All-Ireland Senior Football Championship
The All-Ireland Senior Football Championship, the premier competition in gaelic football, is an annual series of games played in Ireland and organised by the Gaelic Athletic Association. The All-Ireland Senior Football Championship Final is played by the "35th Sunday of the year" at Croke Park in Dublin, with the winning team receiving the Sam Maguire Cup. Contested by the top inter-county football teams in Ireland, the tournament has taken place every year since 1887, except in 1888, when the competition was not played due to a tour of the United States by would-be competitors; the first Championship to be held featured club teams who represented their respective counties after their county championship. The 21 a-side final was between Commercials of Young Irelands of Louth; the final was played in Beech Hill, Clonskeagh on 29 April 1888 with Commercials winning by 1–4 to 0–3. Unlike All-Ireland competitions, there were no provincial championships, the result was an open draw; the second Championship was unfinished owing to the American Invasion Tour.
The 1888 provincial championships had been completed but after the Invasion tour returned, the All-Ireland semi-final and final were not played. English team London reached the final four times in the early years of the competition. In 1892, inter-county teams were introduced to the All-Ireland Championship. Congress granted permission for the winning club to use players from other clubs in the county, thus the inter-county teams came into being; the rules of hurling and football were altered: goals were made equal to five points, teams were reduced from 21 to 17 a-side. The 1903 Championship brought Kerry's first All-Ireland title, they went on to become the most successful football team in the history of the All-Ireland Senior Football Championship. The first half of the twentieth century brought the rise of several teams who won two or more All-Ireland titles in that period, such as Kildare, Cavan and Roscommon. In the 1990s, a significant sea change took place, as the All-Ireland was claimed by an Ulster team in four consecutive years.
Since Ulster has produced more All-Ireland winning teams than any other province. The All-Ireland Qualifiers were introduced in 2001; that year, the 2001 final brought victory for Galway who became the first football team to win an All-Ireland by springing through "the back door." In 2013, Hawk-Eye was introduced. It was first used to confirm that Offaly substitute Peter Cunningham's attempted point had gone wide 10 minutes into the second half of a game against Kildare. 2013 brought the first Friday night game in the history of the Championship - a first round qualifier between Carlow and Laois.2018 saw the introduction of the All Ireland Super 8s. The county is a geographical region in Ireland, each of the thirty-two counties in Ireland organise their own gaelic games affairs through a County Board; the county teams play in their respective Provincial Championships in Connacht, Leinster and Ulster. Kilkenny is unique among the 32 Irish county associations in not participating in the All-Ireland Senior Football Championship.
The Provincial Championships operate through a knock-out cup competition format. They take place during the months of June; the winners of each of the four Provincial Championships earn a place in the All-Ireland Super 8s, a round robin group stage new to the 2018 Championship, which takes place in the months of July and August. Each provincial championship match is played as a single leg. If a match is drawn extra time is played. However, if both sides are still level at the end of extra time a replay takes place. In the case of a provincial final if matches end level a replay takes place without extra time; the twenty-nine teams that fail to win their respective Provincial Championships receive a second opportunity to reach the All-Ireland Series via the All Ireland Qualifiers. The qualifiers series takes place in the months of June and July and operates as follows: Qualifiers Round 1: All teams that fail to reach the semi-finals of their respective Provincial Championships compete in round one.
An open draw system is used to divide the teams into eight individual match-ups. The winning eight teams progress to Round 2, while the losing eight teams are eliminated from the All Ireland Championship. Round 2: Each of the eight winning teams of Round 1 are drawn against the eight losing teams from the semi-finals of the four Provincial Championships; the winning eight teams progress to Round 3, while the losing eight teams are eliminated from the All Ireland Championship. Round 3: The eight winning teams from Round 2 are divided into four individual match-ups. An open draw is made to determine the four pairings; the winning four teams progress to Round 4, while the losing four teams are eliminated from the All Ireland Championship. Round 4: Each of the four winning teams of Round 3 are drawn against the four losing teams from the finals of the four Provincial Championships; the winning four teams proceed to the All-Ireland Series, joining the four Provincial Champions, while the losing four teams are eliminated from the All Ireland Championship.
