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Bishop of Kilmacduagh

The Bishop of Kilmacduagh was an episcopal title which took its name after the village of Kilmacduagh in County Galway, Ireland. In both the Church of Ireland and the Roman Catholic Church, the title is now united with other bishoprics. In the seventh century, the monastery of Kilmacduagh was founded by son of Duagh, it was not until 1152. After the Reformation, there were parallel apostolic successions. In the Church of IrelandThe Church of Ireland bishopric of Kilmacduagh was united with Clonfert to form the united bishopric of Clonfert and Kilmacduagh in 1625. Under the Church Temporalities Act 1833, the united see became part of the bishopric of Killaloe and Clonfert in 1834. Since 1976, Kilmacduagh has been one of the sees held by the Bishop of Killaloe. In the Roman Catholic ChurchThe Roman Catholic Church bishopric of Kilmacduagh continued as a separate title until 1750 when Pope Benedict XIV decreed that it to be united with the bishopric of Kilfenora; the bishop of the united dioceses was to be alternately bishop of one diocese and apostolic administrator of the other, since the two dioceses were in different ecclesiastical provinces.

The first bishop under this new arrangement was Peter Kilkelly, Bishop of Kilmacduagh since 1744, became Apostolic Administrator of Kilfenora in September 1750. Since 1883, the two sees have been part of the united Diocese of Galway and Kilfenora

Trinity Dam

Trinity Dam is an earthfill dam on the Trinity River located about 7 miles northeast of Weaverville, California in the United States. The dam was completed in the early 1960s as part of the federal Central Valley Project to provide irrigation water to the arid San Joaquin Valley. Standing 538 ft high, Trinity Dam forms Trinity Lake – California's third largest reservoir, with a capacity of more than 2,400,000 acre feet; the dam includes a hydroelectric plant, provides flood control to the Trinity and Klamath river basins. Below the dam is Lewiston Lake, formed by a second dam, which diverts water through a 3-mile tunnel to the Sacramento Valley. In response to the Great Depression and drought conditions in California during the early 20th century, the United States Congress passed the 1935 Rivers and Harbors Act, which authorized the Central Valley Project – a system of dams and canals to provide a stable supply of irrigation water to California's Central Valley. Among the project works was a 1942 proposal to divert water from the Trinity River in northwestern California to augment water supplies in the CVP service area, known as the Trinity River Division.

However, the state dropped the Trinity River project from the CVP in 1945. Six years however, the U. S. Bureau of Reclamation, responsible for the construction and operations of most CVP facilities, revived the division, which comprised a system of four dams and two tunnels to capture and store the flow of the Trinity and transport it to the Sacramento River, generating a net surplus of hydroelectric power along the way. Trinity Dam was to be the main storage feature of the division, providing a stable flow to the Lewiston Dam, the diversion point for Trinity River waters into the Central Valley. Construction at Trinity Dam began on June 4, 1956 with preliminary excavation and the river was diverted around the dam site on July 8, 1957. Work was bogged down in late 1957 when the river flooded and took out the cofferdam that protected the construction site. However, workers cleared out the dam site by the summer of 1958, the hiatus allowed them time to line the diversion tunnel with concrete. Rock placement began on the main structure as early as 1957, but it was not until 1959 when a 11,000 ft conveyor belt was incorporated, allowing much faster transport of fill to the dam site.

The spillway tunnel was completed in October 1959 and the embankment was topped out in late 1960. The dam's power plant, was not finished until December 1963. Trinity stood as the highest earthfill dam in the world until eclipsed by the Oroville Dam in California, in 1968; the latter remains the tallest dam in the United States. As the reservoir filled, it submerged the pioneer towns of Trinity Center and Minersville as well as parts of a historic Northern California stagecoach route; the reservoir was named Clair Engle Lake after Clair Engle, a United States senator and major proponent of the CVP. This name was unpopular among local residents, many of whom had watched their homes inundated by the rising waters. By 1995, it had been renamed Trinity Lake. Trinity Dam is an earth and rock-filled dam composed of river gravel and local rock, rising 538 ft from its foundations and 440 ft above the riverbed; the dam's crest is 2,395 ft above sea level. High water releases are controlled by three different sets of gates.

The outlet works have a capacity of 24,000 cu ft/s, the service spillway, a morning-glory design, can take 22,400 cu ft/s of water. The dam's auxiliary spillway has a capacity of 2,250 cu ft/s. Trinity Lake can hold up to 2,447,650 acre feet at full pool, encompasses up to 17,722 acres of water. Trinity Powerplant, located at the base of the dam, has two Francis turbines with a capacity of 140 megawatts combined, uprated from an original capacity of 100 MW; the plant generates an average of 358.97 million kilowatt hours and has a low capacity factor, which means it operates on a peaking basis. Trinity Dam forms an impassable barrier for migrating salmon in the Trinity River, but along with other division facilities has had adverse impacts on salmon habitat in the lower reaches of the river. Within ten years of the dam's completion, more than three-quarters of Trinity River water was being diverted to the Central Valley each year, the little flow left in the river was warm and less suitable for spawning salmon.

