Baldwin Hills, Los Angeles
Baldwin Hills is a neighborhood within the South Los Angeles region of Los Angeles California. It is home to Village Green, a National Historic Landmark. Baldwin Hills is bounded by La Cienega Boulevard to the west, Crenshaw Boulevard to the east, Stocker Street to the south and Rodeo Road to the north with Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard forming the northeast dividing line between Baldwin Hills and Crenshaw Manor, it is bordered on the west by Culver City and it shares the eastern border of Crenshaw Boulevard with Leimert Park. The namesake mountain range is part of the neighborhood. Baldwin Hills and other surrounding geography are named for the famous 19th century horse racing and land development pioneer, Elias J. "Lucky" Baldwin. Ran historic early 19th century eastern hills Rancho land grant. Sanchez Adobe de Rancho La Cienega o Paso de la Tijera; the adobe was once the center of the rancho. In the 1920s, an addition was built linking the structures and the building was converted into a larger clubhouse for the Sunset Golf Course.
Rancho Rincon de los Bueyes: original early 19th century western section Rancho land grant. The 1932 Los Angeles Olympics housed athletes at the Olympic Village in Baldwin Hills, it was the site of the first Olympic Village built, for the 1932 Los Angeles Summer Olympic Games. Built for male athletes only, the village consisted of several hundred buildings, including post and telegraph offices, an amphitheater, a hospital, a fire department, a bank. Female athletes were housed at the Chapman Park Hotel on Wilshire Boulevard; the Olympic Village was demolished after the Summer Olympic Games. On December 14, 1963, a crack appeared in the Baldwin Hills Dam impounding the Baldwin Hills Reservoir. Within a few hours, water rushing through the crack eroded the earthen dam widening the crack until the dam failed catastrophically at 3:38 pm. Although the area had been evacuated after the crack had been discovered, several homes were destroyed, most of Baldwin Vista and the historic Village Green community were flooded.
The dam's failure was determined to be the result of subsidence, caused by overexploitation of the Inglewood Oil Field. The dam's failure prompted the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power to close and drain other small local reservoirs with similar designs, such as the Silver Lake Reservoir; the Baldwin Hills Dam was not rebuilt—instead, the empty reservoir was demolished, filled with earth and converted to Kenneth Hahn Regional Park. During the summer of 1985, a brush fire along La Brea Avenue spread up the canyon towards the homes along Don Carlos Drive in Baldwin Hills Estates. Many homes were destroyed despite the efforts of the Los Angeles Fire Department to suppress the flames; the fire destroyed 69 homes. Neighborhoods within Baldwin Hills include: Baldwin Hills Estates is locally known as "The Dons", because all but one street begins with the formal title of Los Angeles' original land holders; the oldest two streets in the Dons are Don Mariano Drive. Old maps show those streets with the names Maryann.
Susan B. Miller High School has called its student body The Dorsey Dons and Donnas after this neighborhood; the neighborhood is east of La Brea, southwest of Santo Tomas Drive, south of the Jim Gilliam Recreation Center and north of Stocker Street). It is sometimes called "the Black Beverly Hills"; the neighborhood is characterized by hillside houses with swimming pools, modern condominiums. Baldwin Vista is north of Coliseum Street and west of the major thoroughfare, La Brea Avenue, with smaller homes and a more secluded ambience. Village Green named Baldwin Hills Village and within Baldwin Vista, is a historic Mid-Century modern "garden city" developed by Walter H. Leimert multi-family residential, it was designated as a National Historic Landmark in 2001. The units are now condominiums on spacious grounds, attracting seniors, young families, design professionals as residents. Baldwin Village: since 1990 the city has promoted use of the official name "Baldwin Village"; the southernmost portion of Baldwin Hills is outside the Los Angeles City limits.