The All-Ireland Championship All-Ireland Super 8s: The four Provincial Champions and the winning four teams from Round 4 of the All-Ireland Qualifiers take part in a group stage that takes place in the months of July and August. The group stage is organised on a league basis with two groups of four
Miscarriage of justice
A miscarriage of justice known as a failure of justice, is when an innocent person is found guilty. It is used as a legal defense in criminal and deportation proceedings; the term applies to errors in the other direction—"errors of impunity", or to any unjust outcome in any civil case. Every "miscarriage of justice" in turn is a "manifest injustice." Most criminal justice systems have some means to overturn or quash a wrongful conviction, but this is difficult to achieve. In some instances a wrongful conviction is not overturned for several decades, or until after the innocent person has been executed, released from custody, or has died. "Miscarriage of justice" is sometimes used to describe any wrongful conviction when the defendant may be guilty, for example in reference to a conviction reached as the result of an unfair or disputed trial. While a miscarriage of justice is a Type I error for falsely identifying culpability, an error of impunity would be a Type II error of failing to find a culpable person guilty.
However, the term "miscarriage of justice" is used to describe the latter type as well. With capital punishment decreasing, the expression has acquired an extended meaning, namely any conviction for a crime not committed by the convicted person. Wrongful convictions are cited by death penalty opponents as cause to eliminate death penalties to avoid executing innocent persons. In recent years, DNA evidence has been used to clear many people falsely convicted; the term travesty of justice is sometimes used for a gross, deliberate miscarriage of justice. Show trials, due to their character lead to such travesties; the concept of miscarriage of justice has important implications for standard of review, in that an appellate court will only exercise its discretion to correct a plain error when a miscarriage of justice would otherwise occur. The Scandinavian languages have a word, the Swedish variant of, justitiemord, which translates as "justice murder". Slavic languages use a different word, but it is used for judicial murder, while miscarriage of justice is "justiční omyl" in Czech, implying an error of the justice system, not a deliberate manipulation.
The term was used for cases where the accused was convicted and cleared after death. Causes of miscarriages of justice include: Plea bargains that offer incentives for the innocent to plead guilty, sometimes called an innocent prisoner's dilemma Confirmation bias on the part of investigators Withholding or destruction of evidence by police or prosecution Fabrication of evidence or outright perjury by police, or prosecution witnesses Biased editing of evidence Prejudice against the class of people to which the defendant belongs Misidentification of the perpetrator by witnesses and/or victims Overestimation/underestimation of the evidential value of expert testimony Contaminated evidence Faulty forensic tests False confessions due to police pressure or psychological weakness Misdirection of a jury by a judge during trial Perjured evidence by the real guilty party or their accomplices Perjured evidence by the alleged victim or their accomplices Conspiracy between court of appeal judges and prosecutors to uphold conviction of the innocent Fraudulent conduct by a judge: Judicial MisconductA risk of miscarriages of justice is one of the main arguments against the death penalty.
Where condemned persons are executed promptly after conviction, the most significant effect of a miscarriage of justice is irreversible. Wrongly executed people occasionally receive posthumous pardons—which void the conviction—or have their convictions quashed. Many death penalty states hold condemned persons for ten or more years before execution, so that any new evidence that might acquit them will have had time to surface; when a wrongly convicted person is not executed, years in prison can have a substantial, irreversible effect on the person and their family. The risk of miscarriage of justice is therefore an argument against long sentences, like a life sentence, cruel prison conditions. Various studies estimate that in the United States, between 2.3 and 5% of all prisoners are innocent. One study estimated that up to 10,000 people may be wrongfully convicted of serious crimes each year. A 2014 study estimated that 4.1% of inmates awaiting execution on death row in the United States are innocent, that at least 340 innocent people may have been executed since 1973.
