University of Pennsylvania
The University of Pennsylvania is a private Ivy League research university located in the University City neighborhood of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It is one of the nine colonial colleges founded prior to the Declaration of Independence and the first institution of higher learning in the United States to refer to itself as a university. Benjamin Franklin, Penn's founder and first president, advocated an educational program that trained leaders in commerce and public service, similar to a modern liberal arts curriculum; the university's coat of arms features a dolphin on its red chief, adopted from Benjamin Franklin's own coat of arms. University of Pennsylvania is home many professional and graduate schools including, the first school of medicine in North America, the first collegiate business school and the first "student union" building and organization were founded at Penn; the university has four undergraduate schools which provide a combined 99 undergraduate majors in the humanities, natural sciences and engineering, as well twelve graduate and professional schools.
It provides the option to pursue specialized dual degree programs. Undergraduate admissions is competitive, with an acceptance rate of 7.44% for the class of 2023, the school is ranked as the 8th best university in the United States by the U. S. News & World Report. In athletics, the Quakers field varsity teams in 33 sports as a member of the NCAA Division I Ivy League conference and hold a total of 210 Ivy League championships as of 2017. In 2018, the university had an endowment of $13.8 billion, the seventh largest endowment of all colleges in the United States, as well as an academic research budget of $966 million. As of 2018, distinguished alumni include 14 heads of 64 billionaire alumni. S. House of Representatives. Other notable alumni include 27 Rhodes Scholars, 15 Marshall Scholarship recipients, 16 Pulitzer Prize winners, 48 Fulbright Scholars. In addition, some 35 Nobel laureates, 169 Guggenheim Fellows, 80 members of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, many Fortune 500 CEOs have been affiliated with the university.
University of Pennsylvania considers itself the fourth-oldest institution of higher education in the United States, though this is contested by Princeton and Columbia Universities. The university considers itself as the first university in the United States with both undergraduate and graduate studies. In 1740, a group of Philadelphians joined together to erect a great preaching hall for the traveling evangelist George Whitefield, who toured the American colonies delivering open air sermons; the building was designed and built by Edmund Woolley and was the largest building in the city at the time, drawing thousands of people the first time it was preached in. It was planned to serve as a charity school as well, but a lack of funds forced plans for the chapel and school to be suspended. According to Franklin's autobiography, it was in 1743 when he first had the idea to establish an academy, "thinking the Rev. Richard Peters a fit person to superintend such an institution". However, Peters declined a casual inquiry from Franklin and nothing further was done for another six years.
In the fall of 1749, now more eager to create a school to educate future generations, Benjamin Franklin circulated a pamphlet titled "Proposals Relating to the Education of Youth in Pensilvania", his vision for what he called a "Public Academy of Philadelphia". Unlike the other Colonial colleges that existed in 1749—Harvard, William & Mary and Princeton—Franklin's new school would not focus on education for the clergy, he advocated an innovative concept of higher education, one which would teach both the ornamental knowledge of the arts and the practical skills necessary for making a living and doing public service. The proposed program of study could have become the nation's first modern liberal arts curriculum, although it was never implemented because William Smith, an Anglican priest who became the first provost and other trustees preferred the traditional curriculum. Franklin assembled a board of trustees from among the leading citizens of Philadelphia, the first such non-sectarian board in America.
At the first meeting of the 24 members of the Board of Trustees, the issue of where to locate the school was a prime concern. Although a lot across Sixth Street from the old Pennsylvania State House, was offered without cost by James Logan, its owner, the Trustees realized that the building erected in 1740, still vacant, would be an better site; the original sponsors of the dormant building still owed considerable construction debts and asked Franklin's group to assume their debts and, their inactive trusts. On February 1, 1750, the new board took over the building and trusts of the old board. On August 13, 1751, the "Academy of Philadelphia", using the great hall at 4th and Arch Streets, took in its first secondary students. A charity school was chartered July 13, 1753 in accordance with the intentions of the original "New Building" donors, although it lasted only a few years. On June 16, 1755, the "College of Philadelphia" was chartered, paving the way for the addition of undergraduate instruction.
