Eleanor of Castile, Queen of Navarre
Eleanor of Castile was an infanta of Castile and the Queen consort of Navarre. She was the daughter of King Henry II of Castile and his wife, Juana Manuel of Castile, Eleanor was a member of the House of Trastámara. Eleanor was subject to plans with Ferdinand I of Portugal in 1371 however. A betrothal took place in 1373 in Burgos with Prince Charles, the couple were married at Soria in May 1375. A testament dated at Burgos on 29 May 1374, shows that King Henry II bequeathed property to his daughter Eleanor as a part of her dowry, the newly married royal couple went through certain marital disputes. She took her daughters, whom she bore her husband during the first thirteen years of their marriage. Eleanor and her children resided in Valladolid and by 1390 she bore two daughters to Charles. Two years later, she was demanded by her husband to return because they needed to be crowned King, Eleanors brother King John supported the request of Charles III. Eleanor did not contend, claiming she was ill-treated in Navarre, as a result, Eleanor remained in Castile whilst her husband was crowned in February 1390 in Pamplona.
0n 9 October 1390, Eleanors brother John died and was succeeded by his minor son Henry, Charles again requested Eleanors return to Navarre however, she refused. Eleanor opposed her nephews accession and she formed the League of Lillo along with her illegitimate half-brother Fadrique, King Henry opposed the League, he besieged Eleanor in her castle at Roa around mid-1394 and obliged her to return to her husband in February 1395. Eleanor returned to Charles and was involved in the political life of Navarre. Her relationship with her husband improved and she bore him the long-awaited sons Charles and Louis however, on 3 June 1403 her coronation as Queen of Navarre took place in Pamplona. Upon several occasions when Charles stayed in France, Eleanor took to the role of regent and she helped to maintain good relations between Navarre and Castile. As a result of the relations, members of the Castillian nobility including the Duke of Benavente and members of the powerful families of Dávalos, Mendoza.
Upon the couples absences, their daughter Joanna acted as regent as she was heiress, there is confusion surrounding Eleanors death. She is believed to have died at Olite on 27 February 1415 or at Pamplona 5 March 1416 and her husband died in 1425 and they were buried together at Pamplona in the Cathedral of Santa María la Real. Eleanor and Charles had eight children, five of their daughters lived to adulthood, married John I, Count of Foix, married John II of Aragon, became Queen of Navarre and had issue
A queen consort is the wife of a reigning king. In Brunei, the wife of the Sultan is known as a Raja Isteri with prefix Pengiran Anak, equivalent with queen consort in English, a queen consort usually shares her husbands social rank and status. She holds the equivalent of the kings monarchical titles, but historically, she does not share the kings political. A queen regnant is a queen in her own right with all the powers of a monarch, where some title other than that of king is held by the sovereign, his wife is referred to by the feminine equivalent, such as princess consort or empress consort. In monarchies where polygamy has been practiced in the past, or is practiced today. In Morocco, King Mohammed VI has broken with tradition and given his wife, Lalla Salma, prior to the reign of King Mohammed VI, the Moroccan monarchy had no such title. In Thailand, the king and queen must both be of royal descent, the kings other consorts are accorded royal titles that confer status. Other cultures maintain different traditions on queenly status, a Zulu chieftain designates one of his wives Great Wife, which would be the equivalent to queen consort.