According to Professor Boaz Sangero of the College of Law and Business in Ramat Gan in Israel, most wrongful convictions are for crimes less serious than major felonies such as rape and murder, as judicial systems are less careful in dealing with those cases. Wrongful convictions appear at first to be "rightful" arrests and subsequent convictions, include a public statement about a particular crime having occurred, as well as a particular individual or individuals having committed that crime. If the conviction turns out to be a miscarriage of justice one or both of these statements is deemed to be false. During this time between the miscarriage of justice and its correction, the public holds false beliefs about the occurrence of a crime, the perpetrator of a crime, or both. While the public audience of a miscarriage of justice varies, they may in some cases be as large as an entire nation or multitude of nations. In cases where a large-scale audience is unknowingly witness
Dungiven is a small town and civil parish in County Londonderry, Northern Ireland. It is on the main A6 Belfast to Derry road, it lies where the rivers Roe and Owenbeg meet at the foot of the 1,525 ft Benbradagh. Nearby is the Glenshane Pass, where the road rises to over 1,000 ft, it had a population of 2,993 people in the 2001 Census, an increase of 6% over 1991. It is within Causeway Coast and Glens district. Dungiven sprang up around Dungiven Castle and the Church of Ireland at the eastern end of the town spreading westwards along Chapel Road and Main Street towards the bridging point on the River Roe; because of the River Roe's flood plain and the line of a proposed by-pass, housing development has been to the east and north of the town. It is an important service centre for the surrounding rural hinterland. An interesting site in Dungiven is the 11th century Augustinian priory of St Mary's and the tomb of O'Cahan, laid to rest in 1385. A thicket of thorn bushes hung with rags conceals a bullaun stone, visited for wart cures.
Between the 12th and 17th centuries the area was ruled by the Ó Catháin clan, one of the most influential clans in Ulster and respected throughout Ireland. In the early 17th century they built Dungiven Castle, which - having been rebuilt in the 19th century - remains today as a restaurant and guesthouse; the world-famous song Danny Boy is taken from a melody composed by the Ó Catháin bard, Ruairí Dall Ó Catháin. The original version concerns the passing of the Chief Cooey-na-Gall, whose death brought an end to the long line of O'Cahan chiefs. During The Troubles in Northern Ireland, seven people were killed in or near Dungiven in connection with the conflict, six of whom were members of the security forces; the one civilian, Francis McCloskey, was found beaten to death in disputed circumstances during street riots, in which the police were called to respond. He has sometimes been deemed as the first person killed in the last installment of the Troubles; the village is part of the East Londonderry Parliamentary constituency, coterminous with the Northern Ireland Assembly constituency of the same name.
It forms part of Glens Borough Council district. Dungiven Celtic F. C. is an association football club playing in the Northern Ireland Intermediate League. Gaelic games are the most popular sports in the area. St Canice's Dungiven is the local Gaelic football club. Kevin Lynch's is the local hurling club; the team plays at Kevin Lynch Park. Dungiven is classified as an intermediate settlement by the NI Statistics and Research Agency. On Census day there were 2,993 people living in Dungiven. Of these: 29.3% were aged under 16 and 11.7% were aged 60 and over 50.4% of the population were male and 49.6% were female 96.8% were from a Catholic background and 3.1% were from a Protestant background 6.7% of people aged 16–74 were unemployed. For more details see:NI Neighbourhood Information Service Dungiven sits on the main A6 road and has good road links to Derry and Limavady. A proposed by-pass for Dungiven, following a route to the south west of the town, has been marked-out since the 1973 Limavady Area Plan.
Dungiven was the terminus of the Limavady railway, which closed in 1950. Dungiven railway station opened on 4 July 1883, closed for passenger traffic on 1 January 1933 and closed altogether on 3 July 1950. Francis Brolly, former Sinn Féin MLA for East Londonderry Joe Brolly, member of Derry's 1993 All-Ireland winning team. List of civil parishes of County Londonderry
Raymond McCartney is a Sinn Féin politician, a former hunger striker and volunteer of the Provisional Irish Republican Army. McCartney took part in the civil rights march in Derry on 30 January 1972, an event known as Bloody Sunday. One of his cousins, James Wray, was one of 14 men shot and killed by the 1st Battalion, Parachute Regiment on that march; as a result of this incident McCartney joined the Provisional IRA several months later. On 12 January 1979 at Belfast Crown Court McCartney and another man, Eamonn MacDermott, were convicted of the murder of Detective Constable Patrick McNulty of the Royal Ulster Constabulary, shot several times outside a garage in Derry on 27 January 1977. McCartney was convicted of IRA membership and the murder of businessman Jeffery Agate in February 1977, was sentenced to life imprisonment; the murder convictions were overturned in 2007. McCartney was involved in the blanket and dirty protests took part in the 1980 hunger strike, along with fellow IRA members Brendan Hughes, Tommy McKearney, Tom McFeely, Sean McKenna, Leo Green, Irish National Liberation Army member John Nixon.
