Stan Getz was an American jazz saxophonist. Playing the tenor saxophone, Getz was known as "The Sound" because of his warm, lyrical tone, his prime influence being the wispy, mellow timbre of his idol, Lester Young. Coming to prominence in the late 1940s with Woody Herman's big band, Getz is described by critic Scott Yanow as "one of the all-time great tenor saxophonists". Getz performed in bebop and cool jazz groups. Influenced by João Gilberto and Antônio Carlos Jobim, he popularized bossa nova in America with the hit single "The Girl from Ipanema". Getz was born Stanley Gayetski on February 1927, at St. Vincent's Hospital in Philadelphia, his grandparents Harris and Beckie Gayetski were from the Kiev area of Ukraine but migrated to Whitechapel, in the East End of London, owned the Harris Tailor Shop at 52 Oxford Street for more than 13 years. In 1913, Harris and Beckie emigrated to the United States with their three sons Al, Ben after their son Louis Gayetski in 1912. Getz's father Al was born in Mile End, England in 1904 and his mother Goldie Yampolsky in Philadelphia in 1907.
The Getz family first settled in Philadelphia, but during the Depression the family moved to New York City, seeking better employment opportunities. Getz worked hard in school, receiving straight As, finished sixth grade close to the top of his class. Getz's major interest was in musical instruments and he played a number of them before his father bought him his first saxophone at the age of 13. Though his father got him a clarinet, Getz fell in love with the saxophone and began practicing eight hours a day, he attended James Monroe High School in the Bronx. In 1941, he was accepted into the All City High School Orchestra of New York City; this gave him a chance to receive private, free tutoring from the New York Philharmonic's Simon Kovar, a bassoon player. He continued playing the saxophone, he dropped out of school in order to pursue his musical career, but was sent back to the classroom by the school system's truancy officers. In 1943, at the age of 16, he was accepted into Jack Teagarden's band, because of his youth he became Teagarden's ward.
Getz played along with Nat King Cole and Lionel Hampton. After playing for Stan Kenton, Jimmy Dorsey, Benny Goodman, Getz was a soloist with Woody Herman from 1947 to 1949 in "The Second Herd", he first gained wide attention as one of the band's saxophonists, who were known collectively as "The Four Brothers", the others being Serge Chaloff, Zoot Sims and Herbie Steward. With Herman, he had a hit with "Early Autumn" and after Getz left "The Second Herd" he was able to launch his solo career, he was the leader on all of his recording sessions after 1950. Getz's reputation was enhanced by his featured performance on Johnny Smith's 1952 album Moonlight in Vermont, that year's top jazz album; the single of the title tune became a hit. In the mid to late 1950s working from Scandinavia, Getz became popular playing cool jazz with Horace Silver, Johnny Smith, Oscar Peterson, many others, his first two quintets were notable for their personnel, including Charlie Parker's rhythm section of drummer Roy Haynes, pianist Al Haig and bassist Tommy Potter.
A 1953 line-up of the Dizzy Gillespie/Stan Getz Sextet featured Gillespie, Peterson, Herb Ellis, Ray Brown and Max Roach. Returning to the U. S. from Europe in 1961, Getz became a central figure in introducing bossa nova music to the American audience. Teaming with guitarist Charlie Byrd, who had just returned from a U. S. State Department tour of Brazil, Getz recorded Jazz Samba in 1962 and it became a hit. Getz won the Grammy for Best Jazz Performance of 1963 from the same album, it sold over one million copies, was awarded a gold disc. His second bossa nova album recorded in 1962, was Big Band Bossa Nova with composer and arranger Gary McFarland; as a follow-up, Getz recorded the album, Jazz Samba Encore!, with one of the originators of bossa nova, Brazilian guitarist Luiz Bonfá. It sold more than a million copies by 1964, giving Getz his second gold disc, he recorded the album Getz/Gilberto, in 1963, with Antônio Carlos Jobim, João Gilberto and his wife, Astrud Gilberto. Their "The Girl from Ipanema" won a Grammy Award.