Conversely, in Yorubaland, all of a chiefs princess consorts are essentially of equal rank, in general, the consorts of monarchs have no power per se, even when their position is constitutionally or statutorily recognized. In some cases, the queen consort has been the power behind her husbands throne, e. g. Maria Luisa of Parma. Past queens consort, Queen Jang, consort to Sukjong of Joseon
Crown of Castile
The title of King of Castile remained in use by the Habsburg rulers during the 16th and 17th centuries. Charles I was King of Aragon, Majorca and Sicily, in the early 18th century, Philip of Bourbon won the War of the Spanish Succession and imposed unification policies over the Crown of Aragon, supporters of their enemies. This unified the Crown of Aragon and the Crown of Castile into the kingdom of Spain, even though the Nueva Planta decrees did not formally abolish the Crown of Castile, the country of was called Spain by both contemporaries and historians. King of Castile remains part of the title of Felipe VI of Spain. The Kingdom of León arose out of the Kingdom of Asturias, the Kingdom of Castile appeared initially as a county of the Kingdom of León. From the second half of the 10th century to the first half of the 11th century it changed hands between León and the Kingdom of Navarre, in the 11th century it became a kingdom in its own right. The two kingdoms had been united twice previously, From 1037 until 1065 under Ferdinand I of León, upon his death his kingdoms passed to his sons, León to Alfonso VI, Castile to Sancho II, and Galicia to García.
From 1072 until 1157 under Alfonso VI, and Alfonso VII, from 1111 until 1126 Galicia was separate from the union under Alfonso VII. In 1157 the kingdoms were divided between Alfonsos sons, with Ferdinand II receiving León and Sancho III Castile, from on the two kingdoms were united under the name of the Kingdom of León and Castile, or simply as the Crown of Castile. Ferdinand III conquered the Guadalquivir Valley, while his son Alfonso X conquered the Kingdom of Murcia from Al-Andalus, the heir to the throne has been titled Prince of Asturias since the 14th century. Almost immediately after the union of the two kingdoms under Ferdinand III, the parliaments of Castile and León were united. It was divided into three estates, which corresponded with the nobility, the church and the cities, and included representation from Castile, León, Toledo, under Alfonso X, most sessions of the Cortes of both kingdoms were held jointly. The Cortes of 1258 in Valladolid comprised representatives of Castile, Extremadura and León, subsequent Cortes were celebrated separately, for example in 1301 that of Castile in Burgos and that of León in Zamora, but the representatives demanded that the parliaments be reunited from on.
These laws continued to be in force until 1889, when a new Spanish civil code, in the 13th century there were many languages spoken in the Kingdoms of León and Castile among them Castilian, Leonese and Galician-Portuguese. But, as the century progressed, Castilian gained increasing prominence as the language of culture, henceforth all public documents were written in Castilian, likewise all translations of Arabic legal and government documents were made into Castilian instead of Latin. In 1492, under the Catholic Monarchs, the first edition of the Grammar of the Castilian Language by Antonio de Nebrija was published, Castilian was eventually carried to the Americas in the 16th century by the conquistadors. Because of Castilians importance in the land ruled by the Spanish Crown, on the death of Alfonso XI a dynastic conflict started between his sons, the Infantes Peter and Henry, Count of Trastámara, which became entangled in the Hundred Years War. Alfonso XI had married Maria of Portugal with whom he had his heir, the King had many illegitimate children with Eleanor of Guzman, among them the above-mentioned Henry, who disputed Peters right to the throne once the latter became king
John I of Castile
John I was King of the Crown of Castile from 1379 until 1390. He was the son of Henry II and of his wife Juana Manuel of Castile and he was the last monarch of Castile to receive a formal coronation. His first marriage, to Eleanor of Aragon on 18 June 1375, produced his only issue, Henry. Ferdinand, became King of Aragon in 1412, in 1379, John I formed the short lived military order of the Order of the Pigeon, known for its large feasts which included eating the organizations namesake, the pigeon. On the death of his father-in-law, John endeavoured to enforce the claims of his wife, Ferdinands only child, the 1383-1385 Crisis, a period of civil unrest and anarchy in Portugal, followed. He was resisted by supporters of his rival for the throne, John I of Portugal, and was utterly defeated at the battle of Aljubarrota, on 14 August 1385. He had to contend with the hostility of John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, who claimed the crown of Castile by right of his wife Constance, at the beginning of 1383, the political situation in Portugal was volatile.
