The Green Hornet is a fictional masked crime-fighter created in 1936 by George W. Trendle and Fran Striker, with input from radio director James Jewell. Since his 1930s radio debut, the character has appeared in numerous serialized dramas in a wide variety of media; the Green Hornet appeared in film serials in the 1940s, a television show in the 1960s, multiple comic book series from the 1940s on, a feature film in January 2011. The franchise is owned by Green Hornet, Inc. who license the property across a wide variety of media that includes comics, films, TV shows and books. As of the 2010s, the comic-book rights are licensed to Dynamite Entertainment. Though various incarnations sometimes change details, in most versions the Green Hornet is the alter ego of Britt Reid, wealthy young publisher of the Daily Sentinel newspaper by day, but by night, clad in a long green overcoat, green fedora hat and green mask, Reid fights crime as the mysterious vigilante known as "The Green Hornet", is accompanied by his loyal and masked partner and confidant, who drives their technologically advanced car, the "Black Beauty".
Though both the police and the general public believe the Hornet to be a wanted criminal, Reid uses that perception to help him infiltrate the underworld, leaving behind for the police the criminals and any incriminating evidence he has found. In the original radio incarnation, Britt Reid is the son of Dan Reid, Jr. the nephew of John Reid, the Lone Ranger, making the Green Hornet the grand-nephew of the Ranger. The relationship is alluded to at least once in the radio shows, when Dan Reid visits his son to question him on why Britt has never captured the Hornet. On learning the truth behind his son's dual identity, Dan Reid recalls his days riding in Texas with his uncle, as the William Tell Overture plays and in the background; the character debuted in The Green Hornet, an American radio program that premiered on January 31, 1936, on WXYZ, the same local Detroit station that originated its companion shows The Lone Ranger and Challenge of the Yukon. Beginning on April 12, 1938, the station supplied the series to the Mutual Broadcasting System radio network, to NBC Blue and its successors, the Blue Network and ABC, from November 16, 1939, through September 8, 1950.
It returned from September 10 to December 5, 1952. It was sponsored by General Mills from January to August 1948, by Orange Crush in its brief 1952 run; the Green Hornet was adapted into two movie serials, 1940's The Green Hornet and, in 1941, The Green Hornet Strikes Again! Disliking the treatment Republic gave The Lone Ranger in two serials, George W. Trendle took his property to Universal Pictures, was much happier with the results; the first serial, titled The Green Hornet, starred Gordon Jones in the title role, albeit dubbed by original radio Hornet Al Hodge whenever the hero's mask was in place, while The Green Hornet Strikes Again! Starred Warren Hull. Keye Luke, who played the "Number One Son" in the Charlie Chan films, played Kato in both. Starring in both serials were Anne Nagel as Lenore Case, Britt Reid's secretary, Wade Boteler as Mike Axford, a reporter for the Daily Sentinel, the newspaper that Reid owned and published. Ford Beebe directed both serials, partnered by Ray Taylor on The Green Hornet and John Rawlins on The Green Hornet Strikes Again!, with George H. Plympton and Basil Dickey contributing to the screenplays for both serials.
The Green Hornet ran for 13 chapters while The Green Hornet Strikes Again! had 15 installments, with the Hornet and Kato smashing a different racket in each chapter. In each serial, they were all linked to a single major crime syndicate, itself put out of business in the finale, while the radio program had the various rackets independent of each other; the 1993 American semi-fictionalized film biography Dragon: The Bruce Lee Story, in which Jason Scott Lee portrayed Bruce Lee, featured scenes involving the filming of the TV series The Green Hornet. Van Williams, who starred in that TV series, appeared in the film as the show's director. A 10-minute, 2006 French short film, Le frelon vert, is based on the Green Hornet. In this Hong Kong martial arts movie, protagonist Chen Zhen dresses as a masked vigilante based on the Green Hornet's sidekick Kato. A film version of the character had been contemplated since the 1990s, with Universal Pictures and Miramax each attempting to develop a film. Sony Pictures, through its subsidiary Columbia Pictures, released an action-comedy Green Hornet feature on January 14, 2011, starring Seth Rogen, who co-wrote the script with Evan Goldberg.