Along with View Park-Windsor Hills and Ladera Heights, it resides in an unincorporated area of Los Angeles County. Stocker Street divides Baldwin Hills from the View Park neighborhood; the northeast face of the hills overlooks the Baldwin Hills Crenshaw Plaza shopping mall and Marlton Square's Kaiser Permanente medical office building. Baldwin Hills Scenic Overlook is located at 6300 Hetzler Road in Culver City, CA; the 8.5-acre park is open daily from 8 a.m. to sunset. The Visitor Center is open Thursday–Sunday from 10 a.m. to 5 p.m. The park includes an amphitheater, drinking water, the Evan Frankel Discovery Center, gardening boxes, picnic tables, a permeable parking lot and walking paths with a central feature known as the Culver City Stairs; the Visitor Center has a comprehensive guide to the native plants of the area and history of Culver City. On a clear day the Overlook's platform offers exceptional views spanning the Pacific Ocean to the west, the Hollywood Sign to the north, downtown Los Angeles to the east.
Kenneth Hahn State Regional Park is located at 4100 South La Cienega Boulevard. It is a 401 acre recreation and sports area. Norman O Houston Park: is located at 4800 South La Brea Avenue. Jim Gilliam Park & Recreation Center is located at 4000 South La Brea Avenue, it is home to the Jim Gilliam Senior Citizen Center The Los Angeles Public Library operates the Baldwin Hills Branch Library. It is located at 2900 La Brea Avenue. Baldwin Hills is served by
Inglewood is a city in southwestern Los Angeles County, California in the Los Angeles metropolitan area. As of the 2010 U. S. Census, the city had a population of 109,673, it was incorporated on February 14, 1908. The city is in the South Bay region of Los Angeles County. Los Angeles Stadium at Hollywood Park is under construction in the city and, when completed around 2020, will be the new home of both the National Football League's Los Angeles Rams and Los Angeles Chargers; the city is close to Los Angeles International Airport. The earliest residents of what is now Inglewood were Native Americans who used the natural springs in today's Edward Vincent Jr. Park. Local historian Gladys Waddingham wrote that these springs took the name Centinela from the hills that rose around them and which allowed ranchers to watch over their herds "". Waddingham traced the written history of Inglewood back to the original settlers of Los Angeles in 1781, one of whom was the Spanish soldier Jose Manuel Orchado Machado, "a 23-year-old muleteer from Los Alamos in Sinaloa".
These settlers, she wrote, were ordered by the officials of the San Gabriel Mission "to graze their animals on the ocean side of Los Angeles in order not to infringe on Mission lands." As a result, the settlers, or pobladores, drove some of their cattle to the "lush pasture lands near Centinela Springs," and the first construction there was done by one Ygnacio Avila, who received a permit in 1822 to build a "corral and hut for his herders." Avila constructed a three-room adobe on a slight rise overlooking the creek that ran from Centinela Springs all the way to the ocean. According to the LAOkay web site, this adobe was built where the present baseball field is in the park, it no longer exists. In 1834, Ygnacio Machado, one of the sons of Jose Machado, built the Centinela Adobe, which sits on a rise above the present 405 San Diego Freeway and is used as the headquarters of the Centinela Valley Historical Society. Two years Waddingham writes, Ygnacio was granted the 2,220-acre Rancho Aguaje de la Centinela though this land had been claimed by Avila.
Inglewood Park Cemetery, a used cemetery for the entire region, was founded in 1905. The city has been home to the Hollywood Park Racetrack from 1938 to 2013, one of the premier horse racing venues in the United States. Fosters Freeze, the first soft serve ice cream chain in California, was founded by George Foster in 1946 in Inglewood. Inglewood was named an All-America City by the National Civic League in 1989 and yet again in 2009 for its visible progress. On January 12, 2016, Inglewood was selected to be the home of the Los Angeles Rams of the National Football League. Ku Klux Klan activities in Inglewood during the 20th century were highlighted by the 1922 arrest and trial of 37 men, most of them masked, for a night-time raid on a suspected bootlegger and his family; the raid led to the shooting death of one of an Inglewood police officer. A jury returned a "not guilty" verdict for all defendants, it was this scandal, according to the Los Angeles Times, that led to the outlawing of the Klan in California.