Beatrice was the child of King Ferdinand I of Portugal. Her marriage was the issue of the day, and inside the palace. Ferdinand arranged and canceled his daughters wedding several times before settling for his wifes first choice, John had lost his wife, Infanta Eleanor of Aragon the year before, and was happy to wed the Portuguese heiress. The wedding took place on 17 May at the Cathedral of Badajoz, Beatrice was only ten years old. King Ferdinand died soon thereafter, on 22 October 1383, according to the treaty between Castile and Portugal, the Queen Mother, Leonor Telles de Menezes, declared herself Regent in the name of her daughter and son-in-law. This was ordered first in Lisbon, Santarém and other important places, the national rebellion led by the Master of the Order of Aviz, the future John I, began immediately, leading to the 1383-1385 Crisis. King John of Castile invaded Portugal in the end of December 1383, the consequent war was effectively ended in 1385, with the defeat of Castile in the Battle of Aljubarrota on 14 August.
In the aftermath of battle, John of Aviz became the uncontested King of Portugal. John of Castile and Beatrice no longer had a claim to the throne of Portugal. King Ferdinand I of Portugal had died on 22 October 1383 and his widow, Leonor Telles de Menezes, under the Treaty of Salvaterra de Magos and by the previous testament of the deceased king, declared herself Regent in the name of her daughter and son-in-law. The news of the death of Ferdinand came to John I and Beatrice in Torrijos, the Master of Aviz wrote John, urging him to seize the Portuguese crown by right of his wife, and the Master himself would assume the regency
Joan of Portugal
She was born in the Quinta do Monte Olivete, Almada six months after the death of her father. On 21 May 1455 in Córdoba, she married as his second wife King Henry IV of Castile who had repudiated his first consort, Blanche II of Navarre and it was rumoured that their marriage had never been consummated due to the kings impotence. Henry and Joan shared the same grandparents, Ferdinand I of Aragon. They shared the same paternal great-grandfather, John of Gaunt, Henry banished Joan from the royal court and she went to live in Coca at the castle of Henrys supporter, Bishop Fonseca. She soon fell in love with Bishop Fonsecas nephew, they embarked on a sexual affair, Henry subsequently declared their marriage had never been legal and thus divorced her in 1468. At the death of her husband in 1474, Joan championed her daughters right to succeed to the throne. This led to the outbreak of the War of the Castilian Succession and she was considered haughty, unscrupulous and ruthless, participating in intrigues and completely controlling her husband.
Joan has been credited with many lovers, including the poet Juan Rodríguez de la Cámara, Joan had two illegitimate children by Pedro de Castilla y Fonseca el mozo, nephew of Bishop Fonseca, and a great grandson of King Peter of Castille. Her two sons were Pedro de Castilla y Portugal and Andres Apostol de Castilla y Portugal, the birth of her two illegitimate children only added to Joans considerable notoriety. She entered the convent of San Francisco in Segovia, Joan died in Madrid on 12 December 1475 at the age of 36. She was buried in the Convent of San Francisco
Edward, King of Portugal
Duarte, known in English as Edward and called the Philosopher or the Eloquent, was King of Portugal and the Algarve and Lord of Ceuta from 1433 until his death. He was born in Viseu, the son of John I of Portugal and his wife, Queen Philippa of Portugal, Edward was the oldest member of the Illustrious Generation of accomplished royal children who contributed to the development of Portuguese civilization during the 15th century. As a cousin of several English kings, he became a Knight of the Garter, before he ascended the throne, Duarte always followed his father in the affairs of the kingdom. He was knighted in 1415 after the Portuguese capture of the city of Ceuta in North Africa, across from Gibraltar and he became king in 1433, when his father died of the plague. As king, Duarte soon showed interest in building internal political consensus, during his short reign of five years, he called the Portuguese Cortes no less than five times to discuss the political affairs of his kingdom. He followed the politics of his father concerning the exploration of Africa.