McCartney spent 53 days from 27 October to 18 December. From 1989–91 he was Officer Commanding of the IRA prisoners in the H Blocks, was released in 1994. Since his release he has been active with ex-prisoners' groups Tar Abhaile and Coiste na n-Íarchimí, was the first member of Sinn Féin to have his or her own voice heard on television after the lifting of the broadcasting ban in 1994. McCartney was arrested on 4 April 2002 following a breach of security at Belfast's police headquarters, but released without charge the next day; that year, on 5 September, McCartney was the first former IRA member to appear before the Bloody Sunday Inquiry, encouraged anyone with information, including paramilitaries, to come forward. He has been an MLA for Foyle since 15 July 2004. On 15 February 2007 McCartney and MacDermott had their murder convictions quashed by the Court of Appeal, following an investigation by the Criminal Cases Review Commission in 2002; the Secretary of State for Northern Ireland declined to compensate McCartney and McDermott on the grounds that they had not proven themselves innocent.
The decision was appealed to the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom which, in May 2011, found in favour of the applicants, opening the way for a substantial compensation claim from both for their prison terms of 15 and 17 years. Profile: Raymond McCartney, sinnfein.ie.
A barrister is a type of lawyer in common law jurisdictions. Barristers specialise in courtroom advocacy and litigation, their tasks include taking cases in superior courts and tribunals, drafting legal pleadings, researching the philosophy and history of law, giving expert legal opinions. Barristers are recognised as legal scholars. Barristers are distinguished from solicitors, who have more direct access to clients, may do transactional-type legal work, it is barristers who are appointed as judges, they are hired by clients directly. In some legal systems, including those of Scotland, South Africa, Pakistan, India and the British Crown dependencies of Jersey and the Isle of Man, the word barrister is regarded as an honorific title. In a few jurisdictions, barristers are forbidden from "conducting" litigation, can only act on the instructions of a solicitor, who performs tasks such as corresponding with parties and the court, drafting court documents. In England and Wales, barristers may seek authorisation from the Bar Standards Board to conduct litigation.
This allows a barrister to practise in a'dual capacity', fulfilling the role of both barrister and solicitor. In some countries with common law legal systems, such as New Zealand and some regions of Australia, lawyers are entitled to practise both as barristers and solicitors, but it remains a separate system of qualification to practise as a barrister. A barrister, who can be considered as a jurist, is a lawyer who represents a litigant as advocate before a court of appropriate jurisdiction. A barrister presents the case before a judge or jury. In some jurisdictions, a barrister receives additional training in evidence law and court practice and procedure. In contrast, a solicitor meets with clients, does preparatory and administrative work and provides legal advice. In this role, he or she may draft and review legal documents, interact with the client as necessary, prepare evidence, manage the day-to-day administration of a lawsuit. A solicitor can provide a crucial support role to a barrister when in court, such as managing large volumes of documents in the case or negotiating a settlement outside the courtroom while the trial continues inside.
There are other essential differences. A barrister will have rights of audience in the higher courts, whereas other legal professionals will have more limited access, or will need to acquire additional qualifications to have such access; as in common law countries in which there is a split between the roles of barrister and solicitor, the barrister in civil law jurisdictions is responsible for appearing in trials or pleading cases before the courts. Barristers have particular knowledge of case law and the skills to "build" a case; when a solicitor in general practice is confronted with an unusual point of law, they may seek the "opinion of counsel" on the issue. In most countries, barristers operate as sole practitioners, are prohibited from forming partnerships or from working as a barrister as part of a corporation. However, barristers band together into "chambers" to share clerks and operating expenses; some chambers grow to be large and sophisticated, have a distinctly corporate feel. In some jurisdictions, they may be employed by firms of solicitors, banks, or corporations as in-house legal advisers.
In contrast and attorneys work directly with the clients and are responsible for engaging a barrister with the appropriate expertise for the case. Barristers have little or no direct contact with their'lay clients' without the presence or involvement of the solicitor. All correspondence, invoices, so on, will be addressed to the solicitor, responsible for the barrister's fees. In court, barristers are visibly distinguished from solicitors by their apparel. For example, in Ireland and Wales, a barrister wears a horsehair wig, stiff collar, a gown. Since January 2008, solicitor advocates have been entitled to wear wigs, but wear different gowns. In many countries the traditional divisions between barristers and solicitors are breaking down. Barristers once enjoyed a monopoly on appearances before the higher courts, but in Great Britain this has now been abolished, solicitor advocates can appear for clients at trial. Firms of solicitors are keeping the most advanced advisory and litigation work in-house for economic and client relationship reasons.
