New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
A Time to Kill (1996 film)
A Time to Kill is a 1996 American crime drama film based on John Grisham's 1989 eponymous novel. Sandra Bullock, Samuel L. Jackson, Matthew McConaughey, Kevin Spacey star, with Oliver Platt, Ashley Judd and Donald Sutherland, Patrick McGoohan appearing in supporting roles. Set in Mississippi, the film involves the rape of a young girl, the arrest of the rapists, their subsequent murder by the girl's father, the father's trial for murder; the film was a commercial success, making $152 million at the worldwide box office. It is the second of two films based on Grisham's novels directed by Joel Schumacher, with the other being The Client released two years prior. In the town of Canton, ten-year-old African American Tonya Hailey is abducted and beaten by two local white men, Billy Ray Cobb and Pete Willard; the duo dump her in a nearby river after a failed attempt to hang her. Tonya survives, the two men are arrested by Sheriff Ozzie Walls. Tonya's father, Carl Lee Hailey, contacts Jake Brigance, a white lawyer who defended his brother.
Brigance admits the possibility. Carl Lee goes to the county courthouse and opens fire with an automatic rifle, killing both rapists and unintentionally injuring Deputy Dwayne Looney with a ricochet, whose leg is amputated. Carl Lee is arrested and Brigance agrees to defend him; the rape and subsequent revenge killing gain national media attention. The district attorney, Rufus Buckley, decides to seek the death penalty, presiding Judge Omar Noose denies Brigance a change of venue to a more ethnically-diverse county, meaning that Carl Lee will have an all-white jury. Brigance seeks help from his defense team: law student Ellen Roark, close friend Harry Rex Vonner, former mentor and longtime activist Lucien Wilbanks, a once-great civil rights lawyer. Meanwhile, Billy Ray's brother, Freddie Lee Cobb, plans to avenge his brother's death by joining and enlisting the help of the Mississippi branch of the Ku Klux Klan and its Grand Dragon, Stump Sisson. On the first day of the trial, the Klan rallies, only to be outnumbered by counter-protesters consisting of the area's black and multiracial residents, as well as whites who support Carl Lee.
The protest erupts into a violent riot that results in dozens of injuries and the death of Stump Sisson. The Klan begins to target Brigance, assaulting his elderly secretary and her husband, who ends up dying of a fatal heart attack brought on by the assault, they burn a cross on his lawn and threaten his wife and daughter. When Brigance refuses to back down, Cobb kidnaps and assaults Roark; the Klan increases their attacks, including burning Brigance's house. Dispirited, Brigance tells Carl Lee. Carl Lee replies that he had chosen him as an attorney because a racist jury would listen to a white man. During closing arguments, a deeply-shaken Brigance tells the jury to close their eyes and listen to a story, he describes, in painful detail, the entire ordeal of Tonya. Brigance asks the jury, in his final comment, to "now imagine she's white." After deliberation, a black child runs out of the courthouse and screams, "He's innocent!" Jubilation ensues amongst the supporters outside. The Klan members, begin yelling in anger.
Meanwhile, Sheriff Walls arrests Freddie Lee for his crimes, as well as a corrupt deputy, a member of the Klan and is standing next to the sheriff. Brigance brings his wife and daughter to a family cookout at Carl Lee's house to celebrate his freedom. According to Boxofficemojo.com, the movie performed well. The film received positive reviews from critics, earning a 65% "Fresh" rating on Rotten Tomatoes, based on 52 reviews, a critical consensus reading: "Overlong and superficial, A Time to Kill nonetheless succeeds on the strength of its skillful craftsmanship and top-notch performances", it has a score of 54 out of 100 based on 21 reviews. Roger Ebert gave the film three stars out of four, saying: "I was absorbed by A Time to Kill, found the performances strong and convincing," and added that "this is the best of the film versions of Grisham novels, I think, it has been directed with skill by Joel Schumacher."The film was not without its detractors, however. Anthony Puccinelli gave the film one star, calling it "worthless" and remarking: "A Time to Kill argues for vigilantism but disguises its message by making the vigilante black, allowing viewers to think their blood lust and thirst for revenge is empathy for the oppressed."