It was directed by Michel Gondry. Jay Chou co-starred as Kato. Starring were Cameron Diaz as Lenore Case, Edward James Olmos as Mike Axford, David Harbour as Frank Scanlon, Christoph Waltz as the main villain Benjamin Chudnofsky, Tom Wilkinson as James Reid. Deadline.com has reported that Paramount Pictures and Chernin Entertainment have acquired the rights to The Green Hornet and have started preliminary work on developing a reboot with Gavin O'Connor attached to produce and direct the film and Sean O'Keefe writing. The Green Hornet was a television series shown on the ABC U. S. television network. It aired for the 1966–1967 television season and starred Van Williams as both the Green Hornet and Britt Reid, Bruce Lee as Kato. Williams and Lee's Green Hornet and Kato appeared as anti-heroes in the second season of the live-action 1960s Batman TV series, in the two-part episodes "A Piece of the Action" and "Batman's Satisfaction"; the episode ended with Robin questioning whether the Green Hornet was a good guy or a bad guy.
Unlike the "campy" version of Batman, this version of The Green
Supreme is a fictional superhero created by Rob Liefeld and published by Image Comics, followed by Maximum Press, Awesome Entertainment, Arcade Comics. Although Supreme was a violent, egotistical Superman archetype, he was retooled by Alan Moore as a tribute to Mort Weisinger's Silver Age Superman; the character had a 56-issue comic book series, a six-issue miniseries, a revival in 2012 consisting of six issues. Beginning with issue #41, Moore's run was collected in two trade paperbacks from the Checker Book Publishing Group, Supreme: The Story of the Year and Supreme: The Return. Moore's work on the series earned him a Eisner Award for Best Writer in 1997. Supreme was introduced in issue #3 of Rob Liefeld's Youngblood limited series as a flip book story before he was spun off into his own series, his history varied. At other times, such as when he defeated the Norse god Thor and took his mystical hammer Mjölnir, Supreme considered himself a god. Although the most powerful being in the Liefeld universe, he had his share of defeats: he was killed in the cross-title Deathmate Black series, lost his powers in Extreme Prejudice, was killed by Crypt in Extreme Sacrifice.
The character received a comprehensive treatment in The Legend of Supreme, a three-issue miniseries by Keith Giffen and Robert Loren Fleming. In the miniseries, reporter Maxine Winslow investigates Supreme's origin story. Winslow learns that in 1937, Ethan Crane shot and killed two men in retaliation for the rape of a 15-year-old girl. Crane survived and was sentenced to life imprisonment. In prison, the government offered him a chance to participate in a human-improvement experiment in the hope that he would survive. Although Crane died like the others, unlike them he returned to life in a world, strange and new to him, he found his way to a church, where he received sanctuary from Father Beam and discovered some of his new abilities. Crane took the name "Supreme" and, decided to do his part. Little was revealed about Supreme's work except that he joined the Allies. After the war, Supreme left Earth. Supreme spent decades in space, fighting a number of threats on the side of an alien race known as the Kalyptans.
He returned to Earth in 1992 to find a changed society, which included genetically-enhanced superpowered humans on teams such as Youngblood and Heavy Mettle. Although Supreme was the field team leader of Heavy Mettle, he left the position after defeating the villain Khrome; when Supreme fought Thor for Mjolnir, a character named Enigma acquired another Supreme from an alternate timeline to store if Supreme was defeated. Supreme was victorious, so the other Supreme was left alone. Although Supreme died during an assault on humanity by Lord Chapel, he was stranded on an alternate Earth for several years until the alternate Supreme returned and was defeated by the original Supreme. Original Supreme switched bodies with the alternate Supreme. After several events involving Enigma and Probe, the original Supreme worked with Probe and the alternate Supreme to defeat the evil Norse god Loki. At the end of Supreme # 40, Probe remained on the alternate Supreme returned to Earth. Rob Liefeld asked Alan Moore to write for Supreme.