He encouraged and financed his famous brother, Henry the Navigator, an expedition of Gil Eanes in 1434 first rounded Cape Bojador on the northwestern coast of Africa, leading the way for further exploration southward along the African coast. The colony at Ceuta rapidly became a drain on the Portuguese treasury, after Ceuta was captured by the Portuguese, the camel caravans that were part of the overland trade routes began to use Tangier as their new destination. This deprived Ceuta of the materials and goods made it an attractive market and a vibrant trading locale. In 1437, Duartes brothers Henry and Ferdinand persuaded him to launch an attack on the Marinid sultanate of Morocco, the expedition was not unanimously supported and was undertaken against the advice of the Pope. Infante Peter, Duke of Coimbra, and the Infante John were both against the initiative, they preferred to avoid conflict with the Marinid Sultan and their instincts proved to be justified. The resulting Battle of Tangier, led by Henry, was a debacle, failing to take the city in a series of assaults, the Portuguese siege camp was soon itself surrounded and starved into submission by a Moroccan relief army.
In the resulting treaty, Henry promised to deliver Ceuta back to the Marinids in return for allowing the Portuguese army to depart unmolested, Duartes youngest brother, was handed over to the Marinids as a hostage for the final handover of the city. The debacle at Tangier dominated Duartes final year and John urged him to fulfill the treaty, yield Ceuta and secure Ferdinands release, whereas Henry urged him to renege on it. Caught in indecision, Duarte assembled the Portuguese Cortes at Leiria in early 1438 for consultation, the Cortes refused to ratify the treaty, preferring to hang on to Ceuta and requesting that Duarte find some other means of obtaining Ferdinands release. Duarte died late that summer, in Tomar, of the plague, popular lore suggested he died of heartbreak over the fate of his hapless brother, Ferdinand would remain in captivity in Fez until his own death in 1443. Duartes premature death provoked a crisis in Portugal. Leaving only a son, Afonso, to inherit the throne
Henry III of Castile
Henry III of Castile, called the Mourner, was the son of John I and Eleanor of Aragon. He succeeded his father as King of Castile in 1390, Henry was born in Burgos, the capital of Castile. He was the child of the recently crowned king John I of Castile. His younger brother Ferdinand grew up to king of Aragon. His upbringing was entrusted to Inés Lasso de la Vega, the wife of John Niño, as a child he was educated by Diego de Anaya Maldonado, Bishop of Tui-Vigo, who became Archbishop of Seville. His tutor was Juan Hurtado de Mendoza el Limpio and his confessor was the Dominican Alonso de Cusanza, shortly after his birth, he was promised to be married to Beatrice of Portugal, the heir to the Portuguese throne. This was part of a treaty between Castile and Portugal, who had signed a truce after the Ferdinand Wars. But this marriage did not happen, Beatrice married his father, who would instigate a war of succession with John of Aviz. In 1388, as part of the Treaty of Bayonne, he married Catherine of Lancaster in Palencia Cathedral and she was the daughter of John of Gaunt, the Duke of Lancaster, and Constance of Castile, a daughter of Peter the Cruel.
This solved the conflict that had raged since the death of Peter the Cruel, secured the House of Trastámara. At the time of his wedding, he received the title Prince of Asturias with the approval of the court of Briviesca and this title designated him as the heir apparent. He was the first person to hold this title, with earlier heirs to the throne being known as infantes mayores, in 1390, his father considered abdicating in his favour to gain the recognition of the Portuguese, but he was dissuaded from this plan by his council. They were against it because of the damage caused to the kingdom by earlier similar decisions, however, in October of the same year, King John died in Alcalá de Henares by falling off his horse, and Henry was proclaimed king. He assumed power on 2 August 1393, at the age of 13, despite his nickname, he engaged in a vigorous foreign policy and manoeuvres during the first few years of the 15th century. He was able to pacify the nobility and restore royal power and he was supported by the aristocracy and displaced their most powerful relatives.
