Rosamund Mary Ellen Pike is an English actress who began her acting career by appearing in stage productions such as Romeo and Juliet and Skylight. After her screen debut in the television film A Rather English Marriage and television roles in Wives and Daughters and Love in a Cold Climate, she received international recognition for her film debut as Bond girl Miranda Frost in Die Another Day, for which she received the Empire Award for Best Newcomer. Following her breakthrough, she won the BIFA Award for Best Supporting Actress for The Libertine and portrayed Jane Bennet in Pride & Prejudice. Pike had film appearances in the sci-fi film Doom, the crime-mystery thriller film Fracture, the drama film Fugitive Pieces, the coming-of-age drama An Education, for which she was nominated for the London Film Critics Circle Award for British Supporting Actress of the Year, sci-fi comedy The World's End, she received British Independent Film Award nominations for An Education and Made in Dagenham, was nominated for a Genie Award for Barney's Version.
Her other films include the spy action comedy Johnny English Reborn, the epic action-adventure fantasy Wrath of the Titans and the action thriller Jack Reacher. In 2014, her performance in the psychological thriller film Gone Girl was met with widespread critical acclaim and she was awarded the Saturn Award for Best Actress and was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actress, the BAFTA Award for Best Actress in a Leading Role, the Golden Globe Award for Best Actress in a Motion Picture – Drama, the Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by a Female Actor in a Leading Role. Pike received further acclaim for her role as Ruth Williams Khama in the biographical drama A United Kingdom and is nominated for a Saturn Award for Best Actress for her role in the western Hostiles, her upcoming films include the thriller The Informer and Radioactive, in which she will play Marie Curie. Pike, born on 27 January 1979 in London, is the only child of opera singers Caroline Friend and Julian Pike.
Her father is a professor of head of operatic studies at the Birmingham Conservatoire. The family travelled across Europe until she was seven, following wherever her parents' performing careers took them. Pike won a scholarship to Badminton School in Bristol, while appearing as Juliet in a production of Romeo and Juliet at the National Youth Theatre, was noticed by an agent, who helped her embark upon a professional career. After being turned down by each stage school to which she applied, she gained a place to read English literature at Wadham College, Oxford, she graduated with an Upper Second class degree in 2001, having taken a year off to pursue her acting career, gaining stage experience in David Hare's Skylight, Arthur Miller's All My Sons, several plays by Shakespeare. While she was still at Oxford, Pike acted in and directed various plays, including one by Simon Chesterman, a graduate student, she made appearances on British television shows, including A Rather English Marriage and Daughters, Love in a Cold Climate, a miniseries based on Nancy Mitford's novels The Pursuit of Love and Love in a Cold Climate.
She appeared as Sarah Beaumont in an episode of the series Foyle's War. After graduating, she considered working at Waterstone's bookshop due to a lack of acting opportunities, but was offered a role as a Bond girl and MI6 agent assigned to aid James Bond in Die Another Day, she appeared in the special show Bond Girls Are Forever and, shortly afterwards, the BAFTA tribute to the James Bond series. She was the first Bond girl to have attended Oxford. Pike played Elizabeth Malet in The Libertine, co-starring Johnny Depp, which won her the Best Supporting Actress award at the British Independent Film Awards. In the same year, she portrayed Rose in The Promised Land, a film about Israel, starred as scientist Samantha Grimm in the cinematic adaptation of the computer game series Doom. In 2005, she appeared as the elder sister of Elizabeth, in Pride & Prejudice. Pike starred in the film adaptation of Anne Michaels's novel Fugitive Pieces, she starred as a successful attorney in the film Fracture, opposite Anthony Hopkins and Ryan Gosling.