All three schools shared the same Board of Trustees and were consider
Peabody is a city in Essex County, United States. The population was 51,251 at the 2010 census, in 2016 the estimated population was 52,491. Peabody is located in the North Shore region of Massachusetts, is known for its rich industrial history. Known as the Northfields, Salem Farms, Brooksby, the area was settled in 1626 by a small group of English colonists from Cape Ann led by Roger Conant. In 1752, the area was set off from Salem, incorporated as a district of Danvers, it was referred to as "the South Parish", associated with a church located in present-day Peabody Square. In 1855, the community broke away from Danvers, was incorporated as the independent town of South Danvers; the name was changed to Peabody on April 30, 1868, in honor of George Peabody, noted philanthropist born in present-day Peabody regarded as the "father of modern philanthropy". It was granted city status in 1916; the western, less densely populated area of town is separately, yet unofficially, referred to as West Peabody.
Peabody started off as a farming community, but its rivers and streams attracted mills which operated by water power. In particular, Peabody was a major center of New England's leather industry, which attracted immigrants from all around the world. By 1915, a third of the population was born outside the United States. In addition to becoming home to large Irish and Russian populations, Peabody developed a large community of laborers hailing from the Ottoman Empire Turkish and Kurdish speakers from the region of Harput, now known as Elazığ; the population was situated on Walnut Street, where they filled boarding houses and coffee houses to such an extent that it became known as "Ottoman Street," and, more pejoratively and less "Peabody's Barbary Coast", as the United States was at war with the Ottoman Empire during World War I. One visitor noted that signs in town were written in both English and Ottoman Turkish. On the morning of October 28, 1915, twenty-one young girls were killed in the St. Johns School fire in the downtown area on Chestnut Street.
The cause of the fire is believed to have been arson. Their bodies were found after the fire subsided, huddled together and burnt beyond recognition, near the entrance just steps away from survival; as a result, Peabody became the first city in the United States to establish a law that all entrances or exits in public buildings be push-open, rather than by handle or knob. The tanneries that lined Peabody's "Ottoman Street" remained a linchpin of the city's economy into the second half of the 20th century; the tanneries have since closed or been relocated elsewhere, but the city remains known locally as the Leather City or Tanner City. The mascot of Peabody Veterans Memorial High School is named the Tanners; the loss of the tanneries was a huge blow to Peabody's economy, but the city has made up for the erosion of its industrial base, at least in part, through other forms of economic development. Early in the 20th century, Peabody joined the automobile revolution, hosting the pioneer Brass Era company, Corwin Manufacturing.
The Northshore Mall known as the Northshore Shopping Center, is one of the region's largest shopping malls. The mall opened in September 1958 as an outdoor shopping center, was built on farm land owned by Elias Hasket Derby, one of America's first millionaires. Centennial Park, an industrial park in the center of the city, has attracted several medical and technology companies. West Peabody, farm land until the 1950s, has been developed into a middle-to-upper class residential area. Brooksby Farm, a 275-acre working farm and conservation area has been one of the city's most popular destinations for decades. Peabody is the location of the Salem Country Club, a privately-owned country club with a professional golf course, which hosted the U. S. Senior Open in 2001 and 2017, the U. S. Women's Open in 1954 and 1984. Peabody is located at 42°32′3″N 70°57′41″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 16.8 square miles, of which 16.2 square miles is land and 0.58 square miles or 3.46%, is water.
The northwestern border of Peabody lies along the Ipswich River, with brooks feeding it, the Waters River, a tributary of the Danvers River, drains the northeast part of town. Several other ponds and a portion of Suntaug Lake lie within town; the largest protected portion of the city is the Brooksby Farm, whose land includes the Nathaniel Felton Houses. The city is wedge-shaped, with the city center located in the wider southeast end; the neighborhood of South Peabody lies south of it, the more suburban neighborhood of West Peabody lies to the northwest of the city center, separated by the highways and the Proctor neighborhood. Peabody's center is 2 miles from the center of Salem, is 15 miles northeast of Boston, 18 miles west-southwest of Gloucester, 18 miles southeast of Lawrence. Peabody is bordered by Middleton to the northwest, Danvers to the north, Salem to the east, Lynn to the south and Lynnfield to the southwest; as of the census of 2010, there were 51,251 people residing in the city and a total of 22,220 housing units.