The Klan had a chapter in Inglewood as late as October 1931. "No blacks had lived in Inglewood," Gladys Waddingham wrote, but by 1960, "they lived in great numbers along its eastern borders. This came to the great displeasure of the predominantly white residents residing in Inglewood. In 1960, the census counted only 29'Negroes' among Inglewood's 63,390 residents. Not a single black child attended the city's schools. Real estate agents refused to show homes to blacks. A rumored curfew kept blacks off the streets at night. Inglewood was a prime target because of its history of restrictions." "Fair housing and school busing were the main problems of 1964. The schools were not prepared to handle racial incidents though any that occurred were minor. Adults held many heated community meetings, since the Blacks objected to busing as much as did the Whites." In 1969, an organization called "Morningside Neighbors" changed its name to "Inglewood Neighbors" "in the hope of promoting more integration."On February 3, 1969, Harold P. Moret became Inglewood's first black police officer.
A full year Jimmy Lee Worsham became the second. He was followed by Barbara Harris, the first black female officer Otis Hendricks, Melvin Lovelace and Eugene Lindsey; the 7th black officer in the history of the City of Inglewood was Jr.. He became Inglewood's first black Motorcycle Traffic Enforcement Officer, 1st Black Lieutenant and only black Deputy Chief in the history of the Department. Butts left Inglewood in September 1991 at the age of 38 to become the first person of color to command the Santa Monica Police Department as Chief of Police, the youngest to do so. Twenty years on February 1, 2011 Butts returned to Inglewood by being elected as its fourth black mayor. On July 22, 1970, Los Angeles Superior Court Judge Max F. Deutz ordered Inglewood schools to desegregate in response to a suit filed by 19 parents. At least since 1965, said Deutz, the Inglewood school board had been aware of a growing influx of black families into its eastern areas but had done nothing about the polarization of its pupils into an eastern black area and a western white one.
On August 31, he rejected an appeal by four parents who said the school board was not responsible for the segregation but that the blacks "selected their places of residence by voluntary choice."The first black principal among the 18 Inglewood schools was Peter Butler at La Tijera Elementary, in 1971, Waddingham wrote, "Stormy r
Tom Bradley (American politician)
Thomas J. Bradley was an American politician and former police officer who served as the 38th Mayor of Los Angeles from 1973 to 1993, he has been the only African American Mayor of Los Angeles, his 20 years in office mark the longest tenure by any mayor in the city's history. His 1973 election made him the second African-American mayor of a major U. S. city. Bradley retired in 1993, after his approval ratings began dropping subsequent to the 1992 Los Angeles Riots. Bradley unsuccessfully ran for Governor of California in 1982 and 1986 and was defeated each time by the Republican George Deukmejian; the racial dynamics that appeared to underlie his narrow and unexpected loss in 1982 gave rise to the political term "the Bradley effect." In 1985, he was awarded the Spingarn Medal from the NAACP. Bradley, the grandson of a slave, was born on December 29, 1917, to Lee Thomas and Crenner Bradley, poor sharecroppers who lived in a small log cabin outside Calvert, Texas, he had four siblings — Lawrence, Willa Mae and Howard.
The family moved to Arizona to pick cotton and in 1924 to the Temple-Alvarado area of Los Angeles, where Lee was a Santa Fe Railroad porter and Crenner was a maid. Bradley attended Rosemont Elementary School, Lafayette Junior High School and Polytechnic High School, where he was the first black student to be elected president of the Boys League and the first to be inducted into the Ephebians national honor society, he was all-city tackle for the high school football team. He joined Kappa Alpha Psi fraternity. Among the jobs he had while at college was as a photographer for comedian Jimmy Durante. Bradley left his studies to join the Los Angeles Police Department in 1940, he became one of the "just 400 blacks" among the department's 4,000 officers. He recalled "the downtown department store that refused him credit, although he was a police officer, the restaurants that would not serve blacks." He told a Times reporter: When I came on the department, there were two assignments for black officers.
You either worked Newton Street Division, which has a predominantly black community, or you worked traffic downtown. You could not work with a white officer, that continued until 1964. Bradley and Ethel Arnold met at the New Hope Baptist Church and were married May 4, 1941, they had three daughters, Phyllis and a baby who died on the day she was born. He and his wife "needed a white intermediary to buy their first house in Leimert Park a all-white section of the city's Crenshaw district."Bradley was attending Southwestern University Law School while a police officer and began his practice as a lawyer when he retired from the police department. Upon his leaving the office of mayor in 1993, he joined the law offices of Brobeck, Phleger & Harrison, specializing in international trade issues, his entry into politics came. The club was part of the California Democratic Council, a liberal, reformist group organized in the 1950s by young Democrats energized by Adlai E. Stevenson's presidential campaigns.