Pike was a judge at the 2008 Costa Book Awards. Her stage credits include Hitchcock Blonde by Terry Johnson and Tennessee Williams' Summer and Smoke, both in London's West End, Gaslight at London's Old Vic Theatre. Pike has said. In 2009, she played the title character in Madame De Sade during the Donmar's West End season, she appeared in the British film Made in Dagenham and in the Canadian film Barney's Version where she plays Miriam. In 2010, she starred in a production of Hedda Gabler on UK tour. Pike has recorded voicework for a lead role in the film Jackboots on Whitehall and lent her voice to a new series of James Bond audio-books, narrating The Spy Who Loved Me. In 2010 Pike played the part of Pussy Galore in the BBC Radio 4 adaptation of Fleming's Goldfinger. In 2011, Pike played the part of Kate Sumner in the Bond spoof film Johnny English Reborn, playing a psychologist and English's love interest; the film is a sequel to the 2003 film Johnny English and was a box office success, taking over $160 million.
In 2012, she played the role of Queen Andromeda in the fantasy epic Wrath of the Titans. She replaced Alexa Davalos, who had played the role in Clash of the Titans and had dropped out due to a scheduling conflict. Taking the role in Wrath of the Titans meant s
Super 8 film
Super 8mm film is a motion picture film format released in 1965 by Eastman Kodak as an improvement over the older "Double" or "Regular" 8 mm home movie format. The film is nominally 8mm wide, the same as older formatted 8mm film, but the dimensions of the rectangular perforations along one edge are smaller, which allows for a greater exposed area; the Super 8 standard allocates the border opposite the perforations for an oxide stripe upon which sound can be magnetically recorded. Unlike Super 35, the film stock used for Super 8 is not compatible with standard 8 mm film cameras. There are several varieties of the film system used for shooting, but the final film in each case has the same dimensions; the most popular system by far was the Kodak system. Launched in 1965 by Eastman Kodak at the 1964-65 Worlds Fair, Super 8 film comes in plastic light-proof cartridges containing coaxial supply and take up spools loaded with 50 feet of film, with 72 frames per foot, for a total of 3,600 frames per film cartridge.
This is enough film for 2.5 minutes at the professional motion picture standard of 24 frames per second, for 3 minutes and 20 seconds of continuous filming at 18 frames per second for amateur use. In 1973 the system was upgraded with a larger cartridge. In 1975 an larger 200-foot cartridge became available which could be used in designed cameras; the sound and the 200 foot cartridge system are no longer available, but the 50 foot silent cartridge system is still manufactured. Super 8 film was a reversal stock for home projection used for the creation of home movies, it became an popular consumer product in the late 1960s through the 1970s, but was replaced in the 1980s by the use of video tape. During the mid-to-late 1980s Super 8 began to re-emerge as an alternative method for movie production, beginning with its use in MTV music videos in 1981. In 1993 the company's Super8 Sound, now called Pro8mm, pioneered the use of the color negative in Super 8 by custom perforating and loading a variety of 35mm film stocks into the Super 8 film cartridge.
This included emulsions from Kodak and Ilford. Today Super 8 color negative film is the main color stock used. There are Super 8 reversal films available including 200D Agfa color and black-and-white from Foma, ADOX and ORWO and Kodak; the Super 8 plastic cartridge is the fastest loading film system developed, as it can be loaded into the Super 8 camera in less than two seconds without the need to directly thread or touch the film. In addition, coded notches cut into the Super 8 film cartridge exterior allow the camera to recognize the film speed automatically. Not all cameras can read all the notches however, there is some debate about which notches deliver the best results. Canon keeps an exhaustive list of their Super 8 cameras with detailed specifications on what film speeds can be used with their cameras. Testing one cartridge of film can help handle any uncertainty a filmmaker may have about how well their Super 8 camera reads different film stocks. Color stocks were available only in tungsten, all Super 8 cameras come with a switchable daylight filter built in, allowing for both indoor and outdoor shooting.
The original Super 8 film release was a silent system only, but in 1973 a sound on film version was released. The film with sound had a magnetic soundtrack and came in larger cartridges than the original cartridge in order to accommodate the sound recording head in the film path. Sound film requires a longer film path, a second aperture for the recording head. Sound cameras were compatible with silent cartridges, but not vice versa. Sound film was filmed at a speed of 18 or 24 frames per second. Kodak discontinued the production of Super 8 sound film in 1997 citing environmental regulations as the reason; the adhesive used to bond the magnetic track to the film was environmentally hazardous. In 2005 Kodak announced the discontinuation of their most popular stock Kodachrome due to the decline of facilities equipped with K-14 process. Kodachrome was "replaced" by a new ISO 64 Ektachrome; the last roll of Kodachrome was processed on January 18, 2011, in Parsons, Kansas, by the sole remaining lab capable of processing it.