He repealed privileges granted by his predecessors at the Court of Castile, such as the alcabala and he increased the number of city magistrates and cleaned up the kingdoms economy. He reduced persecution of the Jews and passed various bills against the violence, during his reign, the Castilian fleet won several victories against the English, Henry sent a naval fleet in 1400 that destroyed Tétouan in North Africa, a pirate base. In 1402, Henry began the colonisation of the Canary Islands and he deflected a Portuguese invasion with an attack on Badajoz in 1396, finally signing a peace treaty with John I of Portugal on 15 August 1402
Blanche II of Navarre
Blanche II of Navarre, titular queen of Navarre, was the daughter of John II of Aragon and Blanche I of Navarre. She was Princess of Asturias by marriage, Blanche was born on 9 June 1424 in Olite, Navarre. In 1427, her brother Charles, and her sister Eleanor, were proclaimed the rightful heirs of the kingdom of Navarre, Blanche was promised to the heir of Castile in the peace treaty between Navarre and Castile in 1436. She married Henry IV of Castile in 1440, the marriage was reputedly never consummated. In 1453, after thirteen years, Henry sought the annulment of the marriage, an official examination confirmed the virginity of Blanche. A divorce was granted by the Pope on the grounds that some witchcraft had prevented Henry from consummating the marriage, after this, Blanche was sent home to Navarre, where she was imprisoned by her family, from 1462, she was under the custody of her sister. She remained childless throughout her life, after the death of her brother in 1461, some Navarrese dissatisfied elements and some of the anti-Aragonese party regarded Blanche as the rightful monarch, as they had regarded Charles.
She would have thus become Blanche II of Navarre, had not her father already had her incarcerated and thus not capable to act. John tried to marry her to Charles, Duke of Berry, and younger brother of Louis XI of France to make an alliance, but Blanche refused, and her act irritated her father John. In 1464, she came back to Pamplona with the help of its bishop Nicolas de Etchabarri, murdered short after and she died by poison in Orthez less than a month later. Both her father and her sister Eleanor are suggested to have responsible for her death. La Basse-Navarre dans la guerre de Navarre, récit historique, d’après Navarra, retrieved 22 April 2016 – via Tipirena. net
Lisbon is the capital and the largest city of Portugal, with a population of 552,700 within its administrative limits in an area of 100.05 km². Its urban area extends beyond the administrative limits with a population of around 2.7 million people. About 2.8 million people live in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area and it is continental Europes westernmost capital city and the only one along the Atlantic coast. Lisbon lies in the western Iberian Peninsula on the Atlantic Ocean, the westernmost areas of its metro area is the westernmost point of Continental Europe. Lisbon is recognised as a city because of its importance in finance, media, arts, international trade, education. It is one of the economic centres on the continent, with a growing financial sector. Humberto Delgado Airport serves over 20 million passengers annually, as of 2015, and the motorway network, the city is the 7th-most-visited city in Southern Europe, after Istanbul, Barcelona, Madrid and Milan, with 1,740,000 tourists in 2009. The Lisbon region contributes with a higher GDP PPP per capita than any region in Portugal.
Its GDP amounts to 96.3 billion USD and thus $32,434 per capita, the city occupies 32nd place of highest gross earnings in the world. Most of the headquarters of multinationals in the country are located in the Lisbon area and it is the political centre of the country, as its seat of Government and residence of the Head of State. Lisbon is one of the oldest cities in the world, julius Caesar made it a municipium called Felicitas Julia, adding to the name Olissipo. Ruled by a series of Germanic tribes from the 5th century, in 1147, the Crusaders under Afonso Henriques reconquered the city and since it has been a major political and cultural centre of Portugal. Unlike most capital cities, Lisbons status as the capital of Portugal has never been granted or confirmed officially – by statute or in written form. Its position as the capital has formed through constitutional convention, making its position as de facto capital a part of the Constitution of Portugal. It has one of the warmest winters of any metropolis in Europe, the typical summer season lasts about four months, from June to September, although in April temperatures sometimes reach around 25 °C.
