Mark (Australian rules football)
A mark is a skill in Australian rules football where a player cleanly catches a kicked ball that has travelled more than 15 metres without anyone else touching it or the ball hitting the ground. Although catching the ball is found in other codes of football, along with kicking the ball, it is one of the most prevalent skills in Australian football. Marking can be one of the most spectacular and distinctive aspects of the game, the best mark of the AFL season is awarded with the Mark of the Year, with similar competitions running across smaller leagues; the top markers in the Australian Football League, like Jason Dunstall and Jonathan Brown took an average of over eight marks per game. An AFL match between St Kilda and Port Adelaide in 2006 set a record of 303 marks in a single game. Upon taking a mark, the umpire will blow the whistle to signify the mark and a player is entitled to an unimpeded kick of the ball, to advance their team towards their goalposts; the nearest opposition player stands on the spot where the player marked the ball, known as the mark, becomes the man on the mark.
When taking the set kick, the player must either kick the ball over the mark. The criterion for a mark is that it be caught cleanly, i.e. the player have complete control of the ball, for any length of time. As such, if the ball is caught in one grab, punched out from between the player's hands, a mark is paid if they have held it for only an instant. If a ball is controlled, dislodged by another player or the ground, the mark will still be paid. Although the rules make no provision for two players marking the ball by convention the umpire will award the mark to the man in front, i.e. the player who has the front position in the marking contest. The mark has been included in the compromise rules used in the International Rules Football series between teams from Australia and Ireland since 1984. Various forms of football descended from English public school football games of the 19th century have featured a fair catch or mark, it was abolished early in the development of soccer but still exists in rugby union and American football.
The mark has been one of the most distinctive features of Australian football since rules were drawn up in 1859. Some people claim that the origin of the term mark comes from the practice of a player who has just taken a mark physically marking the ground with his/her foot, or cap which formed part of the attire worn by players in the 19th century, to show where he took the fair catch. Others claim that the origin of the mark comes from the traditional Aboriginal game of Marn Grook, said to have influenced Tom Wills' writing of the laws of the game, it is claimed that in Marn Grook, jumping to catch the ball, called "mumarki", an Aboriginal word meaning "to catch", results in a free kick. Some counterclaim this theory as false etymology. In Australian football, marks are described in combination of the following ways. Overhead mark: catching the ball with hands extended above the head Contested mark: catching the ball against one or more opponents who are attempting to mark or spoil the player attempting the mark.
This skill is declining in the professional game due to coaches discouraging preferring to avoid contests. Pack mark: catching the ball against one or more opponents and/or teammates all close to the fall of the ball. High mark: catching the ball whilst jumping up in the air. Stewart "Buckets" Loewe, Matthew Richardson and Simon Madden are notable exponents of the high mark. Spectacular mark: sometimes nicknamed'specky','screamer' or'hanger', this term is most used when a mark taken whilst jumping in the air. Additional elevation is achieved by using the legs to spring off the back or shoulders of one or more opponents and/or teammates; the movement of other players beneath the player marking can cause them to lose balance in mid air and land or fall awkwardly, enhancing the spectacle of the mark. The name reflects its popularity among spectators. Chest mark: catching the ball and drawing it in to the chest; this is considered the easiest mark to take, is used in wet weather. At professional level this skill is discouraged by coaches due to it giving opponents a much better chance of intercepting the ball from most directions.
Out in front: catching the ball with arms extended forward from the body. This skill is difficult with the ball travelling low and at high speeds. At professional level this skill is preferred by coaches, as it gives opponents less chance of spoiling from behind, if the ball spills, it will be "front and centre" of the player, which makes it much easier for rovers to predict and to execute game strategy. One-handed mark: catching the ball with only one hand. Used in a contested situation where one player's arm is impeded by an opponent, or where the player uses upper body strength to physically fend off their opponent. While spectacular, this skill is discouraged by coaches due to a low percentage of success and is sometimes seen as "showing off" or "lairising". Diving mark: leaping horizontally to catch the ball before it hits the ground. With the flight of the ball: a mark taken running in the direction that the ball is travelling. In order to do this, the player must take their eyes off opposition players sometimes running at fast pace in the opposite direction.
This type of mark is branded "courageous", because in attempting the mark, the player must ignore the danger of a high
Richmond Football Club
The Richmond Football Club, nicknamed the Tigers, is a professional Australian rules football club playing in the Australian Football League, the sport's premier competition. Between its inception in Richmond, Melbourne in 1885 and 1907, the club competed in the Victorian Football Association, winning two premierships. Richmond joined the Victorian Football League in 1908 and has since won eleven premierships, most in 2017. Richmond's headquarters and training facilities are located at its original home ground, the Punt Road Oval, which sits adjacent to the Melbourne Cricket Ground, the club's playing home since 1965. Richmond traditionally wears a black guernsey with a yellow sash; the club is coached by Damien Hardwick and its current captain is Trent Cotchin. Five Richmond players have been inducted into the Australian Football Hall of Fame as "Legends" of the sport: Kevin Bartlett, Jack Dyer, Royce Hart, Kevin Sheedy and Ian Stewart. A short-lived football club named Richmond formed in 1860 with Tom Wills, one of the founders of Australian rules football, serving as its inaugural secretary and captain.