In December 2012, Kodak discontinued color reversal stock in all formats including 35mm and Super 8. Today there is still a variety of Super 8 film stocks. Kodak has three Super 8 color negative stocks cut from their Vision 3 film series, ISO 50, ISO 200 and ISO 500 which can be used in low light. Kodak reformulated the emulsions for the B&W reversal stocks and made Tri-X in order to give it more sharpness. Film cut to Super 8 from other manufactured raw stock such as Fuji, Adox and Foma are available. Pro8mm offers 7 color negative stocks made from Fuji film. Color Reversal film for Super 8 is still available from several Super 8 specialty companies. Wittner Kinotechnik offers Super 8 made from a batch of Agfa Aviphot 200D, perforated and slit for Super 8, 8mm and 16mm formats; this film is loaded into Single cartridges by several of the specialty companies. Other stocks, such as the new Fuji reversal film, existing supplies of Kodak 35mm 100D are made available in Super 8 by these specialty companies.
Here is a sample of New Provia in Super 8. Kodak does not offer processing for any Super-8 films. There are other labs that offer processing including: Pro8mm in Los Angeles, US and Andec in Berli
Haley Loraine Keeling, known professionally as Haley Bennett, is an American actress and singer. She made her film debut as pop star Cora Corman in the romantic comedy Music and Lyrics and has since appeared in the films The Haunting of Molly Hartley, The Hole, The Equalizer, Hardcore Henry, The Magnificent Seven, The Girl on the Train and Thank You for Your Service. Bennett's parents and Ronald Keeling, met in church and hitchhiked to Florida while Leilani was pregnant with her, she is of English, Irish and Lithuanian descent. She was born in Fort Myers and raised in Naples, Florida, her parents divorced when Bennett was six and she moved to Ohio with her father, who opened an automobile repair shop. They moved around the state, with Bennett saying: "there was no time when I lived anywhere longer than two years. I was always a social outcast. Maybe I didn't care what people thought because I,'Well, I won't stick around here for too long'."Bennett describes her childhood as "nomadic", as she moved between living with her father in Ohio and her mother in Florida: "I lived somewhat of a nomadic life when I lived in Ohio.
We spent time in rural areas, in suburban areas, never city areas. We rode four-wheelers. We had ferrets, and creeks. We had a creek in my backyard, it was like Huckleberry Finn... I was kind of a tomboy for awhile. It's tough to explain because I grew up with my mom and my dad but separately because they weren't together. So I boyishness from my dad, he loved fishing, he loves hunting, he loves boating, football and basketball. So that saturated my life, and my mother was soft and strong, but more of an artist. So I kind of had the best of both worlds."When Bennett was 10, she and her father moved to Stow, where she attended Stow-Munroe Falls High School and at 13, she enrolled at Barbizon Modeling School of Akron, Ohio. She attended the International Modeling and Talent Convention in 2001 and 2006, where she won a major award, acted in school plays and sang in choirs, she lived with her mother in Naples where she attended Barron G. Collier High School, where she studied music and acting; when Bennett was 18, she persuaded her mother to take her to Los Angeles for three months to pursue an acting career.
Just as she was about to return home, she managed to secure representation by claiming to her prospective agent that a highly-regarded agency had approached her. The agent signed her. Bennett began using her mother's maiden name as her stage name. In what was only her third audition, Bennett won the role of popstar Cora Corman for her film debut in the 2007 romantic comedy Music and Lyrics, with Hugh Grant and Drew Barrymore. Bennett sang several songs for the film's soundtrack, including "Buddha's Delight" and "Way Back into Love"; that same year, she signed with 550 Music/NuSound Records, began working on her debut album, though one was never released. Bennett performed her first live concert at The Mint in Los Angeles on June 19, 2008. Despite the auspicious debut, Bennett did not break through, she said in an interview in June 2016: "It’s been kind of a long journey for me. Everyone has a different path. I don't know. I didn't have goal. All I came to Los Angeles with was a dream. No one from my family left Ohio.