Although modern archaeological excavations show a Phoenician presence at this location since 1200 BC, another conjecture based on ancient hydronymy suggests that the name of the settlement derived from the pre-Roman appellation for the Tagus, Lisso or Lucio. Lisbons name was written Ulyssippo in Latin by the geographer Pomponius Mela and it was referred to as Olisippo by Pliny the Elder and by the Greeks as Olissipo or Olissipona. The Indo-European Celts invaded in the 1st millennium BC, mixing with the Pre-Indo-European population and this indigenous settlement maintained commercial relations with the Phoenicians, which would account for the recent findings of Phoenician pottery and other material objects
Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
Charles V was ruler of both the Spanish Empire from 1516 and the Holy Roman Empire from 1519, as well as of the Habsburg Netherlands from 1506. He voluntarily stepped down from these and other positions by a series of abdications between 1554 and 1556, through inheritance, he brought together under his rule extensive territories in western and southern Europe, and the Spanish colonies in the Americas and Asia. As a result, his domains spanned nearly four square kilometers and were the first to be described as the empire on which the sun never sets. Charles was the heir of three of Europes leading dynasties, the Houses of Valois-Burgundy and Trastámara and he inherited the Burgundian Netherlands and the Franche-Comté as heir of the House of Valois-Burgundy. From his own dynasty, the Habsburgs, he inherited Austria and he was elected to succeed his Habsburg grandfather, Maximilian I, as Holy Roman Emperor, a title held by the Habsburgs since 1440. Charles was the first king to rule Castile and Aragon simultaneously in his own right, the personal union, under Charles, of the Holy Roman Empire with the Spanish Empire resulted in the closest Europe would come to a universal monarchy since the death of Louis the Pious.
France recovered and the wars continued for the remainder of Charless reign, enormously expensive, they led to the development of the first modern professional army in Europe, the Tercios. The struggle with the Ottoman Empire was fought in Hungary and the Mediterranean, after seizing most of eastern and central Hungary in 1526, the Ottomans’ advance was halted at their failed Siege of Vienna in 1529. A lengthy war of attrition, conducted on his behalf by his younger brother Ferdinand, in the Mediterranean, although there were some successes, Charles was unable to prevent the Ottomans’ increasing naval dominance and the piratical activity of the Barbary Corsairs. Charles opposed the Reformation and in Germany he was in conflict with the Protestant Princes of the Schmalkaldic League who were motivated by religious and political opposition to him. Once the rebellions were quelled the essential Castilian and Burgundian territories remained mostly loyal to Charles throughout his rule, Charles’s Spanish dominions were the chief source of his power and wealth, and they became increasingly important as his reign progressed.
In the Americas, Charles sanctioned the conquest by Castillian conquistadors of the Aztec, Castillian control was extended across much of South and Central America. The resulting vast expansion of territory and the flows of South American silver to Castile had profound long term effects on Spain. Charles was only 56 when he abdicated, but after 34 years of rule he was physically exhausted and sought the peace of a monastery. Upon Charles’s abdications, the Holy Roman Empire was inherited by his younger brother Ferdinand, the Spanish Empire, including the possessions in the Netherlands and Italy, was inherited by Charles’s son Philip II. The two empires would remain allies until the 18th century, Charles was born in 1500 as the eldest son of Philip the Handsome and Joanna of Castile in the Flemish city of Ghent, which was part of the Habsburg Netherlands. The culture and courtly life of the Burgundian Low Countries were an important influence in his early life and he was tutored by William de Croÿ, and by Adrian of Utrecht.
He gained a decent command of German, though he never spoke it as well as French, a witticism sometimes attributed to Charles is, I speak Spanish to God, Italian to women, French to men and German to my horse