It was predominantly white and had many Jewish members, thus marking the beginnings of the coalition, which along with Latinos, that would carry him to electoral victory so many times. His choice of a Democratic circle put him at odds with another political force in the African American community, representatives of poor, all-black areas who were associated with the political organization of Jesse M. Unruh an up-and-coming state assemblyman; the early stage of Bradley's political career was marked by clashes with African American leaders like onetime California Lieutenant Governor and former U. S. Representative Mervyn Dymally, an Unruh ally. Bradley applied for the 10th District seat in June 1961, when he was still a police lieutenant living at 3397 Welland Avenue; the City Council, which had the power to fill a vacancy, instead appointed Joe E. Hollingsworth, he ran against Hollingsworth in April 1963. There were only two candidates and Bradley, two elections — one for the unexpired term left by Controller Navarro, ending June 30, one for a full four-year term starting July 1.
Bradley won by 17,760 votes to 10,540 in the first election and by 17,552 votes to 10,400 in the second. By he had retired from the police force, he was sworn in as a councilman at the age of 45 on April 15, 1963, "the first Negro elected to the council."One of the first votes he made on a controversial subject was his opposition to a proposed study by City Attorney Roger Arnebergh and Police Chief William H. Parker of the Dictionary of American Slang, ordered in an 11-4 vote by the council. Councilman Tom Shepard's motion said the book was "saturated not only with phrases of sexual filth, but wordage defamatory of minority ethnic groups and definitions insulting religions and races."Bradley told Los Angeles Times reporter Richard Bergholz the next month that he "has been asked why he doesn't participate in public demonstrations. His answer: His power as a councilman can best be used in trying to bring groups together, that's where his time and energy should be spent." He said. In 1969, Bradley first challenged incumbent Mayor Sam Yorty, a conservative Democrat though the election was nonpartisan.
Armed with key endorsements, Bradley held a substantial lead over Yorty in the primary, but was a fe
Los Angeles City Council
The Los Angeles City Council is the governing body of the City of Los Angeles. The council is composed of fifteen members elected from single-member districts for four-year terms; the president of the council and the president pro tempore are chosen by the council at the first regular meeting of the term. An assistant president pro tempore is appointed by the President; as of 2015, council members receive an annual salary of $184,610 per year, among the highest city council salary in the nation. Regular council meetings are held in the City Hall on Tuesdays and Fridays at 10 am except on holidays or if decided by special resolution. A current annual schedule of all Council meetings, broken down by committee, is available as a.pdf download from the Office of the City Clerk. Officers: President of the Council: Herb Wesson President Pro Tempore: Nury Martinez Assistant President Pro Tempore: Joe Buscaino Los Angeles was governed by a seven-member Common Council under general state law from 1850 to 1889, when a city charter was put into effect.
Under the first charter of the city, granted by the Legislature in 1889, the city was divided into nine wards, with a councilman elected from each one by plurality vote. The first election under that system was held on February 21, 1889, the last on December 4, 1906. Two-year terms for the City Council began and ended in December, except for the first term, which started in February 1889 and ended in December 1890; the term of office was lengthened to three years effective with the municipal election of December 4, 1906, the last year this ward system was in use. Between 1909 and 1925, the council was composed of nine members elected at large in a first-past-the-post voting system. Council membership in those years was as follows: City population in 1910: 319,200 Election: December 7, 1909 / Term: December 10, 1909, to December 13, 1911 Election: December 5, 1911 / Term: December 13, 1911, to July 1, 1913 Election: June 3, 1913 / Term: July 1913 to July 1915 Election: June 1, 1915 / Term: July 1915 to July 1917 Election: June 5, 1917 / Term: July 1917 to July 1919 City population in 1920: 576,700 Election: June 3, 1919 / Term: July 7, 1919, to July 5, 1921 Election: June 7, 1921 / Term: July 1921 to July 1923 Election: June 5, 1923 / Term: July 1923 to July 1925 Regular terms begin on July 1 of odd-numbered years until 2017 and on the second Monday in December of even-numbered years starting with 2020.