In L. A. I saw a lot of talent wasted because of fear; the odds are stacked against you. I was a bit like Dorothy following the yellow brick road. Except there was no good witch... Nothing came that ever again, it was a good start -- I'm grateful for the experience. After that film, I ventured back out into the darkness, as actors do, and I was engulfed by it. I got lost, I got broke. I got heartbroken by the roles; when a filmmaker pointed at me and said, "I want to put you in this film," it never happened because of the financial aspect of our industry. I wasn’t a bankable name, I guess, but it went on on repeat, for many years. I begged, I struggled, I fought. There was no other option, really. After signing a three-picture deal with Warner Bros. Bennett subsequently starred in her second and third films, the comedy College and the supernatural horror The Haunting of Molly Hartley. In 2008, she made a cameo appearance in Marley & Me; the following year, Bennett had a lead role alongside Julia Stiles in Shekhar Kapur's short film Passage.
She co-starred as Julie Campbell in the horror thriller film The Hole, directed by Joe Dante. In 2010, she appeared in the fantasy comedy Kaboom, the drama Arcadia Lost. In July 2010, Bennett was cast in the FX crime-drama series Outlaw Country alongside Luke Grimes, Mary Steenburgen and John Hawkes; the pilot was filmed in 2010 before a rewrite and reshoots in April 2011. It remained in limbo until November 2011, when FX announced that it had not been picked up for a series; the hour-and-a-half long pilot was broadcast as a TV film on August 24, 2012. Bennett landed the lead in the thriller film Kristy, she next appeared in the independent drama film Lost in the White City, alongside Thomas Dekker and Bob Morley. In 2014, Bennett co-starred in The Equalizer with Den
Brooklyn Heights is an affluent residential neighborhood within the New York City borough of Brooklyn. The neighborhood is bounded by Old Fulton Street near the Brooklyn Bridge on the north, Cadman Plaza West on the east, Atlantic Avenue on the south, the Brooklyn–Queens Expressway or the East River on the west. Adjacent neighborhoods are Dumbo to the north, Downtown Brooklyn to the east, Cobble Hill and Boerum Hill to the south. Referred to as Brooklyn Village, it has been a prominent area of Brooklyn since 1834; the neighborhood is noted for its low-rise architecture and its many brownstone rowhouses, most of them built prior to the Civil War. It has an abundance of notable churches and other religious institutions. Brooklyn's first art gallery, the Brooklyn Arts Gallery, was opened in Brooklyn Heights in 1958. In 1965, a large part of Brooklyn Heights was protected from unchecked development by the creation of the Brooklyn Heights Historic District, the first such district in New York City.
The district was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1966. Directly across the East River from Manhattan and connected to it by subways and regular ferry service, Brooklyn Heights is easily accessible from Downtown Brooklyn. Columbia Heights, an upscale six-block-long street next to the Brooklyn Heights Promenade, is sometimes considered to be its own neighborhood. Brooklyn Heights is part of Brooklyn Community District 2 and its primary ZIP Code is 11201, it is patrolled by the 84th Precinct of the New York City Police Department. The New York City Fire Department operates two fire stations near Brooklyn Heights: Engine Company 205/Ladder Company 118 at 74 Middagh Street, Engine Company 224 at 274 Hicks Street. Brooklyn Heights occupies a palisade that rises from the river's edge and recedes on the landward side. Before the Dutch settled on Long Island in the middle of the seventeenth century, this promontory was called Ihpetonga by the native Lenape American Indians. Ferries across the East River were running as early as 1642.