Wills' cousin H. C. A. Harrison captained Richmond in the early 1860s before moving to Geelong; this club has no continuity to the present club. A number of teams formed in Richmond during the game's rapid expansion in early 1880s. However, all played at a junior level and it was considered an anomaly that Richmond, one of Melbourne's most prominent suburbs, did not boast a senior side; the wait ended when the Richmond Football Club was formed at the Royal Hotel in Richmond on 20 February 1885. A successful application for immediate admission to the Victorian Football Association followed; the club shared the Punt Road Oval with the Richmond Cricket Club, one of the strongest cricket clubs in Australia, playing on the ground since 1856. At first the team wore blue guernseys and caps with yellow and black stripes in the style of the Richmond Cricket Club; the football club soon adopted black as its official colours. The team was variously called the "Richmondites", the "Wasps" or, most the "Tigers".
During the late 1880s, Richmond struggled to make an impression in the VFA, after a promising season in 1888, the club slipped backwards, in the process losing players to more successful sides. As the local economy slipped into severe depression in the early 1890s and the crowds began to dwindle, some of the VFA's strongest clubs began to agitate for a reform of the competition. Richmond was not considered part of this elite group, which voted as a bloc at VFA meetings. In 1896, Richmond walked off the field in a match against South Melbourne to protest the umpiring, in the season, the Tigers had their half-time score annulled against Essendon when it was discovered that they had too many men on the ground. In the closing three weeks of the season, Richmond's cut of the gate takings amounted to just five pounds, they finished the season with the wooden spoon. In October 1896, the cabal of six strong clubs broke with the association to form the Victorian Football League; as a struggling club with a poor following, Richmond was not invited to join the new league.
Richmond's performances did not improve in the emaciated VFA until the turn of the century. The Tigers were boosted by a significant country recruit in 1901. George "Mallee" Johnson was the first true star player at the club. Richmond leapt to third place and in 1902, with Johnson dominating the ruck, Richmond entered the closing weeks of the season neck and neck with Port Melbourne at the head of the ladder, but Port Melbourne faltered against Williamstown to hand Richmond its first flag. Having missed a potential bonanza from a premiership play-off, the VFA decided to emulate the VFL and introduce a finals series in 1903, a fateful decision for the Tigers. After recruiting the competition's leading goalkicker, Jack Hutchinson, finishing the season as minor premier, Richmond lost both finals and were runner-up; the following season, the club became embroiled in a feud with umpire Allen, whom the Tigers accused of failing to curb field invasions or the dubious tactics of arch-rival North Melbourne.
When the two clubs were scheduled to meet in the 1904 VFA Grand Final, Richmond announced that they wouldn't play with Allen as umpire. The VFA called Richmond's bluff, appointed Allen as umpire for the match, meaning that the Grand Final was scratched and North Melbourne won the premiership on forfeit. Richmond were now at odds with the VFA, matters failed to improve in the next few years; the club was campaigning against violence, ungentlemanly conduct and poor sportsmanship, issues that plagued the VFA to a far greater extent than the rival VFL since the 1896 split. Richmond cultivated links with some VFL clubs by playing. Richmond knew that they were a major asset to the VFA, had built up a large following and played on one of the best grounds in the competition, where they remained unbeaten for five years. In 1905, Richmond confirmed their status with a second premiership, this time overcoming bitter rivals North Melbourne, "Mallee" Johnson had moved to Carlton, but youngster Charlie Ricketts dominated the season and won plaudits among the pressmen, who voted him the best player in the VFA.
However, Ricketts was lost to the VFL and injury hit the club hard. In 1906–07, the Tigers played finals without looking to win the flag; the club earned a rebuke from the VFA for scheduling a practice match against Geelong before the 1907 season went ahead with the commitment and earned further censure. La
Kicking is a skill used in many types of football, including: Association football Australian rules football International rules football American football Canadian football Gaelic football Rugby league Rugby unionKicking is the act of propelling a ball by striking it with the foot or, depending upon the sport, the shin. Kicking is most common in Association Football, where only the two goalkeepers are allowed to use their hands, it is the primary method of transferring the ball in Australian rules football and Gaelic football. Whereas most sports allow points to be scored by methods other than kicking, in Australian rules football kicking for goal is the only method allowed to score a goal and get the maximum six point score. Kicking is used less in Rugby League, Rugby Union, American football, Canadian football, may be restricted to specialist positions, but it is still an important tactical skill in each sport; the range of kicking styles available is influenced by the shape of the ball and the rules.