The racial makeup of the city was 90.4% White, 2.4% African American, 6.3% Hispanic or Latino of any race, 1.9% Asian, 3.8% from other races, 1.6% from two or more races. There were 21,313 households, of which 26.8% included children under the age of 18, 48.4% were married couples living together, 10.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.1% were non-families. 31.4% of all households were made up of individuals, 16.3% had s
MSNBC is an American pay television network that provides news coverage and political commentary from NBC News on current events. MSNBC is owned by the NBCUniversal News Group, a unit of the NBCUniversal Television Group division of NBCUniversal. MSNBC and its website were founded in 1996 under a partnership between Microsoft and General Electric's NBC unit, hence the network's naming. Although they had the same name, msnbc.com and MSNBC maintained separate corporate structures and news operations. Msnbc.com was headquartered on the Microsoft campus in Redmond, Washington while MSNBC operated out of NBC's headquarters in New York City. Microsoft divested its stakes in the MSNBC channel in 2005 and in msnbc.com in July 2012. The general news site was rebranded as NBCNews.com, a new msnbc.com was created as the online home of the cable channel. In the late summer of 2015, MSNBC revamped its programming. MSNBC sought to sharpen its news image by entering into a dual editorial relationship with its organizational parent NBC News.
MSNBC Live, the network's flagship daytime news platform, was expanded to cover over eight hours of the day. Phil Griffin is the president and director of day-to-day operations at MSNBC. Pat Burkey, Janelle Rodriguez, Jonathan Wald oversee programming and news operations, with Brian Williams serving as the channel's chief anchor of breaking news coverage; as of February 2015 94,531,000 households in the United States were receiving MSNBC. Commentators have described MSNBC as having a bias towards left-leaning politics and the Democratic Party. In November 2007, a New York Times article stated that MSNBC's prime-time lineup is tilting more to the left. Fox News media analyst Howard Kurtz, while in the same role at The Washington Post, stated that the channel's evening lineup "has gravitated to the left in recent years and seems to regard itself as the antithesis of Fox News". MSNBC was established under a strategic partnership between Microsoft. NBC executive Tom Rogers was instrumental in developing this partnership.
James Kinsella, a Microsoft executive, served as president of the online component, MSNBC.com, represented the tech company in the joint venture. Microsoft invested $221 million for a 50 percent share of the cable channel. MSNBC and Microsoft shared the cost of a $200 million newsroom in Secaucus, New Jersey, for msnbc.com. The network took over the channel space of NBC's 2-year-old America's Talking network, although in most cases cable carriage had to be negotiated with providers who had never carried AT. MSNBC was launched on July 15, 1996; the first show was anchored by Jodi Applegate and included news and commentary. During the day, rolling news coverage continued with The Contributors, a show that featured Ann Coulter and Laura Ingraham, as well as interactive programming coordinated by Applegate, John Gibson, John Seigenthaler. Stories were longer and more detailed than the stories CNN was running. NBC highlighted their broadcast connections by airing stories directly from NBC's network affiliates, along with breaking news coverage from the same sources.
MSNBC increased its emphasis on politics. After completing its seven-year survey of cable channels, the Project for Excellence in Journalism said in 2007 that, "MSNBC is moving to make politics a brand, with a large dose of opinion and personality."In January 2001, Mike Barnicle's MSNBC show started, but it was canceled in June 2001 because of high production costs. In June, Microsoft chief executive officer Steve Ballmer said that he would not have started MSNBC had he foreseen the difficulty of attracting viewers. After the September 11, 2001 attacks, NBC used MSNBC as an outlet for the up-to-the-minute coverage being provided by NBC News as a supplement to the longer stories on broadcast NBC. With little financial news to cover, CNBC and CNBC Europe ran MSNBC for many hours each day following the attacks; the year boosted the profile of Ashleigh Banfield, present during the collapse of Building 7 while covering the World Trade Center on September 11. Her Region In Conflict program capitalized on her newfound celebrity and showcased exclusive interviews from Afghanistan.