The most significant of the ferries went between the current Fulton Street and Peck Slip in Manhattan, was run by Cornelius Dirksen. The ferry service helped the lowland area to thrive, with both farms and some factories along the water, but the higher ground was sparsely used; the area was fortified prior to the Battle of Long Island in the American Revolutionary War, After British troops landed on Long Island and advanced towards Continental Army lines, General George Washington withdrew his troops here after heavy losses, but was able to make a skillful retreat across the East River to Manhattan without the loss of any troops or his remaining supplies. After the war, the 160-acre tract of land belonging to John Rapeljie, a Loyalist, was confiscated and sold to the Sands brothers, who tried to develop the part of the land on the palisade as a community they called "Olympia", but failed to make it come about because of the difficulty of building there, they sold part of their land to John Jackson, who created the Vinegar Hill community, much of which became the Brooklyn Navy Yard.
Brooklyn Heights began to develop once Robert Fulton's New York and Brooklyn Steam Ferry Boat Company began scheduled steam ferry service in 1814, with the financial backing of Hezekiah Beers Pierrepont, one of the area's major landowners. Pierrepont had accumulated 60 acres of land, including 800 feet which directly overlooked the harbor, all of which he planned to sub-divide. Since his intention was to sell to merchants and bankers who lived in Manhattan, he needed easy access between Brooklyn Heights and New York City, which Fulton's company provided. Pierrepont bought 60 acres – part of the Livingston estate, plus the Benson, De Bevoise and Reemsen farms – on what was called "Clover Hill", now Brooklyn Heights, built a mansion there. Pierrepont purchased and expanded Philip Livingston's gin distillery on the East River at what is now Joralemon Street, where he produced Anchor Gin. Wishing to sub-divide and develop his property, Pierrepont realized the need for scheduled ferry service across the East River, to this end he became a prominent investor in Robert Fulton's New York and Brooklyn Steam Ferry Boat Company, using his influence on Fulton's behalf.
Fulton's ferry began running in 1814, Brooklyn received a charter as a village from the state of New York in 1816, thanks to the influence of Pierrepont and other prominent landowners. The city prepared for the establishment of a street grid, although there were competing plans for the size of the lots. John and Jacob Hicks, who owned property on Brooklyn Heights, north of Pierrepont's, favored smaller lots, as they were pitching their land to tradesman and artisans living in Brooklyn, not attempting to lure merchants and bankers from Manhattan as Pierrepont was. To counter the Hickses' proposal, Pierrepont submitted an alternative. In the end, the Hickses' plan was adopted north of Clark Street, Pierrepont's, featuring 25 by 100 foot lots, south of it. Thanks to the influence of Pierrepont and other landowners, Brooklyn received a charter from the state as a village in 1816, which led to streets being laid out in a regular grid pattern, sidewalks being laid, water pumps being installed and the institution of a watch.
After 1823, farms begin to be sub-divided into 25-by-100-foot lots, which were advertised as suitable for a "country retreat" for Manhattanites, leading to a building boom that resulted in Brooklyn Heights becoming the "first commuter suburb," since it was easier and faster to ge
Ravi Shankar, born Rabindra Shankar Chowdhury, his name preceded by the title Pandit and "Sitar maestro", was an Indian musician and a composer of Hindustani classical music. He was the best-known proponent of the sitar in the second half of the 20th century and influenced many other musicians throughout the world. Shankar was awarded India's highest civilian honour, the Bharat Ratna in 1999. Shankar was born to a Bengali Brahmin family in India, spent his youth touring India and Europe with the dance group of his brother Uday Shankar, he gave up dancing in 1938 to study sitar playing under court musician Allauddin Khan. After finishing his studies in 1944, Shankar worked as a composer, creating the music for the Apu Trilogy by Satyajit Ray, was music director of All India Radio, New Delhi, from 1949 to 1956. In 1956, Shankar began to tour Europe and the Americas playing Indian classical music and increased its popularity there in the 1960s through teaching and his association with violinist Yehudi Menuhin and Beatles guitarist George Harrison.