1997 AFL Rising Star
The Norwich AFL Rising Star award is given annually to a standout young player in the Australian Football League. The 1997 medal was won by Port Adelaide player Michael Wilson; every round, an Australian Football League rising star nomination is given to a standout young player. To be eligible for the award, a player must be under 21 on January 1 of that year, have played 10 or fewer senior games and not been suspended during the season. At the end of the year, one of the 22 nominees is the winner of award
Mildura is a regional city in north-west Victoria, Australia. Located on the Victorian side of the Murray River, Mildura had a population of 33,444 in 2016; when nearby Wentworth, Nichols Point and Merbein are included, the area had an estimated urban population of 50,998 at June 2016. It is the largest settlement in the Sunraysia region. Mildura is a major horticultural centre notable for its grape production, supplying 80% of Victoria's grapes. Many wineries source grapes from Mildura; the city's central business district is located just a short distance from the banks of the Murray. Langtree Avenue is the main shopping and dining precinct in Mildura, with the middle section of the street a pedestrian mall; the other major retail precinct is along Fifteenth Street in the Mildura South area, where a mid-sized undercover shopping mall and several big box stores are located. The city's name was taken from the Mildura homestead, an early sheep station which covered most of the area; the urban area of Mildura is surrounded by irrigated horticulture, where the original grape and citrus blocks were located with water irrigated from the Murray River.
Mildura has a long history of grape farming. There are several theories as to the origin of the name Mildura. While it was the name of the sheep station, without precedent in the English language, most historians believe it to have originated from Aboriginal Australian words. However, the etymology of Mildura is not certain, as in several local dialects, the words mill and dura have different meanings; the word dura is thought to mean "earth", "sand" or "rock" in the local Ladji Ladji language. However, usage of the word mill varies by dialect and may mean "red" or "water", thus, interpretations of the name can vary from "red earth" to "water rock". Many Aboriginal people lived around the site of Mildura because of the abundant food. Local tribes included the Jarijari; the first Europeans in the area brought sheep to graze the rich pastures. A major drought in Victoria from 1877 to 1884 prompted Alfred Deakin a minister in the State Government and chairman of a Royal Commission on water supply to visit the irrigation areas of California.
There he met William Chaffey. In 1886, Canadian-American irrigator George Chaffey came to Australia and selected a derelict sheep station known as Mildura as the site for his first irrigation settlement, signing an agreement with the Victorian government to spend at least £300,000 on permanent improvements at Mildura in the next twenty years. After much political wrangling, the settlement of Mildura was established in 1887; the Post Office opened on 23 January 1888. The nearby towns of Wentworth, Gol Gol and Yelta sprang up in the mid-to-late 19th century. In the 1890s came the scourge of the rabbit; this devastated the sheep farmers south of the Murray. There was a financial recession at this time. Combined, these factors restricted growth of the new settlement. After this period, the new settlement grew, it was soon the main town of the district. Suburbs and new satellite towns sprang up. From the 1920s, a number of ` suburban' train services were established to Red Cliffs; these were operated by railcars.
Post war Mildura experienced a large influx of migrants from European and Mediterranean countries including Italy and Greece. Many of these migrants were attracted by the unskilled labour offered by the fruit picking industry. In 1934 Mildura was proclaimed a city. In 2004 there was a controversial proposal by the Victorian Government to build a state-level Long Term Containment Facility for Industrial Waste in Nowingi 50 km south of Mildura; the site is a small enclave of state forest surrounded by national park, contains habitat important to a number of threatened species. The abandoning of the LTCF proposal was received with jubilation by opponents of the LTCF not only in the Mildura area and elsewhere in Victoria, but across the border in South Australia where there were fears that in reputation, if not in substance, the toxic waste could affect the water supply via the Murray River and thereby the fruit-growing industries of the Riverland and Murraylands; the Mildura Rural City Council and residents spent $2 million fighting the Government's proposal for the LTCF at Nowingi.
On 10 January 2007 the Victorian Government did not rule out some form of reimbursement for the Rural City of Mildura council's legal and other costs in opposing the LTCF. "The general rule is that people bear their own costs, most to apply in this case... but I've indicated and I am prepared to talk to the council and mayor about the whole issue of how Mildura moves forward and I'll do that," John Thwaites said. Mildura is situated on flat land without hills or mountains on the southern bank of the Murray River and surrounded to the west and east by lakes and billabongs including Lake Hawthorn, Lake Ranfurly and Lake Gol Gol. Several towns surround Mildura on the flat plains including Merbein to the west as well as Irymple and Red Cliffs to the south which could be considered suburban areas or satellite towns separated by small stretches of open farmland. While the land along the river and irrigation channels is fertile, much of the land around Mildura is dry and semi-arid. Mildura is a low-rise and low density urban area, overwhelmingly dependent upon private automobiles for transportation.