In the aftermath of September 11, MSNBC began calling itself "America’s NewsChannel" and hired opinionated hosts like Alan Keyes, Phil Donahue, Pat Buchanan, Tucker Carlson. On December 23, 2005, NBC Universal announced its acquisition of an additional 32 percent share of MSNBC from Microsoft, which solidified its control over television operations and allowed NBC to further consolidate MSNBC's backroom operations with NBC News and its other cable properties. NBC exercised its option to purchase Microsoft's remaining 18 percent interest in MSNBC. In late 2005, MSNBC began attracting liberal and progressive viewers as Keith Olbermann began critiquing and satirizing conservative media commentators during his Countdown With Keith Olbermann program, he focused his attention on the Fox News Channel and Bill O'Reilly, its principal primetime commentator. On June 7, 2006, Rick Kaplan resigned as president of MSNBC after holding the post for two years. Five days Dan Abrams, a nine-year veteran of MSNBC and NBC News, was named general manager of MSNBC with immediate effect.
NBC News senior vice president Phil Griffin would oversee MSNBC, while continuing to oversee NBC News’ Today program, with Abrams reporting to Griffin. On June 29, 2006, Abrams annou
Abraham Henry Foxman is an American lawyer and activist. He was National Director of the Anti-Defamation League from 1987 to 2015, is the League's National Director Emeritus. In March 2016, he became head of the Center for the Study of Anti-Semitism at the Museum of Jewish Heritage in New York City. Foxman, an only son, was born in Baranovichi, just months after the Soviet Union took the town from Poland in the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact and incorporated it into the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic; the town is now in Belarus. Foxman had Polish Jewish parents: Joseph Foxman. Foxman's parents left him with his Polish Catholic nanny Bronislawa Kurpi in 1941 when they were ordered by Germans to enter a ghetto. Foxman was baptized into the Roman Catholic Church as Henryk Stanislaw Kurpi, raised as a Catholic in Vilnius between 1941 and 1944 when he was returned to his parents. Foxman immigrated to the United States in 1950 with his parents, he graduated from the Yeshivah of Flatbush in New York City.
He earned a Bachelor of Arts degree in political science from the City College of New York and graduated with honors in history. Foxman holds a law degree from the New York University School of Law, he did graduate work in Jewish studies at the Jewish Theological Seminary of America and in international economics at The New School. Foxman joined the Anti-Defamation League in 1965 in its international affairs division. In 1987, he was the consensus choice of the Board to become its new National Director, replacing long-time director Nathan Perlmutter. In February 2014, Foxman announced his plans to step down as National Director of the ADL effective July 20, 2015. Foxman has been awarded several honors from nonprofit groups, religious figures, statesmen. In 1998, Foxman received the Interfaith Committee of Remembrance Lifetime Achievement Award "as a leader in the fight against anti-Semitism and discrimination". Foxman won the Raoul Wallenberg Humanitarian Leadership Award on April 18, 2002, from the Center for Holocaust and Genocide Studies at Ramapo College of New Jersey.
On October 16, 2006, Foxman was awarded as Knight of the Legion of Honor by Jacques Chirac, the President of France at the time. This award is France's highest civilian honor. On a May 22, 2008, Foxman was awarded an honorary doctoral degree from Yeshiva University by Richard Joel, the presiding president of Yeshiva University. Additionally, President George W. Bush appointed Foxman to serve on the Honorary Delegation to accompany him to Jerusalem for the celebration of the 60th anniversary of Israel in May 2008. Foxman's support for gay rights in America placed him at odds with many Orthodox Jews. Concerning the former, which involved his protest in 2000-2001 of a case in which "the Supreme Court ruled that the Boy Scouts of America could exclude a gay scoutmaster because of his sexual orientation", it was reported that, "For many Jewish groups that work with the Boy Scouts – Reform temples and Jewish community centers – the ensuing year has been marked by soul-searching, as they grappled with whether they should end their ties to the organization because of the organization's stance on gays", that, "Within the Jewish community, Orthodox groups supported the ruling, saying civic organizations should be empowered to determine their own message - but most Jewish organizations condemned it as endorsing discrimination."