Moore agreed on the condition that he could reinvent the character since he felt that the comic was "not good." Beginning with issue #41 of Supreme, Moore began retooling the character, with each issue containing commentary on storytelling, comics history in general and Superman in particular. Clichés of the superhero genre were used. Moore said in interviews that his re-imagining of Supreme's background and origin was an apology for the darkness of his previous works at other publishers. Given free rein over Supreme and the wider Maximum universe, Moore created a complex storyline to reinvent the Supreme universe. Drawing on Silver Age Superman and innovations by Silver Age comic artists such as Julius Schwartz, Curt Swan, Murphy Anderson, Moore wrote the "last" Silver Age Superman story for Schwartz with Swan and Anderson and referenced Anderson in his 1963. Moore's Supreme built on and ignored the previous issues, re-creating the character from his origins. Although the "Story of the Year" arc was intended to finish with a Silver Age-evoking 80-Page Giant special issue, it was split into two parts: 52a and 52b.
The action, which included multiple flashbacks to earlier Supreme stories, pastiches of comic-book staples, was tied together in #52. According to Liefeld, Tom Strong owed a debt to Supreme; the new version of Supreme had a secret identity as Ethan Crane, a mild-mannered artist for Dazzle Comics who received his powers as a result of a childhood exposure to a meteorite composed of Supremium, an element which can alter reality. When not saving the world as a superhero, Crane illustrated the adventures of Omniman, a Supreme-like character being reintroduced with a change of writers. Moore did not ignore the events of previous issues bu
The Flash (comic book)
The Flash is an ongoing American comic book series featuring the DC Comics superhero of the same name. The character's first incarnation, Jay Garrick, first appeared in Flash Comics #1; when the Silver Age Flash Barry Allen was introduced, that character took over Flash Comics numbering and the series was retitled as The Flash. Although the Flash is a mainstay in the DC Comics stable, the series has been canceled and rebooted eight times; the first series featuring Barry Allen was canceled at issue #350 in the event of the character's death in the universe altering event Crisis on Infinite Earths. When Wally West succeeded Allen as the Flash, a new series began with new numbering in June 1987; that series was canceled in 2006 in the wake of the Infinite Crisis event, but was restarted with its original numbering in 2007, only to be canceled again in 2008 in the wake of Barry Allen's return in Final Crisis and The Flash: Rebirth. The series was revived for a third volume by writer Geoff Johns and artist Francis Manapul after the completion of the Blackest Night event in 2010.
A fourth volume was launched in 2011 as part of The New 52. A fifth volume was launched in 2016 as part of DC Rebirth. Volume 1 starred Barry Allen as the Flash and the series assumed the numbering of the original Flash Comics with issue #105 written by John Broome and drawn by Carmine Infantino. Comics historian Les Daniels noted that "The Flash" was a streamlined, modernized version of much that had gone before, but done with such care and flair that the character seemed new to a new generation of fans; the Broome and Infantino collaboration saw the introduction of several supervillains many of whom became part of the Rogues. The Mirror Master first appeared in issue #105 and the following issue saw the debuts of Gorilla Grodd and the Pied Piper. Captain Boomerang first challenged the Flash in issue #117 and the 64th century villain Abra Kadabra was introduced in issue #128. Another villain from the future, Professor Zoom first appeared in issue #139. Kid Flash and the Elongated Man were introduced in issues #110 and 112 as allies of the Flash.
One of the most notable issues of this era was issue #123, which featured the story titled "Flash of Two Worlds". In it, Allen meets his inspiration Jay Garrick, after accidentally being transported to a parallel universe where Garrick existed. In this previous continuity and the other characters of the Golden Age only existed as comics characters in the mainline shared universe; this brought about a new concept in the formative stage of what would become the DC Universe, gave birth to the current conceptualization featuring it as a multiverse. Barry Allen married his longtime love interest Iris West in issue #165. Infantino's last issue was #174 and the next issue saw Ross Andru become the new artist of the series as well as featuring the second race between the Flash and Superman, two characters known for their super-speed powers; the series presented metafictional stories featuring comics creators appearing within the Flash's adventures such as the "Flash — Fact Or Fiction" in issue #179 in which the Flash finds himself on "Earth Prime".
