Joey Harrington

John Joseph Harrington Jr. is a former American football quarterback. He was drafted by the Detroit Lions third overall in the 2002 NFL Draft, where he played for most of his professional career, he played college football at Oregon. In addition to the Lions, Harrington played for the Miami Dolphins, Atlanta Falcons, New Orleans Saints. Harrington was raised in Portland, Oregon, he graduated from Central Catholic High School in Portland, finished his high school career with more than 4,200 yards and 50 touchdowns rushing and passing. Harrington's grandfather and father played quarterback for the Universities of Portland and Oregon and upon hearing of Joey's birth, legendary Oregon Ducks' coach Len Casanova jokingly sent his parents a letter-of-intent. Harrington is a graduate of the University of Oregon, was a three-year starter on the Oregon Ducks football team. In his senior season at Oregon, he threw for 2,415 yards and 23 touchdowns, he finished his college career with a 25-3 record, 512 completions in 928 attempts, 6,911 passing yards, 59 touchdowns, 23 interceptions, 210 rushing yards and 18 scores on 145 carries.

A Business Administration major with a 3.23 GPA, Harrington's 7,121 yards of total offense rank third in University of Oregon history. Harrington finished fourth in the voting for the Heisman Trophy in 2001, following a campaign for the award that included a billboard in Times Square promoting him as "Joey Heisman." He earned numerous honors, including first-team All-American, Pac-10 Offensive Player of the Year, second-team honors from The Sporting News. He was one of five finalists for the Johnny Unitas Golden Arm Award in 2001. EA Sports selected him for the cover of the 2003 edition of their NCAA Football video game series. Harrington was given the nickname "Captain Comeback" among fans for his ability to lead Oregon to victory in late game situations, accumulating a record of 11-2 in games in which the Ducks trailed or were tied in the fourth quarter. Harrington's best collegiate game was arguably the 2002 Tostitos Fiesta Bowl at Sun Devil Stadium in Tempe, Arizona when he threw for 350 yards and four touchdowns and helped lead the Ducks to a 38-16 victory over Colorado.

Harrington was named offensive player of the game. Harrington's worst game was arguably the 2000 Civil War in which he passed 24-36 for 333 yards, but threw five interceptions. Three of those interceptions were by Oregon State defensive back Jake Cookus. #8 Oregon State won 23-13 over then-#6 Oregon. Harrington was selected by the Detroit Lions with the third pick overall in the 2002 NFL Draft. Harrington took over for incumbent Mike McMahon late in the Lions' Week 1 loss against the Miami Dolphins and became the Lions' starting quarterback shortly thereafter, finishing that year with a 50.1 completion percentage, a ratio of 12 touchdowns to 16 interceptions, a 59.9 quarterback rating. He was named the 2002 recipient of the Detroit Lions/Detroit Sports Broadcasters Association Rookie of the Year Award. Harrington's career in Detroit was unsuccessful. Front office mismanagement, woeful offensive line protection, lack of talent at other skill positions, an erratic philosophical change in the team's identity to a conservative West Coast Offense oriented attack under Head Coach Steve Mariucci may have played a factor in Harrington not realizing his potential professionally.

Harrington's best season as a Lion came in 2004, when he threw for 19 touchdowns and 12 interceptions. The Lions started the season with a 4–2 record, but Harrington led the team to only two more wins the rest of the season; the Lions missed the playoffs for the fifth season in a row. On October 23, 2005, Mariucci chose to bench Harrington in favour of veteran Jeff Garcia for the team's game against the Cleveland Browns to try to provide a spark to the team's 2–3 start; the Lions won 13–10, Garcia rushed for Detroit's only touchdown. After yet another dismal offensive performance, Mariucci declared that Garcia would remain the starter; that marked the first time since the 2002 season that Harrington did not appear in a Lions' game, breaking a string of 37 consecutive appearances. Harrington regained the starting role the week after Garcia threw a game-ending interception returned for a touchdown in overtime against Chicago. Harrington started again for Detroit on November 13, 2005, against the Arizona Cardinals, throwing for three touchdowns without an interception in the Lions' 29–21 win.

Harrington was voted by Lions fans as their Offensive Player of the Year, according to the Lions' official website. Despite his difficult times in Detroit, he remained unwaveringly optimistic and was thus dubbed "Joey Blue-Skies" and "Joey Sunshine" by sarcastic Lions' fans and beat writers who grew tired of his predictable post-game commentary as the losses continued to mount. After the 2005 season, Detroit signed free agents Jon Kitna and Josh McCown, traded Harrington to the Miami Dolphins on May 12, 2006, for a fifth-round draft pick in 2007, after meeting performance stipulations in Miami. Harrington started the 2006 season as a backup behind new Dolphins quarterback Daunte Culpepper. During his tenure with the Lions, Harrington started 55 games and had a record of 18 wins and 37 losses. In 2006, Harrington did not play in the Dolphins' first four games. Culpepper injured his shoulder prior to Miami's fifth game against the New England Patriots, forcing Harrington into the starting role.