Residential dwellings consist solely of single-family detached homes on large allotments. The population has been growing for several decades and most of the residential growth has occurred in the south-western and southern parts of the urban area; the central business distric
Australian rules football
Australian rules football known as Australian football, or called Aussie rules, football or footy, is a contact sport played between two teams of eighteen players on an oval-shaped field a modified cricket ground. Points are scored by kicking the oval-shaped ball between behind posts. During general play, players may position themselves anywhere on the field and use any part of their bodies to move the ball; the primary methods are kicking and running with the ball. There are rules on how the ball can be handled: for example, players running with the ball must intermittently bounce or touch it on the ground. Throwing the ball is not allowed and players must not get caught holding the ball. A distinctive feature of the game is the mark, where players anywhere on the field who catch the ball from a kick are awarded possession. Possession of the ball is in dispute at all times except when mark is paid. Players can use their whole body to obstruct opponents. Dangerous physical contact, interference when marking and deliberately slowing the play are discouraged with free kicks, distance penalties or suspension for a certain number of matches, depending on the seriousness of the infringement.
The game features frequent physical contests, spectacular marking, fast movement of both players and the ball and high scoring. The sport's origins can be traced to football matches played in Melbourne, Victoria in 1858, inspired by English public school football games. Seeking to develop a game more suited to adults and Australian conditions, the Melbourne Football Club published the first laws of Australian football in May 1859, making it the oldest of the world's major football codes. Australian football has the highest spectator attendance and television viewership of all sports in Australia, while the Australian Football League, the sport's only professional competition, is the nation's wealthiest sporting body; the AFL Grand Final, held annually at the Melbourne Cricket Ground, is the highest attended club championship event in the world. The sport is played at amateur level in many countries and in several variations, its rules are governed by the AFL Commission with the advice of the AFL's Laws of the Game Committee.
Australian rules football is known by several nicknames, including Aussie rules and footy. In some regions, it is marketed as AFL after the Australian Football League. There is evidence of football being played sporadically in the Australian colonies in the first half of the 19th century. Compared to cricket and horse racing, football was viewed as a minor "amusement" at the time, while little is known about these early one-off games, it is clear they share no causal link with Australian football. In 1858, in a move that would help to shape Australian football in its formative years, "public" schools in Melbourne, Victoria began organising football games inspired by precedents at English public schools; the earliest such match, held in St Kilda on 15 June, was between Melbourne Grammar and St Kilda Grammar. On 10 July 1858, the Melbourne-based Bell's Life in Victoria and Sporting Chronicle published a letter by Tom Wills, captain of the Victoria cricket team, calling for the formation of a "foot-ball club" with a "code of laws" to keep cricketers fit during winter.
Born in Australia, Wills played a nascent form of rugby football whilst a pupil at Rugby School in England, returned to his homeland a star athlete and cricketer. His letter is regarded by many historians as giving impetus for the development of a new code of football today known as Australian football. Two weeks Wills' friend, cricketer Jerry Bryant, posted an advertisement for a scratch match at the Richmond Paddock adjoining the Melbourne Cricket Ground; this was the first of several "kickabouts" held that year involving members of the Melbourne Cricket Club, including Wills, Bryant, W. J. Hammersley and J. B. Thompson. Trees were used as goalposts and play lasted an entire afternoon. Without an agreed upon code of laws, some players were guided by rules they had learned in the British Isles, "others by no rules at all". Another significant milestone in 1858 was a match played under experimental rules between Melbourne Grammar and Scotch College, held at the Richmond Paddock; this 40-a-side contest, umpired by Wills and Scotch College teacher John Macadam, began on 7 August and continued over two subsequent Saturdays, ending in a draw with each side kicking one goal.
It is commemorated with a statue outside the MCG, the two schools have competed annually since in the Cordner-Eggleston Cup, the world's oldest continuous football competition. Since the early 20th century, it has been suggested that Australian football was derived from the Irish sport of Gaelic football, not codified until 1885. There is no archival evidence in favour of a Gaelic influence, the style of play shared between the two modern codes was evident in Australia long before the Irish game evolved in a similar direction. Another theory, first proposed in 1983, posits that Wills, having grown up amongst Aborigines in Victoria, may have seen or played the Aboriginal game of Marn Grook, incorporated some of its features into early Australian football; the evidence for this is only circumstantial, according to biographer Greg de Moore's research, Wills was "almost influenced by his experience at Rugby School". A loosely organised Melbourne side, captained by Wills, played against other football enthusiasts in the winter and spring of 1858.
The following year, on 14 May, the Melbourne Football Club came into being, making it one of the