He contacts the "one man on Earth who might believe his fantastic story and give him the money he needs. The editor of that Flash comic mag!" Julius Schwartz helps the Flash build a cosmic treadmill. Several years the series' longtime writer Cary Bates wrote himself into the story in issue #228. Four months after the cancellation of his own title, Green Lantern began a backup feature in The Flash #217 and appeared in most issues through The Flash #246 until his own solo series was revived. Schwartz, who had edited the title since 1959, left the series as of issue #269. Bates wrote The Flash #275 wherein the title character's wife, Iris West Allen was killed. Don Heck became the artist of the series with issue #280 and drew it until #295; the Flash # 300 featured a story by Bates and Infantino. Doctor Fate was featured in a series of back-up stories in The Flash from #306 to #313 written by Martin Pasko and Steve Gerber and drawn by Keith Giffen. A major shakeup occurred in the title in the mid-1980s.
The Flash inadvertently kills his wife's murderer, the Reverse-Flash, in The Flash #324. This led to an extended storyline titled "The Trial of the Flash" in which the hero must face the repercussions of his actions. Bates became the editor as well as the writer of The Flash title during this time and oversaw it until its cancellation in 1985. "The Trial of the Flash" was collected in a volume of the Showcase Presents series in 2011. Shortly before Barry Allen's death in Crisis on Infinite Earths, the series was cancelled with issue #350. In the final issue of Crisis on Infinite Earths, Wally West known as Allen's sidekick Kid Flash, stated his intent to take up his uncle's mantle as the Flash. Featuring Wally West as the main character, the Flash operated out of Keystone City; the second series was launched by writer Mike Baron and artist Jackson Guice in June 1987. Featuring long runs most notably by writers Mark Waid and Geoff Johns, the second volume went in a different direction from the series starring Barry Allen by making Wally West more flawed.
This Flash could not maintain his super-speed because of his hypermetabolism, would consume gargantuan amounts of food in order to continue operating at top speed. This metabolic limitation would be continued into Barry Allen's character for the brief television series The Flash broadcast in 19
Flashpoint is a 2011 comic book crossover story arc published by DC Comics. Consisting of an eponymous core limited series and a number of tie-in titles, the storyline premiered in May 2011; the core miniseries was pencilled by Andy Kubert. In its end, the series radically changes the status quo for the DC Universe leading into the publisher's 2011 relaunch, the New 52. Flashpoint details an altered DC Universe in which only Barry Allen seems to be aware of significant differences between the regular timeline and the altered one, including Cyborg's place as the world's quintessential hero much like how Superman is in the main timeline, with Superman himself being held captive as a lab-rat by the United States government within an underground facility in Metropolis. In addition, Thomas Wayne is Batman, a war between Wonder Woman and Aquaman has decimated western Europe. Consisting of a 61 issue run, the series crossed over with Booster Gold, sixteen separate three-issue miniseries, a number of one-shots beginning in June 2011.
DC announced. The storyline is loosely adapted in the film Justice League: The Flashpoint Paradox as well as in the third season of the CW network television series The Flash. At the 2017 San Diego Comic-Con, it was announced that Flashpoint will be adapted into a feature film as part of the DC Extended Universe. Barry Allen wakes up to discover everything and everyone around him has changed, he is not Flash, nor does he have powers. His mother Nora is alive. Captain Cold is Central City's greatest hero, the Justice League was never established, Superman is nonexistent. In Gotham City, Batman throws a criminal off a building. Cyborg and Batman have a conference with a group of superheroes to discuss how Wonder Woman's Amazons have conquered the British Isles, while Aquaman's Atlanteans have sunk the rest of Western Europe, the battle between the two has caused massive death and destruction. America is endangered; the heroes cannot cooperate to find a solution, the meeting is ended. Barry Allen drives to the Batcave.