Harrington lost his first three starts, before leading Miami to a 31–13 win over the unbeaten (7–0


Megachilidae is a cosmopolitan family of solitary bees whose pollen-carrying structure is restricted to the ventral surface of the abdomen. Megachilid genera are most known as mason bees and leafcutter bees, reflecting the materials from which they build their nest cells. All species feed on nectar and pollen, but a few are kleptoparasites, feeding on pollen collected by other megachilid bees. Parasitic species do not possess scopae; the motion of Megachilidae in the reproductive structures of flowers is swimming-like. The life cycle of nonparasitic Megachilidae is that nests are built, divided into cells; each cell receives a supply of an egg. She builds a wall; the larva consumes the food supply. After moulting a few times, it pupates, it emerges from the nest as an adult. Males die shortly after mating, but females survive for another few weeks, during which they build new nests. Nests are built in natural or artificial cavities; some embed individual cells in a mass of clay or resin attached to a wall, rock surface, or plant stem.

Nest cavities are linear, for example in hollow plant stems, but not always. Some genera of megachilids are brood parasites, they parasitize related taxa. They enter the nest before it is sealed and lay their eggs in a cell. After hatching, the parasite larva kills the host larva, unless the female parasite has done so, consumes the provisions. Parasitic species are of smaller than their victims. In 1921, the journal American Museum Novitates published a preliminary report on parasitic megachilid bees of the western United States. North America has an estimated 630 different megachilid species, including Megachile, Anthidium and Chalicodoma. Most Megachilidae are native, a few are introduced and intentionally, thus Megachilidae represent 15% to 20% of named species of bees. The scientific name Megachilidae refers to the genus Megachile, translating as large lipped (Ancient Greek μέγᾰς + χεῖλος. Most Megachilidae build their nests in above-ground cavities, their nesting habits means that in some studies of bee diversity, this bee family is most to be the one encountered though the many ground nesting bees are much greater in species numbers.

For example, in Krombein's trap-nesting survey all bees that nested in his offerings were Megachilid species—40 of 43 occupying bee species.. Because they are above-ground nesters and more attracted to artificial nests, megachilid bees are more cultivated than ground nesting solitary bees, they accept nesting materials made from hollow stems and blocks with preformed holes, several megachilids have become important species for agricultural / horticultural pollination. In North America these cultivated bees include the introduced Megachile rotundata, used extensively in alfalfa pollination, the western native and raised Osmia lignaria, used in orchard pollination. Other Osmia and Megachile species are in commercial use in North America and Asia. A suite of megachilid rely on plant resins for nest construction; these "resin bees" are smaller than honey bees, effective pollinators, although the hard glue-like resins can complicate management of other tunnel nesting bees. Carder bees, are unique for using plant fibers.

A non-native is best known—A. Manicatum, the European wool carder bee, was accidentally introduced to the Americas in the late'60s and has now spread across the continent, it has been described as "... the most distributed unmanaged bee species in the world." Like most Anthidium, rather than cutting leaves or petals, A. manicatum scrapes the hairs from leaves to use for nesting material. It is atypical because the male is larger than the female and on patrol, protecting a "harem" by chasing and attacking all interlopers including honey and bumble bees, its tail equipped with multiple prongs that can knife in between the segments of most any intruder. Neither the introduced Anthidium nor its American cousins are considered parasites, only territorial and at times aggressive, though some genera are, including Coelioxys, Stelis. While some Megachilidae are extensively studied for their commercial possibilities, others are studied by naturalists. Chalicodoma mason bees, not cultivated, are known through extended observati


Para-Fluorophenylpiperazine is a piperazine derivative with mildly psychedelic and euphoriant effects. It has been sold as an ingredient in legal recreational drugs known as "Party pills" in New Zealand and subsequently in other countries around the world.pFPP has been found in vitro to act as a 5-HT1A receptor agonist, with some additional affinity for the 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors. It has been shown to inhibit the reuptake of serotonin and norepinephrine, to induce their release. PFPP was discovered as a metabolite of the hypnotic 5-HT2A and α1-adrenergic receptor antagonist niaprazine in 1982, but was rediscovered in 2003 as a potential recreational drug, sold as an ingredient in "Party pills" in New Zealand, under brand names such as "The Big Grin", "Mashed", "Extreme Beans". Subsequently it has continued to be used as an ingredient in black market "ecstasy" pills around the world.pFPP has little stimulant effects, with its subjective effects derived from its action as a 5-HT1A receptor agonist.

PFPP is active at doses between 20 and 150 mg, but higher doses cause a range of side-effects such as migraine headaches, muscle aches, anxiety and vomiting. Metabolic studies have shown pFPP to be an inhibitor of various Cytochrome P450 enzymes in the liver which may contribute to its side-effect profile. Based on the recommendation of the EACD, the New Zealand government has passed legislation which placed BZP, along with a number of other piperazine derivatives, into Class C of the New Zealand Misuse of Drugs Act 1975. A ban was intended to come into effect in New Zealand on December 18, 2007, but the law change did not go through until the following year, the sale of BZP and the other listed piperazines became illegal in New Zealand as of 1 April 2008. An amnesty for possession and usage of these drugs remained until October 2008, at which point they became illegal; this drug has been detected in a drug-facilitated sexual assault case in the United States of America. Substituted piperazine