Los Angeles Common Council List of Los Angeles municipal election returns Chronological Record of Los Angeles City Officials: 1850—1938, Compiled under Direction of Municipal Reference Library City Hall, Los Angeles March 1938 Official website Map of Los Angeles City Council districts
Charles Navarro Guarino was a Los Angeles, City Council member between 1951 and 1961 and city controller from 1961 to 1977. Navarro was born in New York City to Italian immigrant parents, he was a self-taught guitarist and banjo player who moved to Los Angeles when he was 19 to be a professional musician. He worked for Universal Studios, he owned an apartment building on San Marino Street in Los Angeles. Navarro was married to Rose Northy for 70 years married Seda Stevens. Navarro retired in 1977 and spent the last 28 years of his life overseeing his investments and enjoying "dining at his favorite Westside steakhouses.... At 100-plus he was walking without a cane, driving his Cadillac and going to church every Sunday." He died in his sleep at the age of 101 on September 7, 2005, was survived by his wife and a stepson, Armen Haig Stevens. See Los Angeles municipal election returns, 1951 and after. 1951 At the beginning of 1951, four candidates had begun their campaigns for election to Los Angeles's 10th District seat on the City Council — the incumbent, G. Vernon Bennett, as well as Assemblyman Vernon Kilpatrick, 1332 Hope Street.
Whitworth, 2106 Wilmot Street. Downs was a former City Council member who had lost his seat and went to prison in 1925 on a corruption charge; the district was "in the south-central section of the city," bounded by Wilshire and Jefferson boulevards and La Brea Avenue and Main Street. The Los Angeles Times, which favored Navarro's election, wrote of him: In a district, a favorite haunt for left-wingers for some considerable time, Navarro comes right out and says he's downright against all kinds of bureaucracy, Socialism or any other kind of ism.... Although the Council job is nonpartisan, he's up against two old-line, left-wing Democrats, G. Vernon Bennett, the incumbent, Assemblyman Vernon Kilpatrick, who's willing to ditch his State post for a city job if he can get it. Bennett, 16 years in the Council, is nearing 70 and during recent months was in trouble with the police, he appears to be on the way out. The April primary was seen as a dirty one: "Three of the candidates were accused of having police records, one of being an ex-convict.
Another was linked with activities of the Communist Party." Navarro came in second, with 5,077 votes to 5,301 for Kilpatrick, 3,835 for Bennett, 2,250 for Hubbard and 1,423 for Downs. Bennett promptly sued for Navarro's disqualification on the grounds that he had not listed his birth name on the ballot. Navarro answered that he had dropped his last name, Guarino, "because the first two were better suited to his work as a professional musician." A Superior Court judge dismissed Bennett's claim. Navarro won the May election, 9,001 votes to Kilpatrick's 7,321.1953 In the 1953 election, Navarro had four opponents: "John A. Somerville, Negro dentist and a member of the Municipal Police Commission. Navarro won with 14,892 votes over Somerville, 8,316; the final returns were 11,336 for Navarro, the victor, 6,236 for African-American businessman George L. Thomas. Whitworth. Navarro announced in December 1960 his determination to unseat 70-year-old Dan O. Hoye, city controller for 24 years and who said that his ambition was to equal the 28-year record of his predecessor in office, John Myers.
Navarro, chairman of the City Council's finance committee, was endorsed by the president of the Merchants and Manufacturers Association and the Los Angeles Times. Navarro won the election, 187,122 votes against 133,569 for Hoye, 67,318 for certified public accountant Harry C. Fischer and 25.683 for management consultant Cecil R. Kay; the city controller was unopposed in the next two elections: He received 470,324 votes in 1965 and 379,971 in 1969. He won the 1973 election, with 300,511 votes against 56,924 for Democratic businessman David Gold. Other 1973 candidates were 34,428 votes. Navarro testified twice before City Council committees in opposition to proposals to make the city controller an appointive office rather than elective — in 1969 and in 1977, he testified in the 1975 trial of a woman, charged with taking part in a "multimillion dollar plan to defraud the Los Angeles municipal treasury by cashing stolen city checks." He said. The same year he persuaded the City Council to purchase two check-writing machines that "would make forging a controller's signature impossible."Navarro left office in 1977.