Batman is revealed to be Thomas Wayne—in this timeline his son, was killed by the robber instead of his wife and him, with Thomas having killed the robber just after that murder took place, Martha went insane and became The Joker in this timeline. In the flooded remains of Paris, Deathstroke captains a pirate ship in search of his daughter. Emperor Aquaman stabs Deathstroke in the chest and attacks Deathstroke's crew. Sonar is able to heal him. At Wayne Manor, Barry tries to explain to Thomas about his secret identity as the Flash and his relationship to Bruce Wayne. Barry's memory begins to spontaneously realign itself to the altered timeline and Barry realizes that the world of Flashpoint is not a parallel dimension, but an alternate reality. Barry's ring ejects Eobard Thawne's Reverse-Flash costume and causes Barry to believe that his enemy is responsible for changing history. Barry decides to recreate the accident that gave him his powers in a bid to undo the damage caused by Thawne, but his initial attempt fails and leaves him badly burned.
In London, Steve Trevor is waiting at a rendezvous for Lois Lane but is attacked by Wonder Woman and the Amazons. Wonder Woman begins interrogating him, he explains that he was hired to extract Lane from New Themyscira because she was sent to gather information on the Amazons for Cyborg. The U. S. president informs Cyborg that Steve Trevor sent a signal to the Resistance but was intercepted because of a traitor among the heroes that Cyborg tried to recruit. Cyborg is relieved of duty. Meanwhile, in New Themyscira, Lane encounters the Resistance. A second attempt at recreating Allen's accident restores his powers and health, he concludes. He learns that Kal-El was taken by Project: Superman. Flash and Cyborg join the cause to stop Wonder Woman and Aquaman; the three find a pale, weakened Superman at the Project and realize that he may well have been in a containment cell since he was a child—possibly never seeing a human being before. After being rescued, Superman flies off in seeming fright in the midst of a battle with the guards, leaving the three in the sewers to be rescued by Element Woman.
Flash's memories continue to change. The president announces Cyborg's failure to unite the world's superheroes and the U. S. enters into the Atlantean-Amazon war. Flash, Batman and Element Woman break down the door in need of the Marvel Family's help and Batman asks Billy to use his lightning to prevent Flash's memories from changing further; the group hears of the failed air assault on England due to the Amazons' Invisible Plane air force. Hal Jordan, who had not become Green Lantern in this timeline, is the first casualty, a giant Atlantean-generated tidal wave threatens the rest of New Themyscira. Flash tells Batman. Despite reservations, Batman joins Flash. Enchantress joins them en route. Wonder Woman and Aquaman are fighting one-on-one until Flash and his team arrive; the Marvel Family transform into Captain Thunder transforming Tawky Tawny. Captain Thunder attacks Wonder Woman and appears to be winning until Enchantress reveals herself as the Amazon spy in t
Detective Comics is an American comic book series published by DC Comics. The first volume, published from 1937 to 2011, is best known for introducing the superhero Batman in Detective Comics #27. A second series of the same title was launched in the fall of 2011 but in 2016 reverted to the original volume numbering; the series is the source of its publishing company's name, and—along with Action Comics, the series that launched with the debut of Superman—one of the medium's signature series. The series published 881 issues between 1937 and 2011 and is the longest continuously published comic book in the United States. Detective Comics was the final publication of the entrepreneur Major Malcolm Wheeler-Nicholson, whose comics company, National Allied Publications, would evolve into DC Comics, one of the world's two largest comic book publishers, though long after its founder had left it. Wheeler-Nicholson's first two titles were the landmark New Fun: The Big Comic Magazine #1, colloquially called New Fun Comics #1 and the first such early comic book to contain all-original content, rather than a mix of newspaper comic strips and comic-strip-style new material.
His second effort, New Comics #1, would be retitled twice to become Adventure Comics, another seminal series that ran for decades until issue #503 in 1983, was revived in 2009. The third and final title published under his aegis would be Detective Comics, advertised with a cover illustration dated December 1936, but premiering three months with a March 1937 cover date. Wheeler-Nicholson was in debt to printing-plant owner and magazine distributor Harry Donenfeld, as well a pulp-magazine publisher and a principal in the magazine distributorship Independent News. Wheeler-Nicholson took Donenfeld on as a partner in order to publish Detective Comics #1 through the newly formed Detective Comics, Inc. with Wheeler-Nicholson and Jack S. Liebowitz, Donenfeld's accountant, listed as owners. Wheeler-Nicholson was forced out a year later. An anthology comic, in the manner of the times, Detective Comics #1 featured stories in the "hard-boiled detective" genre, with such stars as Ching Lung, its first editor, Vin Sullivan drew the debut issue's cover.
