Joanna of Castile

Joanna, known as Joanna the Mad, was Queen of Castile from 1504, of Aragon from 1516. Modern Spain evolved from the union of these two crowns. Joanna was married by arrangement to Philip the Handsome, Archduke of the House of Habsburg, on 20 October 1496. Following the deaths of her brother, Prince of Asturias, in 1497, her elder sister Isabella in 1498, her nephew Miguel in 1500, Joanna became the heir presumptive to the crowns of Castile and Aragon; when her mother Queen Isabella I of Castile died in 1504, Joanna became Queen of Castile, while her father, King Ferdinand II of Aragon, proclaimed himself'Governor and Administrator of Castile'. In 1506 Archduke Philip became King of Castile jure uxoris, initiating the rule of the Habsburgs in the Spanish kingdoms, died that same year. Despite being the ruling Queen of Castile, she had little effect on national policy during her reign as she was declared insane and imprisoned in Tordesillas under the orders of her father, who ruled as regent until his death in 1516, when she inherited his kingdom as well.

From 1516, when her son Charles I ruled as king, she was nominally co-monarch but remained imprisoned until her death. Joanna was born in the city of the capital of the Kingdom of Castile, she was the third child and second daughter of Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon of the royal House of Trastámara. She had a fair complexion, brown eyes and her hair colour was between strawberry-blonde and auburn, like her mother and sister Catherine, her siblings were Queen of Portugal. She was educated and formally trained for a significant marriage that, as a royal family alliance, would extend the kingdom's power and security as well as its influence and peaceful relations with other ruling powers; as an infanta, she was not expected to be heiress to the throne of either Castile or Aragon, although through deaths she inherited both. Her academic education consisted of canon and civil law and heraldry, history, mathematics, reading and writing. Among the authors of classical literature she read were the Christian poets Juvencus and Prudentius, Church fathers Saint Ambrose, Saint Augustine, Saint Gregory, Saint Jerome, the Roman statesman Seneca.

In the Castilian court her main tutors were the Dominican priest Andrés de Miranda. Joanna's royal education included court etiquette, drawing, equestrian skills, good manners and the needle arts of embroidery and sewing, she studied the Iberian Romance languages of Castilian, Galician-Portuguese and Catalan, became fluent in French and Latin. She learned outdoor pursuits such as hunting, she was skilled at music, having played the clavichord, the guitar and the monochord. By 1495, Joanna showed signs of religious skepticism and little devotion to worship and Catholic rites; this alarmed her mother Queen Isabella, who had established the Spanish Inquisition in 1478, Joanna was afraid of her. Indeed, letters of Mosen Luis Ferrer, gentleman of the bed chamber of Ferdinand, refer to the coercive punishment known as "La cuerda", which Joanna was subjected to; this involved being suspended by a rope with weights attached to the feet, endangering life and limb. The Queen declared. Deviance by a child of the Catholic Monarchs would not be much less heresy.

Sub-Prior Friar Tomas de Matienzo and Friar Andreas complained of her refusal to confess - or to write to him or her mother - and accused her of corruption by Parisian'drunkard' priests. In 1496, Joanna, at the age of seventeen, was betrothed to the eighteen year old Philip of Flanders, in the Low Countries. Philip's parents were Duchess Mary of Burgundy; the marriage was one of a set of family alliances between the Habsburgs and the Trastámaras designed to strengthen both against growing French power. Joanna entered a proxy marriage at the Palacio de los Vivero in the city of Valladolid, where her parents had secretly married in 1469. In August 1496 Joanna left from the port of Laredo in northern Castile on the Atlantic's Bay of Biscay. Except for 1506, when she saw her younger sister Catherine, Princess Dowager of Wales, she would not see her siblings again. Joanna began her journey to Flanders in the Low Countries, which consisted of parts of the present day Netherlands, Luxembourg and Germany, on 22 August 1496.

The formal marriage took place on 20 October 1496 in Lier, north of present-day Brussels. Between 1498 and 1507, she gave birth to six children, two boys and four girls, all of whom grew up to be either emperors or queens; the death of Joanna's brother John, the stillbirth of John's daughter, the deaths of Joanna's older sister Isabella and Isabella's son Miguel made Joanna heiress to the Spanish kingdoms. Her remaining siblings were Maria and Catherine, younger than Joanna by three and six years, respectively. In 1502, the Castilian Cortes of Toro recognised Joanna as heiress to the Castilian throne and Philip as her consort, she was named Princess of the title traditionally given to the heir of Castile. In 1502, the Aragonese Cortes gathered in Zaragoza to swear an oath to Joanna as heiress. In 1502, Joanna a

Frederica von Stade – Mahler Songs

Mahler Songs is a 40-minute studio album on which Gustav Mahler's Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen, his Rückert-Lieder and two of the songs from his Lieder aus "Des Knaben Wunderhorn" are performed by Frederica von Stade and the London Philharmonic Orchestra under the direction of Andrew Davis. It was released in 1979; the album was recorded using analogue technology on 8, 15 and 16 December 1978 in Abbey Road Studios, London. The LP and cassette versions of the album share the same cover, designed by Allen Weinberg, featuring a photograph of von Stade taken by Valerie Clement. J. B. Steane reviewed the album on LP in Gramophone in November 1979, comparing it with recordings of some of Mahler's Lieder sung by Janet Baker, Marilyn Horne, Christa Ludwig and Yvonne Minton. None of the five could be recommended unequivocally, he wrote, but the best of them was Baker's, her disc was not perfect, but it was profound, impossible to forget and lovely to listen to. It was true that Ludwig's Berlin Philharmonic played better than Baker's New Philharmonia, but Ludwig's own performance was inferior to Baker's both in beauty of tone and in interpretation.