The prohibition on barristers taking instructions directly from the public has been abolished. But, in practice, direct instruction is still a rarity in most jurisdictions because barristers with narrow specializations, or who are only trained for advocacy, are not prepared to provide general advice to members of the public. Barristers have had a major role in trial preparation, including drafting pleadings and reviewing evidence. In some areas of law, still the case. In other areas, it is common for the barrister to receive the brief from the instructing solicitor to represent a client at trial only a day or two before the proceeding. Part of the reason for this is cost. A barrister is entitled to a'brief fee' when a brief is delivered, this represents the bulk of her/his fee in relation to any trial, they are usually entitled to a'refresher' for each day of the trial after the first. But if a case is settled before the trial, the barrister is not needed and the brief fee would be wast
Northern Ireland is a part of the United Kingdom in the north-east of the island of Ireland, variously described as a country, province or region. Northern Ireland shares a border to the west with the Republic of Ireland. In 2011, its population was 1,810,863, constituting about 30% of the island's total population and about 3% of the UK's population. Established by the Northern Ireland Act 1998 as part of the Good Friday Agreement, the Northern Ireland Assembly holds responsibility for a range of devolved policy matters, while other areas are reserved for the British government. Northern Ireland co-operates with the Republic of Ireland in some areas, the Agreement granted the Republic the ability to "put forward views and proposals" with "determined efforts to resolve disagreements between the two governments". Northern Ireland was created in 1921, when Ireland was partitioned between Northern Ireland and Southern Ireland by the Government of Ireland Act 1920. Unlike Southern Ireland, which would become the Irish Free State in 1922, the majority of Northern Ireland's population were unionists, who wanted to remain within the United Kingdom.
Most of these were the Protestant descendants of colonists from Great Britain. However, a significant minority Catholics, were nationalists who wanted a united Ireland independent of British rule. Today, the former see themselves as British and the latter see themselves as Irish, while a distinct Northern Irish or Ulster identity is claimed both by a large minority of Catholics and Protestants and by many of those who are non-aligned. For most of the 20th century, when it came into existence, Northern Ireland was marked by discrimination and hostility between these two sides in what First Minister of Northern Ireland, David Trimble, called a "cold house" for Catholics. In the late 1960s, conflict between state forces and chiefly Protestant unionists on the one hand, chiefly Catholic nationalists on the other, erupted into three decades of violence known as the Troubles, which claimed over 3,500 lives and caused over 50,000 casualties; the 1998 Good Friday Agreement was a major step in the peace process, including the decommissioning of weapons, although sectarianism and religious segregation still remain major social problems, sporadic violence has continued.
Northern Ireland has been the most industrialised region of Ireland. After declining as a result of the political and social turmoil of the Troubles, its economy has grown since the late 1990s; the initial growth came from the "peace dividend" and the links which increased trade with the Republic of Ireland, continuing with a significant increase in tourism and business from around the world. Unemployment in Northern Ireland peaked at 17.2% in 1986, dropping to 6.1% for June–August 2014 and down by 1.2 percentage points over the year, similar to the UK figure of 6.2%. 58.2% of those unemployed had been unemployed for over a year. Prominent artists and sportspeople from Northern Ireland include Van Morrison, Rory McIlroy, Joey Dunlop, Wayne McCullough and George Best; some people from Northern Ireland prefer to identify as Irish while others prefer to identify as British. Cultural links between Northern Ireland, the rest of Ireland, the rest of the UK are complex, with Northern Ireland sharing both the culture of Ireland and the culture of the United Kingdom.