The piece became one of the most well-known Latin jazz tracks. Getz/Gilberto won two Grammys. A live album, Getz/Gilberto Vol. 2, followed, as did Getz Au Go Go, a live recording at the Cafe au Go Go. Getz's love affair with Astrud Gilberto brought an end to his musical partnership with her and her husband, he began to move away from bossa nova and back to cool jazz. While still working with the Gilbertos, he recorded the jazz album Nobody Else but Me, with a new quartet including vibraphonist Gary Burton, but Verve Records, wishing to continue building the Getz brand with bossa nova, refused to release it, it came out 30 years after Getz had died. In 1972, Getz recorded in the fusion idiom with Chick Corea, Tony Williams and Stanley Clarke, in this period experimented with an Echoplex on his saxophone, he had a cameo in the film The Exterminator. In the mid-1980s Getz worked in the San Francisco Bay area and taught at Stanford University as an artist-in-residence at the Stanford Jazz Workshop until 1988.
In 1986, he was inducted into the Down Beat Jazz Hall of Fame. During 1988, Getz worked with the News on their Small World album, he played the extended solo on part 2 of the title track. His tenor saxophone of choice was the Selmer Mark VI. Getz married Beverly Byrne, a vocalist with the Gene Krupa band, on November 7, 1946 in Lo
"Arnold Layne" is the debut single released by the English rock band Pink Floyd on 10 March 1967, written by Syd Barrett. The song's title character is a transvestite whose strange hobby is stealing women's clothes and undergarments from washing lines. According to Roger Waters, "Arnold Layne" was based on a real person: "Both my mother and Syd's mother had students as lodgers because there was a girls' college up the road so there were great lines of bras and knickers on our washing lines and'Arnold' or whoever he was, had bits off our washing lines." In January, Pink Floyd went to Sound Techniques studio in Chelsea. Here, the band recorded "Arnold Layne" and a few other songs: "Matilda Mother", "Chapter 24", "Interstellar Overdrive" and "Let's Roll Another One". Nick Mason said of why "Arnold Layne" was chosen over the other songs: "We knew we wanted to be rock'n'roll stars and we wanted to make singles, so it seemed the most suitable song to condense into 3 minutes without losing too much".
The band had tried to re-record "Arnold Layne" after signing up with EMI, but the Joe Boyd version from January was released instead. The song would be Boyd's last production for Pink Floyd. Boyd mentioned in several interviews over the years that "Arnold Layne" ran for ten to fifteen minutes in concert, but the band knew that it had to be shortened for use as a single, he has said it was a complex recording involving some tricky editing, recalling that the middle instrumental section with Richard Wright's organ solo was recorded as an edit piece and spliced into the song for the final mix. Both "Arnold Layne" and "Candy and a Currant Bun" were mixed into mono for the single. Neither have been given a stereo mix, although the four-track master tapes still exist in the EMI tape archive. A black and white promotional film of "Arnold Layne" was made in late February 1967, directed by Derek Nice and featured members of Pink Floyd dressing up a mannequin before showing it around a beach in East Wittering, West Sussex.
This promo, made for £2,000, was meant to be screened on 3 April 1967 for the BBC's Top of the Pops show, but cancelled when the single dropped down the chart. Another promotional film was recorded for the song, this time filmed on 29 April near St Michael's Church in Highgate, it is the only known footage of Barrett lip-synching to the song. It was shot around the time that his mental deterioration began; the single was released on 10 March 1967 in the UK, backed by "Candy and a Currant Bun". The band's management, Blackhill Enterprises, had paid to boost the single's chart position, as manager Andrew King stated: "We spent a couple of hundred quid, trying to buy it into the charts; the management did that, not EMI." However, despite reaching number 20 in the UK singles chart, the song's unusual transvestism theme attracted the ire of pirate radio station Radio London, which deemed the song was too far removed from "normal" society for its listeners, before banning it from radio airplay altogether.