Peter Travers felt that "they cram in too much," adding, "This distracts from the heart of the picture, in the bond between Carl Lee and Jake, a husband and father who knows he, would have shot anyone who raped his little girl." Gene Siskel remarked it was "An overwrought, contrived courtroom thriller", "cornball" and concluded "This story has been recycled out of countless better movies." Grisham enjoyed the film, remarking: "When all was said and done I was happy with it, happy we were able to find a kid like Matthew McConaughey. It wasn't a great movie, but it was a good one." In France, the film has been the subject of much controversy. Critics have accused the movie of making an apology for the death right of self-defense. A question m
The Lost Boys
The Lost Boys is a 1987 American horror comedy film directed by Joel Schumacher, starring Jason Patric, Corey Haim, Kiefer Sutherland, Jami Gertz, Corey Feldman, Dianne Wiest, Edward Herrmann, Alex Winter, Jamison Newlander, Barnard Hughes. The film is about two brothers who move to California to a fictional beach town called "Santa Carla", end up fighting a gang of young vampires; the title is a reference to the Lost Boys in J. M. Barrie's stories about Peter Pan and Neverland, like the vampires, never grow up. Most of the film was shot in California; the film has spawned a franchise with a future television series. Brothers Michael and Sam Emerson travel with their divorced mother Lucy to the small beach town of "Santa Carla", California, to live with her eccentric father, referred to as Grandpa. Michael and Sam begin hanging out at the boardwalk, plastered with flyers of missing people, while Lucy gets a job at a video store run by a local bachelor, Max. Michael becomes fascinated by Star, a young woman he spots on the boardwalk, though she seems to be in a relationship with the mysterious David, the leader of a young biker gang.
In the local comic book store, Sam meets brothers Edgar and Alan Frog, a pair of self-proclaimed vampire hunters, who give him horror comics to teach him about the threat they claim has infiltrated the town. Michael talks to Star and is approached by David, who goads him into following them by motorcycle along the beach until they reach a dangerous cliff, which Michael goes over. At the gang's hangout, a sunken luxury hotel beneath the cliff, David initiates Michael into the group. Star warns Michael not to drink from an offered bottle, telling him it's blood, but Michael ignores her advice. On, David and the others, including Michael, head to a railroad bridge where they hang off the edge over a foggy gorge. Michael wakes up at home the next day unaware of, his eyes are sensitive to sunlight and he develops a sudden thirst for blood, which leads him to impulsively attack Sam. Sam's dog, Nanook and Sam realizes that Michael is turning into a vampire by his brother's semi-transparent reflection.
Sam is terrified of his brother but Michael convinces him that he is not yet a vampire and that he needs his help. Michael begins to develop supernatural powers and asks Star for help, but has sex with her shortly afterwards. Sam deduces that, since Michael has not killed anyone, he is a half-vampire and his condition can be reversed upon the death of the head vampire. Sam and the Frog brothers test whether Max is the head vampire during a date with Lucy, but Max passes every test and the boys decide to focus on David. To provoke him into killing, David takes Michael to stalk a group of beach goers, instigates a feeding frenzy. Horrified, Michael returns home to Sam. Star arrives, reveals herself as a half-vampire, looking to be cured, it emerges that David had intended for Michael to be Star's first kill, sealing her fate as a vampire. The next day, a weakening Michael leads the Frog brothers to the gang's lair, they impale one of the vampires, with a stake, awakening David and the two others, but the boys escape, rescuing Star and Laddie, a half-vampire child and Star's companion.
That evening while Lucy is on a date with Max and the grandfather is out of the house, the teens arm themselves with holy-water-filled water guns, a longbow, stakes, barricading themselves in the house. When night falls, David's gang attack the house; the Frog brothers and Nanook manage to kill one of the vampires by pushing him into a bathtub filled with garlic and holy water, dissolving him to the bone. Sam is attacked by Dwayne, another vampire, shoots an arrow through his heart and into the stereo behind him, electrocuting him and causing parts of his body to explode. Michael is attacked by David, forcing him to use his vampire powers, he impales him on a set of antlers. However, Michael and Laddie do not transform back to normal as they had hoped. Lucy returns home with Max, revealed to be the head vampire, he informs the boys that to invite a vampire into one's house renders one powerless over said vampire, leaving them unable to exploit any weaknesses that the vampire has while there, explaining why their earlier assumption appeared to be incorrect.