The Crimson Avenger debuted in issue #20. In years, the start of this series has been marred by its racism and xenophobia. Detective Comics #27 featured the first appearance of Batman; that superhero would become the star of the title, the cover logo of, written as "Detective Comics featuring Batman". Because of its significance, issue #27 is considered one of the most valuable comic books in existence, with one copy selling for $1,075,000 in a February 2010 auction. Batman's origin is first revealed in a two-page story in issue #33. Batman became the main cover feature of the title beginning with issue #35. Issue #38 introduced Batman's sidekick Robin, billed as "The Sensational Character Find of 1940" on the cover and the first of several characters that would make up the "Batman Family". Robin's appearance and the subsequent increase in sales of the book soon led to the trend of superheroes and young sidekicks that characterize the era fans and historians call the Golden Age of Comic Books.
Several of Batman's best known villains debuted in the pages of Detective Comics during this era including the Penguin in issue #58, Two-Face in issue #66, the Riddler in issue #140. Batwoman first appeared in Detective Comics #233 Since the family formula had proven successful for the Superman franchise, editor Jack Schiff suggested to Batman co-creator Bob Kane that he create one for the Batman. A female was chosen first, to offset the charges made by Fredric Wertham that Batman and Robin were homosexual. Writer Bill Finger and artist Sheldon Moldoff introduced Bat-Mite in issue #267 and Clayface in #298. In 1964, Julius Schwartz was made responsible for reviving the faded Batman titles. Writer John Broome and artist Carmine Infantino jettisoned the sillier aspects that had crept into the franchise such as Ace the Bathound and Bat-Mite and gave the character a "New Look" that premiered in Detective Comics #327. Schwartz, Gardner Fox, Infantino introduced, from the William Dozier produced tv series, Barbara Gordon as a new version of Batgirl in a story titled "The Million Dollar Debut of Batgirl!" in issue #359.
Mike Friedrich wrote the 30th anniversary Batman story in Detective Comics #387, drawn by Bob Brown. Writer Dennis O'Neil and artist Neal Adams had their first collaboration on Batman on the story "The Secret of the Waiting Graves" in issue #395; the duo, under the direction of Schwartz, would revitalize the character with a series of noteworthy stories reestablishing Batman's dark, brooding nature and taking the books away from the campy look and feel of the 1966–68 ABC TV series. Comics historian Les Daniels observed that "O'Neil's interpretation of Batman as a vengeful obsessive-compulsive, which he modestly describes as a return to the roots, was an act of creative imagination that has influenced every subsequent version of the Dark Knight." Adams introduced Man-Bat with writer Frank Robbins in Detective Comics #400. O'Neil and artist Bob Brown crafted Batman's first encounter with the League of Assassins in Detective Comics #405 and created Talia al Ghul in issue #411. After publishing on
Brazil the Federative Republic of Brazil, is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers and with over 208 million people, Brazil is the world's fifth-largest country by area and the fifth most populous. Its capital is Brasília, its most populated city is São Paulo; the federation is composed of the union of the 26 states, the Federal District, the 5,570 municipalities. It is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language and the only one in the Americas. Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the east, Brazil has a coastline of 7,491 kilometers, it borders all other South American countries except Ecuador and Chile and covers 47.3% of the continent's land area. Its Amazon River basin includes a vast tropical forest, home to diverse wildlife, a variety of ecological systems, extensive natural resources spanning numerous protected habitats; this unique environmental heritage makes Brazil one of 17 megadiverse countries, is the subject of significant global interest and debate regarding deforestation and environmental protection.