The song appeared on the budget 1971 compilation album Relics, their 1983 compilation album Works and their 2001 retrospective best-of, Echoes: The Best of Pink Floyd. Both sides of the single appear on the first volume 1965–1967: Cambridge St/ation in the 2016 Early Years box set, on a replica seven inch single included in the set. All tracks written by Syd Barrett, excluding Interstellar Overdrive, written by Syd Barrett, Roger Waters, Rick Wright, and Nick Mason. "Arnold Layne" – 2:57 "Candy and a Currant Bun" – 2:38 "Arnold Layne" – 2:54 "Candy and a Currant Bun" – 2:45 "Interstellar Overdrive" – 5:00 Syd Barrett – electric guitar, acoustic guitar, lead vocals Richard Wright – Farfisa organ, backing vocals Roger Waters – bass guitar Nick Mason – drums David Gilmour, during his solo tour promoting On an Island, unexpectedly added the song to the setlist near the end of the American tour on show of 17 April 2006 at the Oakland Paramount Theatre. This version of the song remained in the setlist until 31 May.
On 26 December 2006, two live recordings of the song, from Gilmour's On an Island shows at the Royal Albert Hall were released as a live single, which peaked at No. 19 on the UK singles chart. One version had guest vocals by David Bowie. Both versions are featured on Gilmour's DVD/BD. All tracks written by Syd Barrett. "Arnold Layne" – 3:30 "Arnold Layne" – 3:23 "Dark Globe" – 2:23 David Gilmour – Fender Telecaster electric guitar, backing vocals, acoustic guitar, lead vocals David Bowie - lead vocals Richard Wright – organ, lead vocals, backing vocals Jon Carin – keyboards, backing vocals Phil Manzanera – guitar, backing vocals Steve DiStanislao – drums Guy Pratt – bass guitar, backing vocals On 10 May 2007, Pink Floyd, featuring Gilmour and Wright performed for what was to be Wright's and the band's final live performance, at The Barbican, for The Madcap's Last Laugh, a tribute show for Syd Barrett organised by Joe Boyd. At the end of the show, they were introduced as surprise guests and Wright sang his band's first single one final time.
This saw the final performance by Pink Floyd with Gilmour now concentrating on his solo career, Mason on his motor racing, while Wright died in September 2008
Stephen William Bragg is an English singer-songwriter and left-wing political activist. His music blends elements of folk music, punk rock and protest songs, with lyrics that span political or romantic themes, his music is centred on bringing about change and involving the younger generation in activist causes. Bragg was born in 1957 in Barking, one of the sons of Dennis Frederick Austin Bragg, an assistant sales manager to a Barking cap maker and milliner, his wife Marie Victoria D'Urso, of Italian descent. Bragg's father died of lung cancer in 1976, his mother in 2011. Bragg was educated at Northbury Junior School and Park Modern Secondary School in Barking, where he failed his eleven-plus exam precluding him from going to university; however he developed an interest in poetry at the age of twelve, when his English teacher chose him to read a poem he had written for a homework assignment on a local radio station. He put his energies into learning and practising the guitar with his next-door neighbour, Philip Wigg.
He was exposed to folk and folk-rock music during his teenage years, citing Simon & Garfunkel and Bob Dylan as early influences on his songwriting. Bragg was influenced by the Clash, whom he'd seen play live in London in May 1977 on their White Riot Tour, again at a Rock Against Racism carnival in April 1978, which he admits was the first time he stepped into the world of music as it is used for political activism; the experience of the gig and preceding march helped shape Bragg's left-wing politics, having "turned a blind eye" to casual racism. In 1977 Bragg formed the punk rock/pub rock band Riff Raff with Wiggy; the band decamped to rural Oundle in Northamptonshire in 1978 to record a series of singles which did not receive wide exposure. After a period of gigging in Northamptonshire and London, they returned to Barking and split in 1980. Taking a series of odd jobs including working at Guy Norris' record shop in Barking high street. Bragg became disillusioned with his stalled music career and in May 1981 joined the British Army as a recruit destined for the Queen's Royal Irish Hussars of the Royal Armoured Corps.