Max reveals he had instructed David to turn Sam and Michael into vampires so that Lucy couldn't refuse to be transformed herself, as his objective had been to get Lucy to be a mother for his lost boys. As Max pulls Lucy to him, preparing to transform her, he is killed when Grandpa crashes his jeep through the wall of the house and impales Max on a wooden fence post, causing him to explode. Michael and Laddie return to normal. Amongst this carnage and debris, Grandpa casually retrieves a drink from the refrigerator, declares: "One thing about living in Santa Carla I never could stomach: all the damn vampires", revealing he knew about the vampire situation for the entirety of the film; the film's title is a reference to the characters featured in J. M. Barrie's Peter Pan stories. According to Day, the central theme of The Lost Boys, "organised around loose allusions to Peter Pan", is the tension surrounding the Emerson family and the world of contemporary adolescence; the film was set to be directed by Richard Donner and the screenplay, written by Janice Fischer and James Jeremias, was modelled on Donner's recent hit The Goonies.
In this way the film was envisioned as more of a juvenile vampire adventure with 13 or 14 year ol
Matthew David McConaughey is an American actor and producer. He first gained notice for his breakout role in the coming-of-age comedy Dazed and Confused, before going on to appear in the film Texas Chainsaw Massacre: The Next Generation, A Time to Kill, the comedy film Larger than Life, Steven Spielberg's historical drama Amistad, the science fiction drama Contact, the comedy EDtv, the war film U-571. In the 2000s, McConaughey became best known for starring in romantic comedies, including The Wedding Planner, How to Lose a Guy in 10 Days, Failure to Launch, Fool's Gold, Ghosts of Girlfriends Past. Since 2011, he has preferred dramatic roles, including The Lincoln Lawyer, Killer Joe, The Paperboy, Magic Mike, The Wolf of Wall Street, Dallas Buyers Club, The Sea of Trees, Free State of Jones. McConaughey achieved critical success in 2013 and 2014. In 2013, McConaughey portrayed Ron Woodroof, a cowboy diagnosed with AIDS in the biographical film Dallas Buyers Club, which earned him the Academy Award, Critics' Choice Movie Award, Golden Globe Award, Screen Actors Guild Award, all for Best Actor, among other awards and nominations.
In 2014, he starred as Rust Cohle in the first season of HBO's crime drama anthology series True Detective, for which he won the Critics' Choice Television Award and TCA Award, was nominated for the Primetime Emmy Award, Golden Globe Award, Screen Actors Guild Award. Matthew David McConaughey was born on November 1969, in Uvalde, Texas, his mother, Mary Kathleen "Kay"/"KMac", is a former kindergarten teacher and published author who taught McConaughey. She was from Trenton, New Jersey, his father, James Donald "Jim" McConaughey, was born in Mississippi in 1922 and raised in Louisiana, where he ran an oil pipe supply business. In 1953, Jim was drafted in the 27th round by the NFL's Green Bay Packers, he was released before the season began and never played an official league game in the NFL. McConaughey's mother and late father married each other three times, having divorced each other twice, he has two older brothers and Patrick. Michael, nicknamed "Rooster", is a self-made millionaire who stars in the CNBC docu-series West Texas Investors Club, as of 2018 stars in the A&E reality show Rooster & Butch with Wayne Gilliam.
McConaughey's ancestry includes English, Irish and Swedish, with some of his Irish roots being from the Cavan/Monaghan area. He is a relative of Confederate brigadier general Dandridge McRae, he had a Methodist upbringing. McConaughey moved to Texas, in 1980, where he attended Longview High School, he lived in Australia for a year, in Warnervale, New South Wales, as a Rotary exchange student in 1988. He attended the University of Texas at Austin, he began in the fall of 1989 and graduated in the spring of 1993 with a Bachelor of Science in Radio-Television-Film. His original plan had changed as he wanted to attend Southern Methodist University until one of his brothers told him that private school tuition would have been a burden on the family's finances, he had planned to attend law school after graduation from college, but he realized he was not interested in becoming a lawyer. McConaughey began working in television commercials, including one for the Austin, Texas daily newspaper, the Austin American-Statesman, credited as his first speaking role.