In many sports, the island of Ireland fields a single team, a notable exception being association football. Northern Ireland competes separately at the Commonwealth Games, people from Northern Ireland may compete for either Great Britain or Ireland at the Olympic Games; the region, now Northern Ireland was the bedrock of the Irish war of resistance against English programmes of colonialism in the late 16th century. The English-controlled Kingdom of Ireland had been declared by the English king Henry VIII in 1542, but Irish resistance made English control fragmentary. Following Irish defeat at the Battle of Kinsale, the region's Gaelic, Roman Catholic aristocracy fled to continental Europe in 1607 and the region became subject to major programmes of colonialism by Protestant English and Scottish settlers. A rebellion in 1641 by Irish aristocrats against English rule resulted in a massacre of settlers in Ulster in the context of a war breaking out between England and Ireland fuelled by religious intolerance in government.
Victories by English forces in that war and further Protestant victories in the Williamite War in Ireland toward the close of the 17th century solidified Anglican rule in Ireland. In Northern Ireland, the victories of the Siege of Derry and the Battle of the Boyne in this latter war are still celebrated by some Protestants. Popes Innocent XI and Alexander VIII had supported William of Orange instead of his maternal uncle and father-in-law James II, despite William being Protestant and James a Catholic, due to William's participation in alliance with both Protesant and Catholic powers in Europe in wars against Louis XIV, the powerful King of France, in conflict with the papacy for decades. In 1693, Pope Innocent XII recognised James as continuing King of Great Britain and Ireland in place of William, after reconciliation with Louis. In 1695, contrary to the terms of the Treaty of Limerick, a series of penal laws were passed by the Anglican ruling class in Ireland in intense anger at the Pope's recognition of James over William, felt to be a betrayal.
The intention of the la
County Londonderry known as County Derry, is one of the six counties of Northern Ireland. Prior to the partition of Ireland, it was one of the counties of the Kingdom of Ireland from 1613 onward and of the United Kingdom after the Acts of Union 1800. Adjoining the north-west shore of Lough Neagh, the county covers an area of 2,074 km² and today has a population of about 247,132. Since 1972, the counties in Northern Ireland, including Londonderry, have no longer been used by the state as part of the local administration. Following further reforms in 2015, the area is now governed under three different districts. Despite no longer being used for local government and administrative purposes, it is sometimes used in a cultural context in All-Ireland sporting and cultural events. Since 1981, it has become one of four counties in Northern Ireland that has a Catholic majority, with 57% of the Catholic population residing within Derry City Council; the county flower is the Purple Saxifrage. The place name Derry is an anglicisation of the old Irish Daire, meaning "oak-grove" or "oak-wood".
As with the city, its name is subject to the Derry/Londonderry name dispute, with the form "Londonderry" preferred by unionists and "Derry" by nationalists. British authorities use the name "Londonderry". Mountsandel located near Coleraine in County Londonderry is "perhaps the oldest recorded settlement within Ireland". At an early period, what became the county of Coleraine was inhabited by the O'Cahans, who were tributary to the O'Neills. Towards the close of the reign of Elizabeth I their territory was seized by England, with the purpose of checking the power of the O'Neills, was made the county of Coleraine, named after the regional capital. A short description of County Coleraine is given in Harris's Hibernica, in Captain Pynnar's Survey of the Escheated Counties of Ulster, Anno 1618: On 2 March 1613, James I granted a charter to The Honourable The Irish Society to undertake the plantation of a new county; this county was named a combination of London and Derry. This charter declared that the "City of Londonderry" and everything contained within the new county: This new county would comprise the County Coleraine—which consisted of the baronies of Tirkeeran and Keenaght—and at the behest of The Irish Society the following additional territory was added: all but the south-west corner of the barony of Loughinsholin a part of County Tyrone, as it had sufficient wood for construction.
The Irish Society was made up of the twelve main livery companies of London, which themselves were composed of various guilds. Whilst The Irish Society as a whole was given possession of the city of Londonderry and Coleraine, the individual companies were each granted an estimated 3,210 acres throughout the county; these companies and the sites of their headquarters were: Clothworkers, based at Killowen and Clothworker's Hall in the barony of Coleraine. As a result of the Local Government Act 1898, the city was detached from the county for administrative purposes, becoming a separate county borough from 1899; the county town of County Londonderry, seat of the Londonderry County Council until its abolition in 1973, was therefore moved to the town of Coleraine. The highest point in the county is the summit of Sawel Mountain on the border with County Tyrone. Sawel is part of the Sperrin Mountains. To the east and west, the land falls into the valleys of the Foyle rivers respectively; the county is home to a number of important buildings and landscapes, including the well-preserved 17th-century city walls of Derry.