After completing three months' basic training, he returned home. Bragg peroxided his hair to mark a new phase in his life and began performing frequent concerts and busking around London, playing solo with an electric guitar under the name Spy vs Spy, his demo tape got no response from the record industry, but by pretending to be a television repair man, he got into the office of Charisma Records' A&R man Peter Jenner. Jenner liked the tape. Bragg got an offer to record more demos for music publisher Chappell & Co. so Jenner agreed to release them as a record. Life's a Riot with Spy vs Spy was released in July 1983 by Utility. Hearing DJ John Peel mention on-air that he was hungry, Bragg rushed to the BBC with a mushroom biryani, so Peel played a song from Life's a Riot with Spy vs Spy albeit at the wrong speed. Peel insisted he would have played the song without the biryani and played it at the correct speed. Within months Charisma had been taken over by Virgin Records and Jenner, made redundant, became Bragg's manager.
Stiff Records' press officer Andy Macdonald –, setting up his own record label, Go! Discs – received a copy of Life's a Riot with Spy vs Spy, he made Virgin an offer and the album was re-released on Go! Discs in November 1983, at the fixed low price of £2.99. Around this time, Andy Kershaw, an early supporter at Radio Aire in Leeds, was employed by Jenner as Bragg's tour manager. Though never released as a Bragg single, album track and live favourite "A New England", with an additional verse, became a Top 10 hit in the UK for Kirsty MacColl in January 1985. Since MacColl's early death, Bragg always sings. In 1984, he released Brewing Up with Billy Bragg, a mixture of political songs and songs of unrequited love; this was followed in 1985 by Between the Wars, an EP of political songs that included a cover version of Leon Rosselson's "The World Turned Upside Down". The EP made the Top 20 of the UK Singles Chart and earned Bragg an appearance on Top of the Pops, singing the title track. Bragg collaborated with Rosselson on the song, "Ballad of a Spycatcher".
In the same year, he embarked on his first tour of North America, with Wiggy as tour manager, supporting Echo & the Bunnymen. The tour began in Washington D. C. and ended in Los Angeles. On the same trip, in New York, Bragg unveiled his "Portastack", a self-contained, mobile PA system weighing 35 lbs, the wearing of which became an archetypal image of the singer at that time. With it, he was able to busk outside a record industry conference. In 1986 Bragg released Talking with the Taxman About Poetry, its title is taken from a poem by Vladimir Mayakovsky and a translated version of the poem was printed on the record's inner sleeve. Back to Basics is a 1987 collection of his first three releases: Life's a Riot wit
Iain David McGeachy, known professionally as John Martyn, was a British singer-songwriter and guitarist. Over a 40-year career, he released 22 studio albums, received frequent critical acclaim. Martyn began his career at age 17 as a key member of the British folk music scene, drawing inspiration from American blues and English traditional music, signed with Island Records. By the 1970s he had begun incorporating jazz and rock into his sound on albums such as Solid Air and One World, as well as experimenting with guitar effects and tape delay machines such as Echoplex, he struggled with substance abuse and domestic problems throughout the 1970s and 1980s, though continued to release albums while collaborating with figures such as Phil Collins and Lee "Scratch" Perry. He remained active until his death in 2009, he was described by The Times as "an electrifying guitarist and singer whose music blurred the boundaries between folk, jazz and blues". Martyn was born in Beechcroft Avenue, New Malden, England to an English mother and a Scottish father.
His parents, both opera singers, divorced when he was five and he spent his childhood alternating between Scotland and England. Much of this was spent in the care of his grandmother, as well as on his mother's houseboat, he attended Shawlands Academy in Glasgow. At school, he was a keen rugby player. On leaving school he left to pursue his musical aspirations. Mentored by Hamish Imlach, Martyn began his professional musical career when he was 17, playing a fusion of blues and folk resulting in a distinctive style which made him a key figure in the British folk scene during the mid-1960s, he signed to Chris Blackwell's Island Records in 1967 and released his first album, London Conversation, the same year. This first album was soon followed by The Tumbler, moving towards jazz. By 1970 Martyn had developed a wholly original and idiosyncratic sound: acoustic guitar run through a fuzzbox, phase shifter and Echoplex; this sound was first apparent on Stormbringer! in 1970, written and performed by Martyn and his then-wife Beverley, who had recorded solo as Beverley Kutner.