His influence on the latter helped popularize the use of Indian instruments in pop music in the latter half of the 1960s. Shankar engaged Western music by writing compositions for sitar and orchestra, toured the world in the 1970s and 1980s. From 1986 to 1992, he served as a nominated member of Rajya Sabha, the upper chamber of the Parliament of India, he continued to perform until the end of his life. Shankar was born on 7 April 1920 in Benares the capital of the eponymous princely state, in a Bengali family, as the youngest of seven brothers, his father, Shyam Shankar Chowdhury, was a Middle Temple scholar from East Bengal. A respected statesman and politician, he served for several years as dewan of Jhalawar and used the Sanskrit spelling of the family name and removed its last part. Shyam was married to Hemangini Devi who hailed from a small village named Nasrathpur in Mardah block of Ghazipur district, near Benares and his father was a prosperous landlord. Shyam worked as a lawyer in London and there he married a second time while Devi raised Shankar in Benares, did not meet his son until he was eight years old.
Shankar shortened the Sanskrit version of his first name, Ravindra, to Ravi, for "sun". Shankar had five siblings: Uday, Rajendra and Bhupendra. Shankar attended the Bengalitola High School in Benares between 1927 and 1928. At the age of ten, after spending his first decade in Benares, Shankar went to Paris with the dance group of his brother, choreographer Uday Shankar. By the age of 13 he had become a member of the group, accompanied its members on tour and learned to dance and play various Indian instruments. Uday's dance group travelled Europe and the United States in the early to mid-1930s and Shankar learned French, discovered Western classical music, jazz and became acquainted with Western customs. Shankar heard Allauddin Khan – the lead musician at the court of the princely state of Maihar – play at a music conference in December 1934 in Calcutta, Uday convinced the Maharaja of Maihar H. H Maharaja Brijnath singh Judev in 1935 to allow Khan to become his group's soloist for a tour of Europe.
Shankar was sporadically trained by Khan on tour, Khan offered Shankar training to become a serious musician under the condition that he abandon touring and come to Maihar. Shankar's parents had died by the time he returned from the Europe tour, touring the West had become difficult because of political conflicts that would lead to World War II. Shankar gave up his dancing career in 1938 to go to Maihar and study Indian classical music as Khan's pupil, living with his family in the traditional gurukul system. Khan was a rigorous teacher and Shankar had training on sitar and surbahar, learned ragas and the musical styles dhrupad and khyal, was taught the techniques of the instruments rudra veena and sursingar, he studied with Khan's children Ali Akbar Khan and Annapurna Devi. Shankar began to perform publicly on sitar in December 1939 and his debut performance was a jugalbandi with Ali Akbar Khan, who played the string instrument sarod. Shankar completed his training in 1944, he moved to Mumbai and joined the Indian People's Theatre Association, for whom he composed music for ballets in 1945 and 1946.
Shankar recomposed the music for the popular song "Sare Jahan Se Achcha" at the age of 25. He began to record music for HMV India and worked as a music director for All India Radio, New Delhi, from February 1949 to January 1956. Shankar composed for it. Beginning in the mid-1950s he composed the music for the Apu Trilogy by Satyajit Ray, which became internationally acclaimed, he was music director for several Hindi movies including Anuradha. V. K. Narayana Menon, director of AIR Delhi, introduced the Western violinist Yehudi Menuhin to Shankar during Menuhin's first visit to India in 1952. Shankar had performed as part of a cultural delegation in the Soviet Union in 1954 and Menuhin invited Shankar in 1955 to perform in New York City for a demonstration of Indian classical music, sponsored by the Ford Foundation. Shankar heard about the positive response Khan received and resigned from AIR in 1956 to tour the United Kingdom and the United States, he played for smaller audiences and educated them about Indian music, incorporating ragas from the South Indian Carnatic music in his performances, recorded his first LP album Three Ragas in London, released in 1956.
In 1958, Shankar participated in the
Roger Joseph Ebert was an American film critic, journalist and author. He was a film critic for the Chicago Sun-Times from 1967 until his death in 2013. In 1975, Ebert became the first film critic to win the Pulitzer Prize for Criticism. Ebert and Chicago Tribune critic Gene Siskel helped popularize nationally televised film reviewing when they co-hosted the PBS show Sneak Previews, followed by several variously named At the Movies programs; the two verbally traded humorous barbs while discussing films. They created and trademarked the phrase "Two Thumbs Up", used when both hosts gave the same film a positive review. After Siskel died in 1999, Ebert continued hosting the show with various co-hosts and starting in 2000, with Richard Roeper. Neil Steinberg of the Chicago Sun-Times said Ebert "was without question the nation's most prominent and influential film critic", Tom Van Riper of Forbes described him as "the most powerful pundit in America", Kenneth Turan of the Los Angeles Times called him "the best-known film critic in America".
