Johan Ludwig Mowinckel

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Johan Ludwig Mowinckel
Johan Ludwig Mowinckel.jpg
Mowinckel in 1924
9th Prime Minister of Norway
In office
3 March 1933 – 20 March 1935
Monarch Haakon VII
Preceded by Jens Hundseid
Succeeded by Johan Nygaardsvold
In office
15 February 1928 – 21 May 1931
Monarch Haakon VII
Preceded by Christopher Hornsrud
Succeeded by Peder Kolstad
In office
25 July 1924 – 5 March 1926
Monarch Haakon VII
Preceded by Abraham Berge
Succeeded by Ivar Lykke
Minister of Foreign Affairs
In office
3 March 1933 – 20 March 1935
Prime Minister Himself
Preceded by Birger Braadland
Succeeded by Halvdan Koht
In office
15 February 1928 – 21 May 1931
Prime Minister Himself
Preceded by Edvard Bull, Sr.
Succeeded by Birger Braadland
In office
25 July 1924 – 5 March 1926
Prime Minister Himself
Preceded by Christian Fredrik Michelet
Succeeded by Ivar Lykke
In office
31 May 1922 – 6 March 1923
Prime Minister Otto Blehr
Preceded by Arnold Christopher Ræstad
Succeeded by Christian Fredrik Michelet
President of the Storting
In office
1916–1918
Preceded by Jørgen Løvland
Søren Tobias Årstad
Gunnar Knudsen
Succeeded by Gunnar Knudsen
Ivar Lykke
Anders Buen
Ivar P. Tveiten
Otto B. Halvorsen
Minister of Industry
In office
1921–1923
Prime Minister Otto Blehr
Preceded by Gerdt Henrik Meyer Bruun
Succeeded by Lars Oftedal
Mayor of Bergen
In office
1902–1906
Preceded by Christian M. Kahrs
Succeeded by Carl V. E. Geelmuyden
In office
1911–1913
Preceded by Carl V. E. Geelmuyden
Succeeded by Carl V. E. Geelmuyden
Member of the Norwegian Parliament
In office
1906–1940
Constituency Hordaland
Personal details
Born 22 October 1870
Bergen, Norway
Died 30 September 1943(1943-09-30) (aged 72)
New York, United States
Nationality Norwegian
Political party Liberal Party
Profession Ship-owner
Johann-ludwig-movinkel.jpg

Johan Ludwig Mowinckel (22 October 1870 – 30 September 1943) was a Norwegian statesman, shipping magnate and philanthropist. He served as the Prime Minister of Norway during three separate terms.[1]

Biography[edit]

Johan Ludwig Mowinckel was born in Bergen, Norway. His parents were Johan Anton Wilhelm Mohr Mowinckel (1843–1918) and Edvardine Magdalene Margrethe Müller (1851–71). His father was a merchant and a member of one of Bergen’s old merchant families. He was educated at University of Oslo, graduating in 1889. After graduation, he traveled abroad to Bremen and London to better learn the business of shipping. In 1893 he returned to Bergen and joined the offices of Christian Michelsen. In 1912, he became the founder and principal in the joint-stock shipping company, A/S J. Ludwig Mowinckels Rederi. He was also involved in founding the Norwegian America Line.[2]

Poitical career[edit]

Mowinckel entered public service in Bergen where he became Chairman of the local branch of the Liberal Party (Bergens Venstreforening) . He was elected to the Bergen City Council in 1899 and subsequently mayor of Bergen 1902-1906 and 1911-1913. In 1906, he became Member of Parliament (Storting) for the Liberal party representing Bergen during 1906-1909 and 1913-1918. He became President of the Storting in 1916. He was voted out of office in the 1918 elections. During the period between World War I and 1935 he remained active in national politics. In 1921 Mowinckel was re-elected to the Storting. He served as Minister of Trade in 1921-1922 and Foreign Minister in 1922-1923. Mowinckel was Norway's Prime Minister during three periods in office; 1924-1926, 1928-1931 and 1933-1935. These were all periods dominated by economic and fiscal crisis. In 1930 Mowinckel initiated the Oslo Convention on customs cooperation between Norway, Denmark and the Benelux countries, to prevent higher customs walls.[3][4]

In 1925 he became a member of the Nobel Peace Prize Committee. Mowinckel took the initiative during the Oslo Convention (Oslokonvensjonen) of 1930 to encourage free trade between the nations of the Belgium–Luxembourg Economic Union and Nordic countries, anticipating postwar efforts toward the formation of the European Union. He also took an active interest in the League of Nations, serving on the council and becoming President in 1933. He condemned the menace of Nazi philosophy, and when Germany overran Norway in 1940 he followed the Norwegian Government-in-exile to London. In 1942, Johan Ludwig Mowinckel came to the United States and was engaged with Nortraship, the state-owned Norwegian shipping company during World War II. He died on 30 September 1943 in New York City. [5] [6] [1][7]

Legacy[edit]

Posthumously, a new library building at the University of Bergen was dedicated to Johan Ludvig Mowinckel and had its official opening ceremony, in the presence of His Royal Majesty King Olav V, on 13 September 1961. [3] [8] [9]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Knut Dørum. "Johan Ludwig Mowinckel". Store norske leksikon. Retrieved April 1, 2018. 
  2. ^ "About us". A/S J. Ludwig Mowinckels Rederi. Retrieved April 1, 2018. 
  3. ^ a b Leiv Mjeldheim. Johan Ludvig Mowinckel Norsk Biografisk Leksikon (in Norwegian)
  4. ^ Harald Kjølås. "Johan Ludwig Mowinckel". Allkunne. Retrieved April 1, 2018. 
  5. ^ "Oslokonvensjonen – 1930". Store norske leksikon. Retrieved April 1, 2018. 
  6. ^ "Norwegian Government-in-exile". London Remembers. Retrieved April 1, 2018. 
  7. ^ Audun Grimstad. "Nortraship". Store norske leksikon. Retrieved April 1, 2018. 
  8. ^ Johan Lidwig Mowinckel Norsk samfunnsvitenskapelig datatjeneste (in Norwegian)
  9. ^ Johan Ludwig Mowinckel Government of Norway (in Norwegian)

Related reading[edit]

  • Thowsen, Atle (1992) Handelsflåten i krig 1939 - 1945, Nortraship, profitt og patriotime (Oslo: Grøndahl og Dreyers Forlag) ISBN 82-504-1895-6
  • Mossige, Erling (1989) Storrederiet Nortraship - Handelsflåten i krig (Oslo: Grøndahl & Søn Forlag) ISBN 82-504-1704-6
Political offices
Preceded by
Abraham Berge
Prime Minister of Norway
1924–1926
Succeeded by
Ivar Lykke
Preceded by
Christopher Hornsrud
Prime Minister of Norway
1928–1931
Succeeded by
Peder Kolstad
Preceded by
Jens Hundseid
Prime Minister of Norway
1933–1935
Succeeded by
Johan Nygaardsvold
Preceded by
Christian M. Kahrs
Mayor of Bergen
1902–1906
Succeeded by
Carl V. E. Geelmuyden
Preceded by
Carl V. E. Geelmuyden
Mayor of Bergen
1911–1913
Succeeded by
Carl V. E. Geelmuyden