The line, "How else am I gonna keep up with my'Horns?" – a reference to his beloved Texas Longhorns sports teams – gave the local community a look at the young actor before he was cast in Richard Linklater's film Dazed and Confused. In 1992, he was cast as "Joe" in Trisha Yearwood's music video "Walkaway Joe". After some smaller roles in Angels in the Outfield, Texas Chainsaw Massacre: The Next Generation, Boys on the Side, the television series Unsolved Mysteries, McConaughey's big break came as the lawyer Jake Brigance in the film A Time to Kill, based on the John Grisham novel of the same name. In the late 1990s, McConaughey was cast in leading roles in more movies, including Contact, The Newton Boys, EDtv and U-571. By the early 2000s, he was cast in romantic comedies, including The Wedding Planner and How to Lose a Guy in 10 Days, both of which were successful at the box office. During this period, he appeared as a firefighter in the low-budget film Tiptoes, with Kate Beckinsale, in Two for the Money as a protégé to Al Pacino's gambling mogul, in Frailty with Bill Paxton, who directed.
McConaughey starred in the 2005 feature film Sahara, along with Penélope Cruz. Prior to the release of the film, he promoted it by sailing down the Amazon River and trekking to Mali; that same year, McConaughey was named People magazine's "Sexiest Man Alive" for 2005. In 2006, he co-starred with Sarah Jessica Parker in the romantic comedy Failure to Launch and as Marshall head football coach Jack Lengyel in We Are Marshall. McConaughey provided voice work in an ad campaign for the Peace Corps in late 2006, he replaced Owen Wilson in Ben Stiller's Tropic Thunder after Wilson's suicide attempt. On January 21, 2008, McConaughey became the new spokesman for the national radio campaign, "Beef: It's What's for Dinner", replacing Sam Elliott. McConaughey recognized that his "lifestyle, living on the beach, running with my shirt off, doing romantic comedies" had caused him to be typecast for certain roles, he sought dramatic work with other themes, he said: In 2012, McConaughey starr
Sleeper (1973 film)
Sleeper is a 1973 American futuristic science fiction comedy film, directed by Woody Allen and written by Allen and Marshall Brickman. The plot involves the adventures of the owner of a health food store, cryogenically frozen in 1973 and defrosted 200 years in an ineptly led police state; the film contains many elements which parody notable works of science fiction and was made as a tribute to comedians Groucho Marx and Bob Hope. Miles Monroe, a jazz musician and owner of the "Happy Carrot" health-food store in 1973, is subjected to cryopreservation without his consent, not revived for 200 years. Two scientists revive him, they are members of an underground rebellion. The U. S. in 2173 is a hedonistic, automated police state, ostensibly ruled by a dictator known only as "The Leader", about to implement a secret plan known as the "Aries Project". The rebels hope to use Miles as a spy to infiltrate the Aries Project, because he is the only member of this society without a known biometric identity.
The authorities discover the scientists' project, arrest them, where they are taken for interrogation and torture. Miles escapes by disguising himself as a robot, goes to work as a butler in the house of socialite Luna Schlosser; when Luna decides to have his head replaced with something more "aesthetically pleasing", Miles reveals his true identity to her, whereupon Luna threatens to give Miles to the authorities. In response, he goes on the run, searching for the Aries Project. Miles and Luna fall in love, but Miles is captured and brainwashed into becoming a complacent member of the society, while Luna joins the rebellion; the rebels kidnap Miles and perform reverse-brainwashing, whereupon he remembers his past and joins their efforts. Miles becomes jealous when he catches Luna kissing the rebel leader, Erno Windt, she tells him that she believes in free love. Miles and Luna infiltrate the Aries Project, wherein they learn that the national Leader had been killed by a rebel bomb ten months previously.