Her second album with Martyn was The Road to Ruin released in 1970. Island Records felt that it would be more successful to market Martyn as a solo act and this was how subsequent albums were produced, although Beverley continued to make appearances as a background singer as well as continuing as a solo artist herself. In 1973, Martyn released one of the defining British albums of the 1970s, Solid Air, the title song a tribute to the singer-songwriter Nick Drake, a close friend and label-mate who died in 1974 from an overdose of antidepressants. In 2009, a double CD Deluxe edition of Solid Air was released featuring unreleased songs and out-takes, sleeve notes by Record Collector's Daryl Easlea. On Solid Air, as with the one that preceded it, Bless the Weather, Martyn collaborated with jazz bassist Danny Thompson, with whom he proceeded to have a musical partnership which continued until his death. Following the commercial success of Solid Air, Martyn recorded and released the experimental Inside Out, an album with emphasis placed on feel and improvisation rather than song structure.
In 1975, he followed this with Sunday's Child, a more song-based collection "My Baby Girl", "Spencer the Rover", with several references to his young family. Martyn subsequently described this period as'very happy'. In September 1975 he released a live album, Live at Leeds — Martyn had been unable to persuade Island to release the record, resorted to selling individually signed copies by mail from home. Live at Leeds features drummer John Stevens. In 2010 a 2CD Deluxe version of Live at Leeds was released, it was discovered that not all of the songs on the original album were from the Leeds concert. After releasing Live at Leeds, Martyn took a sabbatical, including a visit to Jamaica, spending time with reggae producer Lee "Scratch" Perry. In 1977, he released One World, which led some commentators to describe Martyn as the "Father of Trip-Hop", it included a collaboration with Lee "Scratch" Perry. Small Hours was recorded outside. In 1978 he played guitar on the album Harmony of the Spheres by Neil Ardley.
Martyn's marriage broke down at the end of the 1970s and "John hit the self destruct button". In her autobiography, Beverley alleges protracted domestic violence. Out of this period, described by Martyn as "a dark period in my life", came the album Grace and Danger. Released in October 1980, the album had been held up for a year by Chris Blackwell, he was a close friend of John and Beverley, found the album too disturbing to release. Only after intense and sustained pressure from Martyn did Blackwell agree to release the album. Commenting on that period, Martyn said, "I was in a dreadful emotional state over that record. I was hardly in control of my own actions; the reason they released it was because I freaked: Please get it out! I don't give a damn about how sad it makes you feel—it's what I'm about: the direct communication of emotion. Grace and Danger was cathartic, it hurt."In the late 1980s Martyn cited Grace and Danger as his favourite album, said that it was "probably the most specific piece of autobiography I've written.
Some people keep diaries, I make records." The album has since become one of his highest-regarded, prompting a deluxe double-disc issue in 2007, containing the original
R. E. M. was an American rock band from Athens, formed in 1980 by drummer Bill Berry, guitarist Peter Buck, bassist/backing vocalist Mike Mills, lead vocalist Michael Stipe. One of the first alternative rock bands, R. E. M. was noted for Buck's ringing, arpeggiated guitar style, Stipe's distinctive vocal quality and obscure lyrics, Mills' melodic basslines and backing vocals, Berry's tight, economical style of drumming. R. E. M. Released its first single—"Radio Free Europe"—in 1981 on the independent record label Hib-Tone; the single was followed by the Chronic Town EP in 1982, the band's first release on I. R. S. Records. In 1983, the group released its critically acclaimed debut album and built its reputation over the next few years through subsequent releases, constant touring, the support of college radio. Following years of underground success, R. E. M. Achieved a mainstream hit in 1987 with the single "The One I Love"; the group signed to Warner Bros. Records in 1988, began to espouse political and environmental concerns while playing large arenas worldwide.