"What I saw of Socialism and Communism in the rest of the world made me want to pitch in and stop it here." "I have never been arrested and am not a member of, or supported by, the Communist Party." "The job is paying the bills, making sure everybody gets paid, making sure the city is in sound financial shape. Bookkeeping and more bookkeeping." Access to some Los Angeles Times links may require the use of a library card
A recall election is a procedure by which, in certain polities, voters can remove an elected official from office through a direct vote before that official's term has ended. Recalls, which are initiated when sufficient voters sign a petition, have a history dating back to ancient Athenian democracy and feature in several current constitutions. In indirect or representative democracy, people's representatives are elected and these representatives rule for a specific period of time. However, where the facility to recall exists, should any representative come to be perceived as not properly discharging their responsibilities they can be called back with the written request of specific number or proportion of voters; the recall referendum arrived in Latin America shortly after its introduction at the US subnational level, in 1923 and 1933, to Cordoba and Entre Ríos provinces both in Argentina. There, recall exists at the provincial level in Chaco, Chubut, Córdoba, Corrientes, La Rioja, Rio Negro, Santiago del Estero and Tierra del Fuego.
It is included in Buenos Aires City. In 1995, the Legislative Assembly of British Columbia enacted representative recall. In the province of British Columbia, voters in a provincial riding can petition to have their representative in parliament removed from office if that MLA is the premier. If enough registered voters sign the petition, the speaker of the legislature announces in parliament that the member has been recalled and the lieutenant governor drops the writ for a by-election as soon as possible, giving voters the opportunity to replace the politician in question. By January 2003, 22 recall efforts had been launched. No-one has been recalled so far, but one representative, Paul Reitsma, resigned in 1998 when it looked as if the petition to recall him would have enough signatures to spur a recall election. Reitsma resigned during the secondary verification stage and the recall count ended. In Nova Scotia, the Atlantica Party campaigned for a recall in the 2017 provincial election. In Colombia, the recall referendum was included by the constitution in 1991.
The constitutional replacement was launched as an answer to the movement known as la séptima papeleta, which requested a constitutional reform to end violence, narcoterrorism and increasing citizenship apathy. The definition of recall referendum in relation to programmatic vote was approved, it obliges candidates running for office to register a government plan, on considered to activate the recall. Since the time the mechanism was regulated by Law 134 in 1994, until 2015, 161 attempts led 41 referendums and none of them succeeded since the threshold of participation was not reached. In 2015, a new law reduced the number of signatures required to activate a recall referendum and the threshold; the change in the regulation quickening the registration of promoters, led to a considerable increase in the number of attempts. Article 14 of the Constitution of Latvia enables the recall of the entire Saiema, though not of specific representatives: Article 14: Not less than one tenth of electors has the right to initiate a national referendum regarding recalling of the Saeima.
If the majority of voters and at least two thirds of the number of the voters who participated in the last elections of the Saeima vote in the national referendum regarding recalling of the Saeima the Saeima shall be deemed recalled. The right to initiate a national referendum regarding recalling of the Saeima may not be exercised one year after the convening of the Saeima and one year before the end of the term of office of the Saeima, during the last six months of the term of office of the President, as well as earlier than six months after the previous national referendum regarding recalling of the Saeima; the electors may not recall any individual member of the Saeima. Early policies of the New Zealand Labour Party included support for "the recall". Article 10 of the constitution of the Philippines allows for the recall of local officials; the Local Government Code, as amended, enabled the provisions of the constitution to be applied. Elected officials from provincial governors to the barangay councilors are allowed to be recalled.