Brazil was inhabited by numerous tribal nations prior to the landing in 1500 of explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral, who claimed the area for the Portuguese Empire. Brazil remained a Portuguese colony until 1808, when the capital of the empire was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro. In 1815, the colony was elevated to the rank of kingdom upon the formation of the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves. Independence was achieved in 1822 with the creation of the Empire of Brazil, a unitary state governed under a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary system; the ratification of the first constitution in 1824 led to the formation of a bicameral legislature, now called the National Congress. The country became a presidential republic in 1889 following a military coup d'état. An authoritarian military junta came to power in 1964 and ruled until 1985, after which civilian governance resumed. Brazil's current constitution, formulated in 1988, defines it as a democratic federal republic. Due to its rich culture and history, the country ranks thirteenth in the world by number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
Brazil is considered an advanced emerging economy. It has the ninth largest GDP in the world by nominal, eight and PPP measures, it is one of the world's major breadbaskets, being the largest producer of coffee for the last 150 years. It is classified as an upper-middle income economy by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country, with the largest share of global wealth in Latin America. Brazil is a regional power and sometimes considered a great or a middle power in international affairs. On account of its international recognition and influence, the country is subsequently classified as an emerging power and a potential superpower by several analysts. Brazil is a founding member of the United Nations, the G20, BRICS, Union of South American Nations, Organization of American States, Organization of Ibero-American States and the Community of Portuguese Language Countries, it is that the word "Brazil" comes from the Portuguese word for brazilwood, a tree that once grew plentifully along the Brazilian coast.
In Portuguese, brazilwood is called pau-brasil, with the word brasil given the etymology "red like an ember", formed from brasa and the suffix -il. As brazilwood produces a deep red dye, it was valued by the European textile industry and was the earliest commercially exploited product from Brazil. Throughout the 16th century, massive amounts of brazilwood were harvested by indigenous peoples along the Brazilian coast, who sold the timber to European traders in return for assorted European consumer goods; the official Portuguese name of the land, in original Portuguese records, was the "Land of the Holy Cross", but European sailors and merchants called it the "Land of Brazil" because of the brazilwood trade. The popular appellation eclipsed and supplanted the official Portuguese name; some early sailors called it the "Land of Parrots". In the Guarani language, an official language of Paraguay, Brazil is called "Pindorama"; this was the name the indigenous population gave to the region, meaning "land of the palm trees".
Some of the earliest human remains found in the Americas, Luzia Woman, were found in the area of Pedro Leopoldo, Minas Gerais and provide evidence of human habitation going back at least 11,000 years. The earliest pottery found in the Western Hemisphere was excavated in the Amazon basin of Brazil and radiocarbon dated to 8,000 years ago; the pottery was found near Santarém and provides evidence that the tropical forest region supported a complex prehistoric culture. The Marajoara culture flourished on Marajó in the Amazon delta from 800 CE to 1400 CE, developing sophisticated pottery, social stratification, large populations, mound building, complex social formations such as chiefdoms. Around the time of the Portuguese arrival, the territory of current day Brazil had an estimated indigenous population of 7 million people semi-nomadic who subsisted on hunting, fishing and migrant agriculture; the indigenous population of Brazil comprised several large indigenous ethnic groups. The Tupí people were subdivided into the Tupiniquins and Tupinambás, there were many subdivisions of the other gro
Doc Samson is a fictional character appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. The character is depicted as a superhero and psychiatrist in the Marvel Universe, known as a supporting character in stories featuring the Hulk, he was portrayed by Ty Burrell in the 2008 film The Incredible Hulk. Doc Samson debuted in the Incredible Hulk vol. 2, # 141, created by artist Herb Trimpe. Since he has appeared as a supporting character in several different Marvel Comics titles, including She-Hulk, Uncanny X-Men, Amazing Spider-Man. In 1996 Doc Samson starred in his first self-titled miniseries written by Dan Slott. In 2006, Samson starred in his second miniseries written by Paul Di Filippo and penciled by Fabrizio Fiorentino. Leonard Skivorski, Jr. was born in Oklahoma. He attended yeshiva, his father, Dr. Leonard "Leo" Skivorski, was a popular psychiatrist in his hometown who specialized in treating young women conducting extramarital affairs with them. Mrs. Skivorski had nicknamed her husband "Samson" after his long hair.