By the early 1990s, when alternative rock began to experience broad mainstream success, R. E. M. was viewed by subsequent acts such as Pavement as a pioneer of the genre. The band released its two most commercially successful albums, Out of Time and Automatic for the People, which veered from the band's established sound and catapulted it to international fame. R. E. M.'s 1994 release, was a return to a more rock-oriented sound, but still continued its run of success. The band began its first tour in six years to support the album. In 1996, R. E. M. Re-signed with Warner Bros. for a reported US$80 million, at the time the most expensive recording contract in history. Its 1996 release, New Adventures in Hi-Fi, though critically acclaimed, fared worse commercially than its predecessors; the following year, Bill Berry left the band, while Stipe and Mills continued the group as a trio. Through some changes in musical style, the band continued its career into the next decade with mixed critical and commercial success, despite having sold more than 85 million albums worldwide and becoming one of the world's best-selling music artists of all time.
In 2007, the band was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, in their first year of eligibility. R. E. M. Disbanded amicably in September 2011, announcing the split on its website. In January 1980, Michael Stipe met Peter Buck in Wuxtry Records, the Athens record store where Buck worked; the pair discovered that they shared similar tastes in music in punk rock and protopunk artists like Patti Smith and the Velvet Underground. Stipe said, "It turns out that I was buying all the records, saving for himself." Through mutual friend Kathleen O'Brien and Buck met fellow University of Georgia students Mike Mills and Bill Berry, who had played music together since high school and lived together in Georgia. The quartet agreed to collaborate on several songs, their still-unnamed band spent a few months rehearsing in a deconsecrated Episcopal church in Athens, played its first show on April 5, 1980, supporting The Side Effects at O'Brien's birthday party held in the same church, performing a mix of originals and 1960s and 1970s covers.
After considering Twisted Kites, Cans of Piss, Negro Eyes, the band settled on "R. E. M.", which Stipe selected at random from a dictionary. The band members dropped out of school to focus on their developing group, they found a manager in Jefferson Holt, a record store clerk, so impressed by an R. E. M. performance in his hometown of Chapel Hill, North Carolina, that he moved to Athens. R. E. M.'s success was immediate in Athens and surrounding areas. Over the next year and a half, R. E. M. Toured throughout the Southern United States. Touring was arduous because a touring circuit for alternative rock bands did not exist; the group toured in an old blue van driven by Holt, lived on a food allowance of $2 each per day. During April 1981, R. E. M. recorded its first single, "Radio Free Europe", at producer Mitch Easter's Drive-In Studios in Winston-Salem, North Carolina. Distributing it as a four-track demo tape to clubs, record labels and magazines, the single was released in July 1981 on the local independent record label Hib-Tone with an initial pressing of 1,000 copies—600 of which were sent out as promotional copies.
The single sold out, another 6,000 copies were pressed due to popular demand, despite the original pressing leaving off the record label's contact details. Despite its limited pressing, the single garnered critical acclaim, was listed as one of the ten best singles of the year by The New York Times. R. E. M. recorded the Chronic Town EP with Mitch Easter in October 1981, planned to release it on a new indie label named Dasht Hopes. However, I. R. S. Records acquired a demo of the band's first recording session with Easter, circulating for months; the band turned down the advances of major label RCA Records in favor of I. R. S. with whom it signed a contract in May 1982. I. R. S. Released Chronic Town that August as its first American release. A positive review of the EP by NME praised the songs' auras of mystery, concluded, "R. E. M. Ring true, it's great to hear something as unforced and cunning as this."I. R. S. First paired R. E. M. with producer Stephen Hague to record its debut album. Hague's emphasis on technical perfection le
Fairport Convention are a British folk rock band, formed in 1967 by Richard Thompson, Simon Nicol, Ashley Hutchings, Shaun Frater, with Frater replaced by Martin Lamble after their first gig. They started out influenced by American folk rock and singer-songwriter material, with a setlist dominated by covers of Bob Dylan and Joni Mitchell songs and a sound that earned them the nickname “the British Jefferson Airplane.” Vocalists Judy Dyble and Iain Matthews joined them before the recording of their self-titled debut in 1968. Denny began steering the group towards traditional British music for their next two albums, What We Did on Our Holidays and Unhalfbricking the latter featured fiddler Dave "Swarb" Swarbrick, most notably on the song A Sailor's Life, which laid the groundwork for British folk rock by being the first time a traditional British song was combined with a rock beat. However, shortly before the album's release, a crash on the M1 killed Lamble and Thompson's then-girlfriend, Jeannie Franklyn.