All that survives is his nose. Other members of the Aries Project, mistaking Miles and Luna for doctors, expect them to clone the leader from this single remaining part. Miles steals the nose and "assassinates" it by dropping it in the path of a road roller. After escaping and Luna debate their future together, he tells her that Erno will become as corrupt as the Leader. Miles and Luna confess their love for one another, but she claims that science has proven men and women cannot have meaningful relationships due to chemical incompatibilities. Miles dismisses this, saying that he does not believe in science, Luna points out that he does not believe in God or political systems either. Luna asks Miles if there is anything he does believe in, he responds, "Sex and death — two things that come once in a lifetime — but at least after death you're not nauseous." The film ends as kiss. Woody Allen as Miles Monroe, the former owner of a health food store from the 1970s Diane Keaton as Luna Schlosser, an artist from the 22nd century Don Keefer as Doctor Tryon, one of the two scientists who oversee Miles's rehabilitation from cryosleep Bartlett Robinson appears as Doctor Orva, the supervising scientist at Miles's revival.
Peter Hobbs appears as Doctor Dean, the leading physician come to witness Our Leader's cloning Douglas Rain voices Bio Central Computer 2100, Series G, the computer aiding in Our Leader's cloning. Whitney Rydbeck voices Janus and Melik's robot butler. John Cannon voices Rags, Miles's robot dog Jackie Mason voices Cohen, one of the two robot tailors of Ginsberg & Cohen. Lou Picetti appears as the Bert Parks-like Miss America emcee Chris Forbes appears as Rainer Krebs, a brief romantic interest of Miles Read Morgan appears as the representative at Domesticon Brian Avery, Susan Miller, Regis Cordic, George Furth appear as Luna's party guests John McLiam and Jerry Hardin portray scientists at Miles's revival Jeff Maxwell and Seamon Glass portray security guards Albert Popwell portrays a reprogramming technician Jessica Rains appears as the woman in the Gyro-Mirror, whose channel Miles accidentally accesses while he is shaving and she is gargling The image of Timothy Leary is used for Our Leader The film was shot in and around Denver, Colorado.
The outdoor shots of the hospital were filmed at the Table Mesa Laboratory of the National Center for Atmospheric Research in Boulder, Colorado. There is a brief shot of the main building of the Denver Botanic Gardens and of the concrete lamp posts; the Sculptured House, designed by architect Charles Deaton, is a private home known locally since the film was shot as the "Sleeper House" located on Genesee Mountain near Genesee Park, west of Denver. The Mile Hi Church of Religious Science in Lakewood, Colorado was turned into a futuristic McDonald's, featuring a sign counting the number sold: 795 followed by 51 zeroes. Sleeper received positive reviews, holds a 100% approval rating on Rotten Tomatoes, based on 29 reviews, with an average rating of 8/10; the site's critical consensus reads, "In Sleeper, Woody Allen's madcap futurist comedy each joke and one-liner hits its target."Vincent Canby, in The New York Times, called the film "terrific", saying it "confidently advances the Allen art into slapstick territory that I assoc
Batman in film
The fictional superhero Batman, who appears in American comic books published by DC Comics, has appeared in various films since his inception. Created by Bob Kane and Bill Finger, the character first starred in two serial films in the 1940s: Batman and Batman and Robin; the character appeared in the 1966 film Batman, a feature film adaptation of the 1960s Batman TV series starring Adam West and Burt Ward, who starred in the film. Toward the end of the 1980s, the Warner Bros. studio began producing a series of feature films starring Batman, beginning with the 1989 film Batman, directed by Tim Burton and starring Michael Keaton. Burton and Keaton returned for the 1992 sequel Batman Returns, in 1995, Joel Schumacher directed Batman Forever with Val Kilmer as Batman. Schumacher directed the 1997 sequel Batman & Robin, which starred George Clooney. Batman & Robin was poorly received by both critics and fans, leading to the cancellation of Batman Unchained. Following the cancellation of two further film proposals, the franchise was rebooted in 2005 with Batman Begins, directed by Christopher Nolan and starring Christian Bale.
Nolan returned to direct two further installments through the release of The Dark Knight in 2008 and The Dark Knight Rises in 2012, with Bale reprising his role in both films. Both sequels earned over $1 billion worldwide, making Batman the second film franchise to have two of its films earn more than $1 billion worldwide. Referred to as The Dark Knight Trilogy, the critical acclaim and commercial success of Nolan's films have been credited with restoring widespread popularity to the superhero, with the second installment considered one of the best superhero movies of all-time. After Warner Bros. launched their own shared cinematic universe known as the DC Extended Universe in 2013, Ben Affleck was cast to portray Batman in the new expansive franchise, first appearing in 2016 with the Zack Snyder directed film Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice. The film would help begin a sequence of further DC Comics adaptations, including Justice League, a crossover film featuring other DC Comics characters, in 2017, a stand-alone Batman film directed by Matt Reeves.