According to that report published a year in 2001, "the Anti-Defamation League's national director, Abraham Foxman, its national chairman, Howard Berkowitz, said in a statement at the time: "We are stunned that in the year 2000, the Supreme Court could issue such a decision.... This decision states that as long as an organization avows an anti-homosexual position, it is free to discriminate against gay and lesbian Americans." Foxman has received criticism from Jewish and non-Jewish quarters for his antagonist approach to the 2004 film The Passion of the Christ and its director, Mel Gibson. In September 2003, during the pre-release controversy, Foxman called Gibson "the portrait of an anti-Semite"; the next day he said, "I'm not ready to say he's an anti-Semite", but that Gibson "entertains views that can only be described as anti-Semitic". In November 2003, Foxman said of Gibson, "I think he's infected infected, with some very serious anti-Semitic views." When Diane Sawyer asked him in February 2004 if Mel Gibson is an anti-Semite, whether The Passion of the Christ is an anti-Semitic movie, Foxman said "no" to both questions.
Foxman was criticized for his initial response to Gibson's apology for his behavior during his 2006 DUI arrest, for giving second billing to the Seattle Jewish Federation shooting that occurred on the same day. Foxman accepted Gibson's second apology, although he continued to censure Gibson publicly, saying in 2008, "In his heyday, he was No. 1 in Hollywood, the most sought-after star, the people's choice, the icon. He revealed himself as an anti-Semite, look where he is today. That's the beauty of America." Foxman continued to condemn Gibson for The Passion of the Christ, saying in 2008, "What he was doing was giving credibility, on film, in our lifetime, to deicide. Where is Mel Gibson today? He did his movie, one day, he revealed himself to the American people. He's no icon anymore." In July 2007, Foxman's opposition to a congressional resolution recognizing the Armenian Genocide drew much criticism. "I don't think. The resolution takes a position. "The Tu
Time 100 is an annual list of the 100 most influential people in the world assembled by the American news magazine Time. First published in 1999 as the result of a debate among American academics and journalists, the list is now a publicized annual event. Although appearing on the list is seen as an honor, Time makes it clear that entrants are recognized for changing the world, regardless of the consequences of their actions; the final list of influential individuals is chosen by Time editors with nominations coming from the TIME 100 alumni and the magazine's international writing staff. Only the winner of the Reader's Poll, conducted days before the official list is revealed, is chosen by the general public. List of individuals included in the TIME 100 in 2018 List of individuals included in the TIME 100 in 2017 List of individuals included in the TIME 100 in 2016 List of individuals included in the TIME 100 in 2015 List of individuals included in the TIME 100 in 2014 The official list of 100 most influential people were revealed on April 24, 2014 featuring Beyoncé on the US cover and Robert Redford, Jason Collins, Mary Barra on its international covers.
A record of 41 women are included in the edition, the highest number of female personalities in the list's history. The annual gala was held on April 2014 in New York City. Managing editor of Time, Nancy Gibbs says of the year's list: List of individuals included in the TIME 100 in 2013 List of individuals included in the TIME 100 in 2012 List of individuals included in the TIME 100 in 2011 The original online sources refer to the list with the following quote: "Meet the most influential people in the world, they are artists and activists and researchers, heads of state and captains of industry. Their ideas spark dialogue and dissent and sometimes revolution. Welcome to this year's TIME 100." The announcement was celebrated with a black-tie event in New York City on April 26, 2011. The honorees were joined by A-list celebrities at Frederick P. Rose Hall, Jazz at Lincoln Center for the event. Time readers contributed to the selection by an online vote of over 200 finalists; the list included familiar global newsmakers such as U.