Von Stade's album was disappointing too, although marginally preferable to Horne's. Mahler had not conceived his Rückert-Lieder as a group, leaving singers in a quandary as to the best order in which to present them. Horne and von Stade both began with "Ich atmet' einen linden Duft", depriving themselves of the opportunity to put the song in a place where it would have "the delicious effect of a window opened to let in air and fragrance", they were arguably unwise, too, in their siting of "Um Mitternacht". Horne jammed it up against "Ich bin der Welt abhanden gekommen", maladroitly linking the collection's two deepest songs and so putting the balance of the work as a whole out of kilter. Von Stade sang it before "Blicke mir nicht in die Lieder", thus casting a shadow on what was "perhaps the most charming and light-hearted" of the songs. Ludwig was more judicious, her choice of opening was "Ich bin der Welt abhanden gekommen". It might seem odd to begin with a piece about renunciation, but by starting with the most beautiful of the Rückert-Lieder, she created the best atmosphere for her performance of the rest of the songs.

She put "Liebst du um Schönheit" second, the sunnier "Blicke mir nicht in die Lieder" third and the Arcadian "Ich atmet' einen linden Duft" fourth. Leaving "Um Mitternacht" to the end meant that she avoided the difficulty of deciding what could succeed its "solemnity and broad, powerful climax". In addition to its intelligent sequencing, Ludwig's disc had the advantage of the excellent accompaniment provided by her Berlin Philharmonic. None of the rival album's orchestras were as good as the Berliners in conveying the "stillness and privacy" of the songs. Herbert von Karajan's "solo instruments interleave against a still background, horn, flute each raising its voice in turn with the utmost beauty of sound and feeling for the shape of the phrase". Horne had less meticulous support from the Los Angeles Philharmonic under Zubin Mehta. Andrew Davis's creative conducting elicited luscious playing from the London Philharmonic for von Stade, but Columbia's engineering denied him the same "sense of stillness and space" that Herbert von Karajan, the Berliners and Deutsche Grammophon provided for Ludwig.

The greatest asset of Baker's disc was her own contribution to it. Von Stade, by contrast, got off to a bad start with her "Ich atmet' einen linden Duft", "not rising... to the'linden' gracefully, indulging too much in the habit of opening out individual notes in succession,'squeezing' rather than'binding'." There were points at which she sang well: "in'Ich bin der Welt abhanden gekommen', the phrase'ich sei gestorben' is most beautifully floated", in "Liebst du um Schönheit", she brought more impulsiveness to "o ja, mich liebe!" than any of her rivals. But she did not have the vocal heft to cope with "Um Mitternacht" satisfactorily, in quieter music, she was sometimes too laid back."Um Mitternacht" did not overtax Marilyn Horne, who sang it with "some of the richness and depth of tone" for which she was celebrated. Her "Liebst du um Schönheit" had some fondness, there was a "velvety gentleness" in the way in which she expressed the comfort of "und ruh in einem stillen Gebiet" in "Ich bin der Welt abhanden gekommen".

But there were points at which the meaning of the music was not transmitted, Decca's recording emphasized her vibrato and breathing. Christa Ludwig's reading was more effective poetically, but her tone was somewhat flawed by the deficiencies of her vocal production. Von Stade sang better in the Gesellen cycle than in the Rückert-Lieder, in some passages outdoing Baker, her "Ging heut' Morgen über's Feld" went with "a spring, instead of that curiously lolloping tread" perpetrated by Baker's conductor, John Barbirolli. In "Wenn mein Schatz Hochzeit macht" too, von Stade had none of Baker's and Barbirolli's heavy-handedness. Conducting for Yvonne Minton, Georg Solti elicited an accompaniment that seemed to taunt that song's rejected lover: while Minton sang of heartbreak, Solti's Chicago Symphony Orchestra celebrated the prospect of the wedding over which Minton was grieving. In "Ich hab' ein glühend Messer", Solti's Chicagoans provided a bite and virtuosity unequalled by any of their competitors.

Like "Um Mitternacht", this song demanded more from von Stade than she was able to deliver, although she made up for her lack of decibels by "the tenseness of her tone in the more turbulent passages". She was just as skillful in the first song of the cycle, colouring her voice "most resourcefully and movingly". Marilyn Horne was less compelling in the Gesellen songs than she was in the Rückert-Lieder, singing the first song with an "oddly incohes

Kosmos 197

Kosmos 197 known as DS-U2-V No.3, was a Soviet satellite, launched in 1967 as part of the Dnepropetrovsk Sputnik programme. It was a 325-kilogram spacecraft, built by the Yuzhnoye Design Bureau, was used to conduct classified technology development experiments for the Soviet armed forces. A Kosmos-2I 63SM carrier rocket was used to launch Kosmos 197 into low Earth orbit; the launch took place from Site 86/4 at Kapustin Yar. The launch occurred at 09:01:59 UTC on 26 December 1967, resulted in the successful insertion of the satellite into orbit. Upon reaching orbit, the satellite was assigned its Kosmos designation, received the International Designator 1967-126A; the North American Aerospace Defense Command assigned it the catalogue number 03079. Kosmos 197 was the third of four DS-U2-V satellites to be launched, it was operated in an orbit with a perigee of 213 kilometres, an apogee of 456 kilometres, 48.4 degrees of inclination, an orbital period of 91.2 minutes. On 30 January 1968, it reentered the atmosphere.

1967 in spaceflight