Outside of the DCEU, Dante Pereira-Olson will appear as Bruce Wayne in the 2019 film Joker, directed by Todd Phillips. Batman has appeared in multiple animated films, both as a starring character and as an ensemble character. While most animated films were released direct-to-video, the 1993 animated feature Batman: Mask of the Phantasm, based on the 1990s Batman: The Animated Series, was released theatrically. Having earned a total of U. S. $2,407,708,129 the Batman series is the fifth-highest-grossing film series in North America. Batman was a 15-chapter serial film released in 1943 by Columbia Pictures and was the first appearance of the comic book character on film; the serial starred Lewis Wilson as Douglas Croft as Robin. Being a World War II era production, the movie serial like many of this period was used as war-time propaganda and had an anti-Japanese bent with J. Carrol Naish playing the Japanese villain, an original character named Dr. Daka. Rounding out the cast were Shirley Patterson as Linda Page, William Austin as Alfred.
The plot is based on Batman, a US government agent, attempting to defeat the Japanese agent Dr. Daka, at the height of World War II; the film is notable for being the first filmed appearance of Batman and for providing two core elements of the Batman mythos. The film introduced the Grandfather clock entrance; the name was altered to the Batcave for the comic. William Austin, who played Alfred, had a trim physique and sported a thin mustache, while the contemporary comic book version of Alfred was overweight and clean-shaven prior to the serial's release; the comics version of Alfred was altered to match that of Austin's, has stayed that way. Batman and Robin was another 15-chapter serial film released in 1949 by Columbia Pictures. Robert Lowery played Batman. Supporting players included Jane Adams as Vicki Vale and veteran character actor Lyle Talbot as Commissioner Gordon; the plot dealt with the Dynamic Duo facing off against the Wizard, a hooded villain whose identity remains a mystery throughout the serial until the end.
Batman is a 1966 film adaptation of the popular Batman television series, was the first full-length theatrical adaptation of the DC Comics character. The 20th Century Fox release starred Adam West as Batman and Burt Ward as Robin, as well as Lee Meriwether as Catwoman, Cesar Romero as the Joker, Burgess Meredith as the Penguin and Frank Gorshin as the Riddler; the film was directed by Leslie H. Martinson, who directed for the series a pair of season one episodes: "The Penguin Goes Straight" and "Not Yet, He Ain't". In the late 1970s, Batman's popularity was waning. CBS was interested in producing a Batman in Outer Space film. Producers Michael Uslan and Benjamin Melniker purchased the film rights of Batman from DC Comics on October 3, 1979, it was Uslan's wish "to make the definitive, serious version of Batman, the way Bob Kane and Bill Finger had envisioned him in 1939. A creature of the night. Richard Maibaum was approached to write a script with Guy Hamilton to direct, but the two turned down the offer.
Uslan was unsuccessful with pitching Batman to various movie studios because they wanted the film to be similar to the campy 1960s TV series. Columbia Pictures and United Artists were among those to turn down the film. A disappointed Uslan wrote a script titled Return of the Batman to give the film industry a better idea of his vision for the film. Uslan compared its dark tone to that of The Dark Knight Returns, which his script pre-dated
The Wiz (film)
The Wiz is a 1978 American musical adventure fantasy film produced by Universal Pictures and Motown Productions, released by Universal Pictures on October 24, 1978. A reimagining of L. Frank Baum's classic 1900 children's novel The Wonderful Wizard of Oz featuring an all-black cast, the film was loosely adapted from the 1974 Broadway musical of the same name, it follows the adventures of Dorothy, a shy, twenty-four-year-old Harlem schoolteacher who finds herself magically transported to the urban fantasy Land of Oz, which resembles a dream version of New York City. Befriended by a Scarecrow, a Tin Man and a Cowardly Lion, she travels through the city to seek an audience with the mysterious Wiz, who they say is the only one powerful enough to send her home. Produced by Rob Cohen and directed by Sidney Lumet, the film stars Diana Ross, Michael Jackson, Nipsey Russell, Ted Ross, Mabel King, Theresa Merritt, Thelma Carpenter, Lena Horne and Richard Pryor, its story was reworked from William F. Brown's Broadway libretto by Joel Schumacher, Quincy Jones supervised the adaptation of Charlie Smalls and Luther Vandross' songs for it.