S. President Barack Obama and Chancellor of Germany Angela Merkel as well as what the media describes as "newcomers" to the global press; the list included numerous figures representing the year of upheaval in the Middle East ranging from rebels, to political leaders to news correspondents. Although the events of what has been dubbed the Arab Spring were prominent, media figures unrelated to those events figured in the list as well. Additionally, Prince William of Wales and Kate Middleton were part of the list during the week before their wedding; the list included Katsunobu Sakurai, mayor of Minamisōma, the city most affected by the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami. List of individuals included in the TIME 100 in 2010 In its online presentation, Time introduced the list as follows: "In our annual TIME 100 issue, we name the people who most affect our world"; the overall list was organized with 4 main sub-lists: Leaders, featuring Sarah Palin and Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva. The list included 10 Indians.
Oprah Winfrey continued her streak of having been included on every Time 100 list and was one of thirty-one women on the list. The list included many expected names and some surprises such as Scott Brown, who The Huffington Post described as a premature selection at that point in his career. Others who were considered surprise selections included Elton John, Ashton Kutcher, Taylor Swift, according to the Daily Mail; the announcement of the list was celebrated by a black tie gala at the Time Warner Center in New York City on May 4, 2010. The list was published the following day. Time readers contributed to the selection by an online vote of over 200 finalists. List of individuals included in the TIME 100 in 2009 List of individuals included in the TIME 100 in 2008 List of individuals included in the TIME 100 in 2007 List of individuals included in the TIME 100 in 2006 List of individuals included in the TIME 100 in 2005 List of individuals included in the TIME 100 in 2004 Although each category is given equal weight during any given year, people from some science/political fields and heroes are more to make repeat appearances on the list from year to year.
Repeat appearances are rare. In 2004, Time's editors "identified three rather distinct qualities", when choosing the Time 100 explained Time's editor-at-large Michael Elliott: First, there were those who came to their status by means of a public possession of power. Others, though they are heard from in public, nonetheless have a real influence on the great events of our time. Think of Ali Husaini Sistani, the Grand Ayatullah of Iraq's Shi'ites. Still others affect our lives through their moral example. Consider Nelson Mandela's forgiveness of his captors and his willingness to walk away from the South African presidency after a single term. In the 2007 Time 100 list, managing editor Richard Stengel explained that the Time 100 was not a list of the hottest, most popular, or most powerful people, but rather the most influential, stating: Influence is hard to measure, what we look for is people whose ideas, whose example, whose talent, whose discoveries transform the world we live in. Influence is less about the hard power of force than the soft power of ideas and example.
Yes, there are Presidents and dictators who can change the world through fiat, but we're more interested in innovators like Monty Jones, th
1989 New York City mayoral election
The New York City mayoral election of 1989 occurred on Tuesday, November 7, 1989, with Democratic candidate, Manhattan Borough President David Dinkins, narrowly defeating U. S. Attorney for the Southern District of New York, Rudy Giuliani, the Republican nominee, they faced several third party candidates. Dinkins replaced outgoing Democratic incumbent mayor Ed Koch. Dinkins won with 50.42% of the vote to Giuliani's 47.84%. Whereas the two preceding mayoral elections of the 1980s had been Democratic landslide victories, with all five boroughs voting to re-elect incumbent Ed Koch, the 1989 election was a contested race that finished with a narrow 2.58% margin of victory for David Dinkins. Dinkins won majorities in the Bronx and Brooklyn, while Giuliani carried Queens and Staten Island, the latter by a landslide margin. Four years in the 1993 election and Giuliani would face each other again in a re-match and Dinkins would narrowly lose to Giuliani in his bid for re-election. Giuliani vote was 815,387 Republican and 55,077 Liberal.