Leonard Jr. expressed disinterest in becoming a psychiatrist because he resented his father's philandering. Despite this, he became psychiatrist. After Bruce Banner was temporarily cured of being the Hulk by siphoning off the gamma radiation that caused his transformations, working with Banner/Hulk in his job as a psychiatrist, exposed himself to some of the siphoned radiation, granting him a superhumanly strong and muscular physique and causing his hair to turn green and to grow long, reminiscent of his biblical namesake. Samson's physical strength depends upon the length of his hair, though his gamma mutation stabilized, making the length of his hair no longer a factor. Shortly afterward, his flirting with Betty Ross causes a jealous Banner to re-expose himself to radiation, becoming the Hulk once more to battle Samson. Samson learns that his power decreases when he cuts his green hair, but he loses his powers due to a bombardment of intense gamma radiation. Feeling guilty about his role in his patient's return to being the Hulk, Samson would spend much time working with Banner over the years.
Samson regains his powers in a gamma ray explosion. He joins the Gamma Base staff. Alongside S. H. I. E. L. D, he battles the Hulk. He projects the Hulk into Glenn Talbot's brain to cure Talbot of a mental block. Samson battles the Rhino. Samson is captured by the Leader, he joins forces with the Hulk against the Leader's Humanoids. He attempts a psychoanalysis of the Hulk through his dreams and diagnoses him with multiple personality disorder. Samson next encounters the Master Mold, he battles the Hulk. Samson becomes General Ross' psychiatrist. Samson encounters the Changelings, his former relationship with Dr. Delia Childress is revealed, he teams with Spider-Man against the Rhino and A. I. M.. He defeats Unus the Untouchable in combat. With the Thing and other heroes, he is abducted by the Champion to challenge him in combat; the Vision offers Doc Samson a position as the leader of a midwestern branch of the Avengers. Samson says that he is flattered, but has accepted a position teaching at Northwestern University, which he prefers to the life of a hero, additionally that administration is not his strong point.
Samson, determined again to cure the Hulk, defeats him in battle by triggering the Banner personality to make illusions of various supervillains for the Hulk to fight. Convinced Samson is an illusion, the Hulk leaves himself open for a sucker punch by Samson, rendering the Hulk unconscious. Samson succeeds in separating the Hulk physically into two separate individuals, he rescues the Hulk from S. H. I. E. L. D.'s attempt to execute him, although the now separated Hulk, to Samson's surprise turns out to be more angry and bestial than before. After feeling guilty for the ensuing carnage and death, Samson pledges to kill the Hulk. Samson adopts a new costume and battles the heroes Iron Man, Wonder Man and Namor the Sub-Mariner for the right to recapture the Hulk, he battles the Hulk, destroys the Hulk robot, battles the Hulkbusters, resulting in the death of Carolyn Parmenter. He battles the Hulk and the Hulkbusters again. Samson attempts to merge Banner and the Hulk, but an accident results in Banner's transformation into the grey Hulk.
Samson becomes mentally dominated by a mutant mind-parasite. He assists X-Factor in capturing the Hulk on behalf of S. H. I. E. L. D. Samson cures Captain Ultra of his fear of fire. To "cure" the Hulk's multiple personality disorder, Samson hypnotizes Banner with the Ringmaster's help and begins the process of integrating the Banner, grey Hulk and green Hulk personalities into a new Hulk; the results extend beyond his control, leading to a somewhat unstable merger which fragments once more into a fourth personality, albeit a more benign one than the previous Hulks. Around this time, Samson attends the execution of convicted murderess "Crazy Eight". Doc Samson was a part of Bruce Jones' run on The Incredible Hulk, with one of the main characters Jones introduced supposed to be Samson's ex-wife. Samson sports an eyepatch during much of this run. After discovering that a covert organization, hunting the Hulk has implanted a surveillance device in Samson's eye, he removes the device with a scalpel and wears the eyepatch for protection while his eye heals.
In addition to the Hulk, his most prominent patient, Samson has spent time in a professional capacity with the second X-Factor, the