, the molehunt regained momentum in 1991. Attention focused on Ames and other suspects, his finances were investigated once more in 1992. In March 1993, the molehunter unit concluded that there was a KGB mole within the CIA who had followed Howard, the FBI began close surveillance of Ames, monitoring his office and home, tracking his car.
A June 25 search of his office found about 144 classified documents unrelated to his work. On February 21, 1994, Ames and his wife, were arrested by FBI agents: The duo pled guilty to espionage, the Senate Intelligence Committee requested that the CIA's Inspector General review the case. On October 31, 1995, CIA Director John M
Neobernaya spadicea, common name the chestnut cowrie, is a species of sea snail in the cowrie family, Cypraeidae. Chestnut cowries can be found in the eastern Pacific Ocean, from central California to Baja California; the chestnut cowrie has a glossy shell due to an enamel, secreted from its mantle. The chestnut cowrie is the only species of cowrie in the eastern Pacific Ocean, it can be found in intertidal zones from California to Isla Cedros, Baja California. It is common in Southern California around the Channel Islands. Chestnut cowries are rare in the portion of their range, north of Santa Barbara, California. Chestnut cowries live in kelp beds and rocky surfaces in intertidal and subtidal zones, to a depth of 45 m. Chestnut cowries are found under rocks and protected crevices; the top of the shell displays a large irregularly shaped caramel colored spot, with a dark brown border. The rest of the shell is white, including the bottom. There is a narrow aperture with small teeth; the shell can grow until the cowrie reaches its adult form it stops.
When undisturbed, their orange spotted mantle extends around the outside of the shell. The shell is glossy due to an enamel, secreted from the edges of the mantle. Retracting and extending the mantle acts as a buffer, shining the shell while depositing new enamel; the foot of this species is white. The adult shell of this species ranges in size from 40 to 65 mm; the chestnut cowrie is a carnivore. Chestnut cowries lay batches of eggs during the summer months; each batch consists of 100 egg capsules with each egg capsule containing several hundred eggs