For this album Swarb joined full-time alongside Dave Mattacks on drums. Both Denny and Hutchings left before the year's end; the 1970s saw numerous lineup changes around the core of Swarb and Pegg, with Nicol absent for the middle of the decade, declining fortunes as folk music fell out of mainstream favour. Denny, whose partner Trevor Lucas had been a guitarist in the group since 1972, returned for the pop-orientated Rising for the Moon in 1975 in a final bid to crack America, they played a farewell concert in the village of Cropredy, where they’d held small concerts since 1976, this marked the beginning of the Cropredy Festival which has become the largest folk festival in Britain, with annual attendance of 20,000. The band was reformed by Nicol and Mattacks in 1985, joined by Maartin Allcock and Ric Sanders and they have remained active since. Allcock was replaced by Chris Leslie in 1996, Gerry Conway replaced Mattacks in 1998, with this lineup remaining unchanged since and marking the longest-lasting of the group's history.
Their 28th studio album, 50:50@50, released to mark their 50th anniversary, was released in 2017, they continue to headline Cropredy each year. Despite little mainstream success – with their only top 40 single being Si Tu Dois Partir, a French-language cover of the Dylan song If You Gotta Go, Go Now from Unhalfbricking – Fairport Convention remain influential in British folk rock and British folk in general. Liege & Lief was named the "Most Influential Folk Album of All Time" at the BBC Radio 2 Folk Awards in 2006, Pegg's playing style, which incorporates jigs and reels into his basslines, has been imitated by many in the folk rock and folk punk genres. Additionally, many former members went on to form other notable groups in the genre, including Fotheringay, Steeleye Span, the Albion Band. Hers ended with her death in 1978, though she is now regarded as Britain's finest female singer-songwriter, her song Who Knows Where the Time Goes? – recorded by Fairport on Unhalfbricking – has become a signature for herself and the band.
Bassist Ashley Hutchings met guitarist Simon Nicol in North London in 1966 when they both played in the Ethnic Shuffle Orchestra. They rehearsed on the floor above Nicol's father's medical practice in a house called "Fairport" on Fortis Green in Muswell Hill – the same street on which Ray and Dave Davies of the Kinks grew up; the house name lent its name to the group they formed together as Fairport Convention in 1967 with Richard Thompson on guitar and Shaun Frater on drums. After their initial performance at St Michael's Church Hall in Golders Green on 27 May 1967, they had their first of many line-up changes as one member of the audience, drummer Martin Lamble, convinced the band that he could do a better job than Frater and replaced him, they soon added a female singer, Judy Dyble, which gave them a distinctive sound among the many London bands of the period. Fairport Convention were soon playing at underground venues such as UFO and The Electric Garden, which became the Middle Earth club.
After only a few months, they caught the attention of manager Joe Boyd who secured them a contract with Polydor Records. Boyd suggested they augment the line-up with another male vocalist. Singer Iain Matthews joined the band and their first album, Fairport Convention, was recorded in late 1967 and released in June 1968. At this early stage Fairport looked to North American folk and folk rock acts such as Joni Mitchell, Bob Dylan, The Byrds for material and inspiration; the name "Fairport Convention" and the use of two lead vocalists led many new listeners to believe that they were an American act, earning them the nickname'the British Jefferson Airplane' during this period. Fairport Convention played alongside Jefferson Airplane at the First Isle of Wight Festival, 1968. After disappointing album sales they signed a new contract with Island Records. Before their next recording Judy Dyble was replaced by the band with Sandy Denny, a
Massachusetts the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. It borders on the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the states of Connecticut and Rhode Island to the south, New Hampshire and Vermont to the north, New York to the west; the state is named after the Massachusett tribe, which once inhabited the east side of the area, is one of the original thirteen states. The capital of Massachusetts is Boston, the most populous city in New England. Over 80% of Massachusetts's population lives in the Greater Boston metropolitan area, a region influential upon American history and industry. Dependent on agriculture and trade, Massachusetts was transformed into a manufacturing center during the Industrial Revolution. During the 20th century, Massachusetts's economy shifted from manufacturing to services. Modern Massachusetts is a global leader in biotechnology, higher education and maritime trade. Plymouth was the site of the second colony in New England after Popham Colony in 1607 in what is now Maine.