Ebert lived with cancer of the thyroid and salivary glands beginning in 2002. In 2006, he required treatment necessitating the removal of his lower jaw, leaving him disfigured and costing him the ability to speak or eat normally, his ability to write remained unimpaired and he continued to publish both online and in print until his death on April 4, 2013. Roger Joseph Ebert was born in Urbana, the only child of Annabel, a bookkeeper, Walter Harry Ebert, an electrician, he was raised Roman Catholic, attending St. Mary's elementary school and serving as an altar boy in Urbana, his paternal grandparents were German his maternal ancestry was Irish and Dutch. Ebert's interest in journalism began when he was a student at Urbana High School, where he was a sports writer for The News-Gazette in Champaign, Illinois. In his senior year, he was class president and editor-in-chief of his high school newspaper, The Echo. In 1958, he won the Illinois High School Association state speech championship in "radio speaking", an event that simulates radio newscasts.
Regarding his early influences in film criticism, Ebert wrote in the 1998 parody collection Mad About the Movies: Ebert began taking classes at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign as an early-entrance student, completing his high school courses while taking his first university class. After graduating from Urbana High School in 1960, Ebert attended and received his undergraduate degree in 1964. While at the University of Illinois, Ebert worked as a reporter for The Daily Illini and served as its editor during his senior year while continuing to work as a reporter for the News-Gazette of Champaign-Urbana, Illinois; as an undergraduate, he was a member of the Phi Delta Theta fraternity and president of the U. S. Student Press Association. One of the first movie reviews he wrote was a review of La Dolce Vita, published in The Daily Illini in October 1961. Ebert spent a semester as a master's student in the department of English there before attending the University of Cape Town on a Rotary fellowship for a year.
He returned from Cape Town to his graduate studies at Illinois for two more semesters and after being accepted as a PhD candidate at the University of Chicago, he prepared to move to Chicago. He needed a job to support himself while he worked on his doctorate and so applied to the Chicago Daily News, hoping that, as he had sold freelance pieces to the Daily News, including an article on the death of writer Brendan Behan, he would be hired by editor Herman Kogan. Instead Kogan referred Ebert to the city editor at the Chicago Sun-Times, Jim Hoge, who hired Ebert as a reporter and feature writer at the Sun-Times in 1966, he attended doctoral classes at the University of Chicago while working as a general reporter at the Sun-Times for a year. After movie critic Eleanor Keane left the Sun-Times in April 1967, editor Robert Zonka gave the job to Ebert; the load of graduate school and being a film critic proved too much, so Ebert left the University of Chicago to focus his energies on film criticism.
Ebert began his career as a film critic in 1967. That same year, he met film critic Pauline Kael for the first time at the New York Film Festival. After he sent her some of his columns, she told him they were "the best film criticism being done in American newspapers today"; that same year, Ebert's first book, a history of the University of Illinois titled Illini Century: One Hundred Years of Campus Life, was published by the University's press. In 1969, his review of Night of the Living Dead was published in Reader's Digest. Ebert co-wrote the screenplay for the 1970 Russ Meyer film Beyond the Valley of the Dolls and sometimes joked about being responsible for the film, poorly received on its release yet has become a cult classic. Ebert and Meyer made Beneath the Valley of the Ultra-Vixens, Up!, other films, were involved in the ill-fated Sex Pistols movie Who Killed Bambi? Starting in 1968, Ebert worked for the University of Chicago as an adjunct lecturer, teaching a night class on film at the Graham School of Continuing Liberal and Professional Studies.
In 1975, Ebert received the Pulitzer Prize for Criticism. As of 2007, his reviews were syndicated to more than 200 newspapers in the United States and abroad. Ebert publish