In addition, the dam blocks the Trinity River's annual floods and sediment loads, leading to degradation in the gravel bars that are vital for salmon habitat. In response to declining salmon populations, the USBR built the Trinity River Fish Hatchery; the hatchery is operated by the California Department of Fish and Game and has a capacity of 40 million eggs. In 1992, Congress passed the Central Valley Project Improvement Act, which established a minimum annual release of 340,000 acre feet into the lower Trinity River. Below the Trinity Dam, is the Lewiston Dam in which that water is sent to other water customers that live throughout the State; this is important because this requires the help of two dams just to move water from the reservoir to the customers that require water for either Agriculture or Urban uses. With 145 miles of shoreline, Trinity Lake is a popular summer destination for Northern California residents. Since 1965, the lake has been part of the Trinity Unit of the Whiskeytown-Shasta-Trinity National Recreation Area.

The lake has been developed with boat ramps and marinas, most of which are concentrated in the Stuart Fork arm in the southwest and around the resort town of Trinity Center near the

Newton Morton

Newton Ennis Morton was an American population geneticist and one of the founders of the field of genetic epidemiology. Morton was born in New Jersey; when he was three months old, his family moved to Connecticut. His interest in science started at an early age. Morton attended Hopkins School transferring to Swarthmore College for two years, he lost enthusiasm for entomology, so instead he decided to pursue a career in genetics after being inspired by Dobzhansky's book and the Origin of Species. After marrying a woman from Hawaii, Morton decided to attend the University of Hawaii to earn a BA in Zoology, finishing his degree in 1951, he completed a thesis on Drosophila at the University of Wisconsin, but he was more interested in the work of James F. Crow and Sewall Wright. Morton worked with Crow on the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission in Japan during 1952–1953; this inspired him to pursue a career in human genetics. He earned a PhD in genetics from the University of Wisconsin in 1955. Morton's career began in Japan.

He researched the effect of exposure to atomic bombs, including the effect on first-generation offspring. He published papers on the linkage of blood groups with diseases, nonrandomness of consanguineous marriage and the inheritance of human birth weight. In 1955–1956, Morton was made a National Cancer Institute Postdoctoral Fellow at the University of Wisconsin, he worked at the university, first as an assistant professor in 1956 becoming an associate professor in 1960 for two years. At the university, Morton conducted a study of over 180,000 births. In 1962, Morton won the William Allan Award for his contribution in the field of human genetics. In that same year, he set up the department of genetics. After realizing that the department was no longer tenable due to administrative problems, he instead decided to set up the Population Genetics Laboratory at Hawaii in 1954, he stayed there for 21 years. He left Hawaii in 1985 and spent two years at the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center in New York City as the head of the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics.

In 1988, Morton acquired a position as professor and director of the Cancer Research Campaign Research Group in Genetic Epidemiology at the University of Southampton. In 1999, a book on the recent advances of genetic epidemiology was published in honor of his 70th birthday, he was a Senior Professional Fellow in Human Genetics from 1995 until 2011. Morton retired from the University of Southampton in April 2011 due to age and Alzheimer's-related health problems. Morton was married to Professor Patricia Jacobs, for over 40 years. Morton has seven grandchildren with his first wife, he died on 7 February 2018 at the age of 88


The Naalakkersuisut is the government of Greenland, an "autonomous constituent country" of the Kingdom of Denmark, takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic country, whereby the prime minister is the head of government, of a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in parliament Inatsisartut; the judiciary is independent of the legislature. Greenland has full autonomy on most matters, except on policies and decisions affecting the region including negotiations with the devolved legislatures and the Folketing. Executive power rests with a high commissioner, a prime minister heads the Cabinet; the high commissioner of Greenland is appointed by the monarch, the prime minister is elected indirectly by parliament elections results for four-year terms. The Naalakkersuisut is divided into a number of areas of responsibility each led by a Naalakkersuisoq with powers corresponding to that of a minister or secretary of government.

The cabinet is based on a majority in the Inatsisartut of the parties Siumut, Nunatta Qitornai, relying on parliamentary support from Demokraatit. As of 5 October 2018, the current composition of the Naalakkersuisut is as follows: Legislative power is shared by the government and the legislature; the legislature or Self-rule of Greenland is made up of 31 members elected by direct, popular vote to serve four-year terms. The current composition is shown below: Greenland's judicial system, derived from the Danish civil law system, operates independently of the legislature and the executive, it has one court of first instance: the Court of Greenland, an appeal court the High Court of Greenland. No appeal is possible to decisions of the Joint Court of Justice, but fundamental "questions of law" may be submitted to the Østre Landsret and the Supreme Court of Denmark in cassation. Verdicts by those institutions may lead to a new decision of the Joint Court, taking into account the results of the cassation.