A handful of new songs, written by Jones and the songwriting team of Nickolas Ashford & Valerie Simpson, were added for it. Upon its original theatrical release, the film was a critical and commercial failure, marked the end of the resurgence of Black People films that began with the blaxploitation movement of the early 1970s. Despite its initial failure, it became a cult classic among black audiences, Jackson's fanbase, Oz enthusiasts. Certain aspects influenced The Wiz Live!, a live television adaptation of the musical, aired on NBC in 2015. A crowded Thanksgiving dinner brings a host of family together in a small Harlem apartment, where a shy, twenty-four-year-old schoolteacher named Dorothy Gale lives with her Aunt Em and Uncle Henry. Introverted, she is teased by Aunt Em for never having been south of 125th Street, as she has delayed moving out to start her own, independent life as an adult. While Dorothy cleans up after the meal, her dog, runs out the open kitchen door into a violent snowstorm.
She finds herself trapped in the storm. A magical whirlwind made of snow – the work of Glinda, the Good Witch of the South – materializes and transports them to the realm of Oz. Released by the snowstorm, Dorothy smashes through an electric "Oz" sky sign as she descends from the atmosphere, which falls upon and kills Evermean, the Wicked Witch of the East who rules Munchkinland; as a result, she frees the Munchkins. Dorothy soon meets the Munchkins' main benefactress, Miss One, the Good Witch of the North, a magical "numbers runner" who gives Evermean's pretty charmed silver slippers to her by teleporting them onto Dorothy's feet. However, Dorothy declares she doesn't want the shoes and just wants to get home to Aunt Em. Miss One urges her to follow the yellow brick road to the Emerald City and seek the help of the mysterious "Wizard" who she believes holds the power to send Dorothy back to Harlem. After telling her to never take the silver shoes off, Miss One and the Munchkins disappear and Dorothy is left to search for the road on her own.
The next morning, Dorothy happens upon a Scarecrow made of garbage and rags, befriends him after saving him from being viciously teased and picked on by a group of humanoid crows. They discover the yellow brick road and begin to follow it together; the Scarecrow hopes the Wizard might be able to give him the one thing he feels that he lacks – a brain. Along the way to the Emerald City, Dorothy and the Scarecrow meet the Tin Man in an abandoned early 20th-century amusement park and the Cowardly Lion named Fleetwood Coup DeVille, a vain dandy who hid inside one of the stone lions in front of the New York Public Library after being banished from the jungle; the Tin Man and Lion join them on their quest to find the Wizard, hoping to gain a heart and courage, respectively. En route to the Emerald City, the four adventurers must pass through a subway controlled by a crazy peddler who controls evil puppets. Other deadly try to kill the group, they narrowly escape the subway, only to encounter flamboyant prostitutes known as the "Poppy" Girls.
They attempt to put Dorothy and the Lion into an eternal sleep with magic poppy perfume. Reaching the Emerald City, the quintet gains passage into the city because of Dorothy's ownership of the silver slippers, they marvel at the spectacle of its sophisticated, fashion-forward dancers. They are granted an audience with the Wiz, who lives at the top of the Towers, he appears to them as a giant fire-breathing metallic head. He will only grant their wishes if they kill the sister of the Wicked Witch of the East, the Wicked Witch of the West, who runs a sweatshop in the underground sewers of Oz. Before they can reach her domain, Evillene learns of their quest to kill her and sends out the Flying Monkeys to keep them at bay. After a long chase, the Flying Monkeys succeed in capturing their targets and bring them back to Evillene. Vengeful for Dorothy having killed her sister, she dismembers the Scarecrow, flattens the Tin Man, tortures the Lion in hopes of making Dorothy give her the silver shoes; when she threatens to throw Toto into a fiery cauldron, Dorothy nearly gives in until the Scarecrow hints t