Plymouth was founded in 1620 by passengers of the Mayflower. In 1692, the town of Salem and surrounding areas experienced one of America's most infamous cases of mass hysteria, the Salem witch trials. In 1777, General Henry Knox founded the Springfield Armory, which during the Industrial Revolution catalyzed numerous important technological advances, including interchangeable parts. In 1786, Shays' Rebellion, a populist revolt led by disaffected American Revolutionary War veterans, influenced the United States Constitutional Convention. In the 18th century, the Protestant First Great Awakening, which swept the Atlantic World, originated from the pulpit of Northampton preacher Jonathan Edwards. In the late 18th century, Boston became known as the "Cradle of Liberty" for the agitation there that led to the American Revolution; the entire Commonwealth of Massachusetts has played a powerful commercial and cultural role in the history of the United States. Before the American Civil War, Massachusetts was a center for the abolitionist and transcendentalist movements.
In the late 19th century, the sports of basketball and volleyball were invented in the western Massachusetts cities of Springfield and Holyoke, respectively. In 2004, Massachusetts became the first U. S. state to recognize same-sex marriage as a result of the decision in Goodridge v. Department of Public Health by the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court. Many prominent American political dynasties have hailed from the state, including the Adams and Kennedy families. Harvard University in Cambridge is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States, with the largest financial endowment of any university, Harvard Law School has educated a contemporaneous majority of Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States. Kendall Square in Cambridge has been called "the most innovative square mile on the planet", in reference to the high concentration of entrepreneurial start-ups and quality of innovation which have emerged in the vicinity of the square since 2010. Both Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, have been ranked among the most regarded academic institutions in the world.
Massachusetts' public-school students place among the top tier in the world in academic performance, the state has been ranked as one of the top states in the United States for citizens to live in, as well as one of the most expensive. The Massachusetts Bay Colony was named after the indigenous population, the Massachusett derived from a Wôpanâak word muswach8sut, segmented as mus "big" + wach8 "mountain" + -s "diminutive" + -ut "locative", it has been translated as "near the great hill", "by the blue hills", "at the little big hill", or "at the range of hills", referring to the Blue Hills, or in particular the Great Blue Hill, located on the boundary of Milton and Canton. Alternatively, Massachusett has been represented as Moswetuset—from the name of the Moswetuset Hummock in Quincy, where Plymouth Colony commander Myles Standish, hired English military officer, Squanto, part of the now disappeared Patuxet band of the Wampanoag peoples, met Chief Chickatawbut in 1621; the official name of the state is the "Commonwealth of Massachusetts".
While this designation is part of the state's official name, it has no practical implications. Massachusetts has powers within the United States as other states, it may have been chosen by John Adams for the second draft of the Massachusetts Constitution because unlike the word "state", "commonwealth" at the time had the connotation of a republic, in contrast to the monarchy the former American colonies were fighting against. Massachusetts was inhabited by tribes of the Algonquian language family such as the Wampanoag, Nipmuc, Pocomtuc and Massachusett. While cultivation of crops like squash and corn supplemented their diets, these tribes were dependent on hunting and fishing for most of their food. Villages consisted of lodges called wigwams as well as longhouses, tribes were led by male or female elders known as sachems. In the early 1600s, after contact had been made with Europeans, large numbers of the indigenous peoples in the northeast of what is now the United States were killed by virgin soil epidemics such as smallpox, measles and leptospirosis.
Between 1617 and 1619, smallpox killed ap