In late October 2016, the current government coalition was changed to consist of the parties Siumut, Inuit Ataqatigiit, Partii Naleraq. The composition of the Naalakkersuisut was as follows: Parliamentary elections were held on 28 November 2014 and Kim Kielsen, leader of the Siumut party, was designated as Prime Minister by a coalition of the parties Siumut and Atassut; the coalition was formed on 4 December 2014, Siumut has five ministers, Democrats 2 and Attasut 2. Parliamentary elections were held on March 12, 2013, Aleqa Hammond, leader of the Siumut party, was designated as Prime Minister by a coalition of the parties Siumut, Partii Inuit, Atassut. Website of the Naalakkersuisut


The Hokianga is an area surrounding the Hokianga Harbour known as the Hokianga River, a long estuarine drowned valley on the west coast in the north of the North Island of New Zealand. The original name, still used by local Māori, is Te Kohanga o Te Tai Tokerau or Te Puna o Te Ao Marama; the full name of the harbour is Te Hokianga-nui-a-Kupe — "the place of Kupe's great return". The Hokianga is in the Far North District, in the Northland Region; the area is 120 kilometres northwest of Whangarei—and 40 kilometres west of Kaikohe—by road. The estuary extends inland for 30 kilometres from the Tasman Sea, it is navigable for small craft for much of its length. 12,000 years ago, the Hokianga was a river valley flanked by steep bush-clad hills. As the last ice age regressed, the dramatic rise in sea level flooded the valley turning it into a tidal saltwater harbour with abundant sheltered deep water anchorages; this was the harbour that the explorer Kupe left from, in 1822 it was home to the first European timber entrepreneurs.

Southern right whales frequented the bay prior to significant depletion of the species caused by commercial and illegal hunting. Today, large whales are seen in the bay, although the harbour is a well-regarded area in which to watch smaller dolphins and killer whales; the area around the harbour is divided in three by the estuary. To the south are the settlements of Waimamaku, Opononi, Koutu, Rawene and Taheke. According to Te Tai Tokerau tradition, the legendary Polynesian navigator and explorer, settled in Hokianga in 925 AD, after his journey of discovery from Hawaiiki aboard the waka named Matahorua; when Kupe left the area, he declared that this would be the place of his return, leaving several things behind—including the bailer of his canoe. Kupe's grandson Nukutawhiti returned from Hawaiiki to settle in Hokianga. In the 14th century, the great chief Puhi landed just south of the Bay of Islands; the tribe of Puhi, Ngāpuhi extended westwards to reach the west coast and to colonise both sides of Hokianga.

Māori regard Hokianga as one of the oldest settlements in Aotearoa, it remains a heartland for the people. Rahiri, the 17th-century founder of the Ngāpuhi iwi, was born at Whiria pā to the south of the harbour, where a monument stands to his memory. In the course of expansion, Ngāpuhi created and maintained over centuries a complex network of walking tracks, many of which evolved into today's roads. Wesleyan missionaries were guided along these ancient routes to make their own discovery of Hokianga and its accessible timber resources, their reports soon reached merchant captains in the Bay of Islands. Captain James Herd of the Providence responded first, with disgraced missionary Thomas Kendall as guide and translator, crossed the bar and entered the harbour in 1822, his was the first European ship to do so, it sailed away with the first shipment of timber from the Hokianga. His success inspired a strong following—the deforestation of Hokianga had begun and would be complete by the turn of the century.

The only disincentive to Hokianga's exploitation was the harbour bar. Of the hundreds of ships that negotiated it, records show that 16 were lost. Most came to grief when leaving laden, becoming caught in the wind shadow cast by South Head, where deep water lay. A temporary lull or change in wind direction could cause a sailing ship to lose steerage way and be swept onto the rocky shore. In 1828, the missionary schooner Herald, built by Henry Williams and sailed by Gilbert Mair, foundered while trying to enter Hokianga Harbour; the last recorded shipwreck involved the schooner Isabella de Fraine, lost with all eight crew in July 1928 after capsizing on the bar at the entrance to the harbour. In 1837, a French commoner with delusions of being an aristocrat, the self-titled "Baron" Charles de Thierry, sailed with 60 settlers into this hive of export activity to claim an immense tract of land that he believed he had purchased 15 years earlier in exchange for 36 axes, he was granted about 1,000 acres at Rangiahua where he set up his colony, declaring himself "Sovereign Chief of New Zealand", a title that failed to endear him to Ngāpuhi.

His project collapsed, but it highlighted to the Colonial Service the need to protect against rival European powers. The year after de Thierry arrived, another Frenchman, Bishop Jean Baptiste Pompallier, with the aim of establishing a Catholic mission, he found the southern shores in the hands of Methodist and Anglican missionaries, but the northern side was ripe for conversion. His remains claimed by Ngāpuhi, lie buried where the mission began. Today the harbour, like the Reformation itself, stands between Catholic. Within six days of the Waitangi signing, Governor Hobson, keen to secure full Ngāpuhi support, trekked across to the Mangungu Mission House near Horeke where 3000 were waiting; the second signing of the Treaty of Waitangi took place on 12 February 1840. With the appropriate signatures Hobson could claim support from the biggest tribe in the country. While the fate of the country was being signed into history, the axemen of Hokianga scarcely missed a beat. At any one time, as many as 20 ships could be loading Hokianga timber.

Whole hillsides bared of vegetation, began to slip into the harbour, choking its tributaries with mud. The r