At least 25% of the electorate in a specific place must have their signatures verified in a petition in order for the recall to take place. The president, vice president, members of Congress, the elected officials of the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao cannot be removed via recall; the last recall election above the barangay level was the 2015 Puerto Princesa mayoral recall election. Recall regulations were introduced in Peru by the Democratic Constituent Congress which drafted a new constitution after Alberto Fujimori's autogolpe in 1992. Between 1997 and 2013, more than 5000 recall referendums were activated against democratically elected authorities from 747 Peruvian municipalities; this makes Peru the world's most intensive user of this mechanism. While recalls are not provided for at the federal level in Switzerland, six cantons allow them: Bern: Recall of the executive and legislative has been possible since 1846. 30,000 signatures (4% of al
In the English language, Negro is a term used to denote persons considered to be of Negroid heritage. The term can be construed as offensive, inoffensive, or neutral depending on the region and/or country where it is used, it has various equivalents in other languages of Europe. From the latest United States census figures 36,000 Americans identify their ethnicity as "negro". Around 1442, the Portuguese first arrived in Southern Africa while trying to find a sea route to India; the term negro meaning "black", was used by the Spanish and Portuguese as a simple description to refer to the Bantu peoples that they encountered. Negro denotes "black" in Spanish and Portuguese, derived from the Latin word niger, meaning black, which itself is from a Proto-Indo-European root *nekw-, "to be dark", akin to *nokw-, "night". "Negro" was used of the peoples of West Africa in old maps labelled Negroland, an area stretching along the Niger River. From the 18th century to the late 1960s, negro was considered to be the proper English-language term for people of black African origin.
According to Oxford Dictionaries, use of the word "now seems out of date or offensive in both British and US English". A female form of the word, was used. However, like Jewess, it has all but fallen from use. "Negroid" has traditionally been used within physical anthropology to denote one of the three purported races of humankind, alongside Caucasoid and Mongoloid. The suffix -oid means "similar to". "Negroid" as a noun was used to designate a more generalized category than Negro. Negro superseded colored as the most polite word for African Americans at a time when black was considered more offensive. In Colonial America during the 17th century the term Negro was, according to one historian used to describe Native Americans. John Belton O'Neall's The Negro Law of South Carolina stipulated that "the term negro is confined to slave Africans, their descendants, it does not embrace the free inhabitants of Africa, such as the Egyptians, Moors, or the negro Asiatics, such as the Lascars." The American Negro Academy was founded in 1897.
Marcus Garvey used the word in the names of black nationalist and pan-Africanist organizations such as the Universal Negro Improvement Association, the Negro World, the Negro Factories Corporation, the Declaration of the Rights of the Negro Peoples of the World. W. E. B. Du Bois and Dr. Carter G. Woodson used it in the titles of their non-fiction books, The Negro and The Mis-Education of the Negro respectively. "Negro" was accepted as normal, both as exonym and endonym, until the late 1960s, after the Civil Rights Movement. One well-known example is the identification by Martin Luther King, Jr. of his own race as "Negro" in his famous "I Have a Dream" speech of 1963. However, during the 1950s and 1960s, some black American leaders, notably Malcolm X, objected to the word Negro because they associated it with the long history of slavery and discrimination that treated African Americans as second class citizens, or worse. Malcolm X preferred Black to Negro, but started using the term Afro-American after leaving the Nation of Islam.
Since the late 1960s, various other terms have been more widespread in popular usage. These include Black African, Afro-American and African American; the word Negro fell out of favor by the early 1970s. However, many older African Americans found the term black more offensive than Negro; the term Negro is still used in some historical contexts, such as the songs known as Negro spirituals, the Negro Leagues of sports in the early and mid-20th century, organizations such as the United Negro College Fund. The academic journal published by Howard University since 1932 still bears the title Journal of Negro Education, but others have changed: e.g. the Association for the Study of Negro Life and History became the Association for the Study of Afro-American Life and History in 1973, is now the Association for the Study of African American Life and History. Margo Jefferson titled her 2015 book Negroland: A Memoir to evoke growing up in the 1950s and 1960s in the African-American upper class; the United States Census Bureau included Negro on the 2010 Census, alongside Black and African-American, because some older black Americans still self-identify with the term.
The U. S. Census now uses the grouping "Black, African-American, or Negro". Negro is used in efforts to include older African Americans who more associate with the term. On the other hand, the term has been censored by some newspaper archives; the constitution of Liberia limits Liberian nationality to Negro people. People of other racial origins if they have lived for many years in Liberia, are thus precluded from becoming citizens of the Republic. In Spanish, negro is most used for the color black, but it can be used to describe people with dark-colored skin. In Spain and all of Latin America, negro means'black person'; as in English, this Spanish word is used figuratively and negatively, to mean'irregular' or'undesirable', as in mercado negro. However, in Spanish-speaking countries where there are fewer people of West African slave o