Other vote was 1,732 Lenora Fulani-New Alliance. Giuliani won the Republican Primary, defeating Ron Lauder 77,150 to 37,960
The Third Way is a position akin to centrism that tries to reconcile right-wing and left-wing politics by advocating a varying synthesis of some centre-right and centrist economic and some centre-left social policies. The Third Way was created as a re-evaluation of political policies within various centre-left progressive movements in response to doubt regarding the economic viability of the state and the overuse of economic interventionist policies, popularized by Keynesianism, but at that time contrasted with the rise of popularity for neoliberalism and the New Right; the Third Way is promoted by some social-democratic parties. Major Third Way social-democratic proponent Tony Blair claimed that the socialism he advocated was different from traditional conceptions of socialism and said: "My kind of socialism is a set of values based around notions of social justice. Socialism as a rigid form of economic determinism has ended, rightly". Blair referred to it as "social-ism" that involves politics that recognized individuals as interdependent and advocated social justice, social cohesion, equal worth of each citizen and equal opportunity.
Third Way social democratic theorist Anthony Giddens has said that the Third Way rejects the traditional conception of socialism and instead accepts the conception of socialism as conceived of by Anthony Crosland as an ethical doctrine that views social democratic governments as having achieved a viable ethical socialism by removing the unjust elements of capitalism by providing social welfare and other policies and that contemporary socialism has outgrown the Marxist claim for the need of the abolition of capitalism. In 2009, Blair publicly declared support for a "new capitalism"; the Third Way supports the pursuit of greater egalitarianism in society through action to increase the distribution of skills and productive endowments while rejecting income redistribution as the means to achieve this. It emphasizes commitment to balanced budgets, providing equal opportunity, combined with an emphasis on personal responsibility, the decentralization of government power to the lowest level possible and promotion of public–private partnerships, improving labour supply, investment in human development, preserving of social capital and protection of the environment.
However, specific definitions of Third Way policies may differ between the United States. The Third Way has been criticized by conservatives, classical liberals, libertarians who advocate laissez-faire capitalism, it has been criticized by social democrats, democratic socialists and communists in particular as a betrayal of left-wing values, with some analysts characterizing the Third Way as an neoliberal movement. The term "Third Way" has been used to explain a variety of political courses and ideologies in the last few centuries; these ideas were implemented by progressives in the early 20th century. The term was picked up again in the 1950s by German ordoliberal economists such as Wilhelm Röpke, resulting in the development of the concept of the social market economy. Röpke distanced himself from the term and located the social market economy as "first way" in the sense of an advancement of the free market economy. In Czechoslovakia during the Prague Spring in 1968, reform communist economist Ota Šik proposed third way economic reform, as part of political liberalization and democratization within socialist society.
Subsequently, Enrico Berlinguer, General Secretary of the Italian Communist Party in the 1970s and 1980s, used the term "Third Way" to advocate a vision of a socialist society, more pluralist than the "real socialism", advocated by official communist parties, whilst being more economically egalitarian than social democracy. This was part of the wider trend of Eurocommunism in the official communist movement and provided a theoretical basis for Berlinguer's pursuit of a Historic Compromise with the Italian Christian Democrats. Most Harold Macmillan, British Prime Minister from 1957 to 1963, based his philosophy of government on what he summarized in a book, The Middle Way; the Third Way has been defined as such: omething different and distinct from liberal capitalism with its unswerving belief in the merits of the free market and democratic socialism with its demand management and obsession with the state. The Third Way is in favour of growth, entrepreneurship and wealth creation but it is in favour of greater social justice and it sees the state playing a major role in bringing this about.
So in the words of... Anthony Giddens of the LSE the Third Way rejects top down socialism as it rejects traditional neo liberalism. A variant of the Third Way exists, it has been advocated by its proponents as an alternative to both capitalism and what it regards as the traditional forms of socialism, including Marxist socialism and state socialism, that Third Way social democrats reject. It advocates ethical socialism and gradualism that includes advocating the humanization of capitalism, a mixed economy, political pluralism and liberal democracy, it has been advocated by proponents as a "competition socialism", an ideology in between traditional socialism and capitalism. A prominent social democratic proponent of the Third Way, Anthony Giddens, has publicly supported a modernized form of socialism within the social democracy movement, but claims that "traditional socialist" ideology that involves economic management and planning are flawed and states as a theory of the managed economy that socialism exists any longer.
In defining the Third Way, Tony Blair once wrote: "The