Venice is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region. It is situated on a group of 118 small islands that are separated by canals and linked by over 400 bridges; the islands are located in the shallow Venetian Lagoon, an enclosed bay that lies between the mouths of the Po and the Piave rivers. In 2018, 260,897 people resided in the Comune di Venezia, of whom around 55,000 live in the historical city of Venice. Together with Padua and Treviso, the city is included in the Padua-Treviso-Venice Metropolitan Area, considered a statistical metropolitan area, with a total population of 2.6 million. The name is derived from the ancient Veneti people who inhabited the region by the 10th century BC; the city was the capital of the Republic of Venice. The 697–1797 Republic of Venice was a major financial and maritime power during the Middle Ages and Renaissance, a staging area for the Crusades and the Battle of Lepanto, as well as an important center of commerce and art in the 13th century up to the end of the 17th century.
The city-state of Venice is considered to have been the first real international financial center, emerging in the 9th century and reaching its greatest prominence in the 14th century. This made Venice a wealthy city throughout most of its history. After the Napoleonic Wars and the Congress of Vienna, the Republic was annexed by the Austrian Empire, until it became part of the Kingdom of Italy in 1866, following a referendum held as a result of the Third Italian War of Independence. Venice has been known as "La Dominante", "La Serenissima", "Queen of the Adriatic", "City of Water", "City of Masks", "City of Bridges", "The Floating City", "City of Canals"; the lagoon and a part of the city are listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Parts of Venice are renowned for the beauty of their settings, their architecture, artwork. Venice is known for several important artistic movements—especially during the Renaissance period—has played an important role in the history of symphonic and operatic music, is the birthplace of Antonio Vivaldi.
Although the city is facing some major challenges, Venice remains a popular tourist destination, an iconic Italian city, has been ranked the most beautiful city in the world. The name of the city, deriving from Latin forms Venetia and Venetiae, is most taken from "Venetia et Histria", the Roman name of Regio X of Roman Italy, but applied to the coastal part of the region that remained under Roman Empire outside of Gothic and Frankish control; the name Venetia, derives from the Roman name for the people known as the Veneti, called by the Greeks Enetoi. The meaning of the word is uncertain, although there are other Indo-European tribes with similar-sounding names, such as the Celtic Veneti and the Slavic Vistula Veneti. Linguists suggest that the name is based on an Indo-European root *wen, so that *wenetoi would mean "beloved", "lovable", or "friendly". A connection with the Latin word venetus, meaning the color'sea-blue', is possible. Supposed connections of Venetia with the Latin verb venire, such as Marin Sanudo's veni etiam, the supposed cry of the first refugees to the Venetian lagoon from the mainland, or with venia are fanciful.
The alternative obsolete form is Vinegia. Although no surviving historical records deal directly with the founding of Venice and the available evidence have led several historians to agree that the original population of Venice consisted of refugees—from nearby Roman cities such as Padua, Treviso and Concordia, as well as from the undefended countryside—who were fleeing successive waves of Germanic and Hun invasions; this is further supported by the documentation on the so-called "apostolic families", the twelve founding families of Venice who elected the first doge, who in most cases trace their lineage back to Roman families. Some late Roman sources reveal the existence of fishermen, on the islands in the original marshy lagoons, who were referred to as incolae lacunae; the traditional founding is identified with the dedication of the first church, that of San Giacomo on the islet of Rialto —said to have taken place at the stroke of noon on 25 March 421. Beginning as early as AD 166–168, the Quadi and Marcomanni destroyed the main Roman town in the area, present-day Oderzo.
This part of Roman Italy was again overrun in the early 5th century by the Visigoths and, some 50 years by the Huns led by Attila. The last and most enduring immigration into the north of the Italian peninsula, that of the Lombards in 568, left the Eastern Roman Empire only a small strip of coastline in the current Veneto, including Venice; the Roman/Byzantine territory was organized as the Exarchate of Ravenna, administered from that ancient port and overseen by a viceroy appointed by the Emperor in Constantinople. Ravenna and Venice were connected only by sea routes, with the Venetians' isolated position came increasing autonomy. New ports were built, including those at Torcello in the Venetian lagoon; the tribuni maiores formed the earliest central standing governing committee of the islands in the lagoon, dating from c. 568. The traditional first doge of Venice, Paolo Lucio A
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Elisabeth Berenberg was a Hamburg heiress, merchant banker and a member of the Berenberg family. She was the last male line member of the Flemish-origined Hanseatic Berenberg family in Hamburg, ancestral mother of the von Berenberg-Gossler family, the current owners of Berenberg Bank, she is noted as the only woman to serve as a partner and take an active leadership role at Berenberg Bank since the company was established in 1590 by her family. She belonged to the Berenberg family, a Flemish-origined family from Antwerp in today's Belgium, who came as religious refugees to Hamburg in 1585, where they founded Berenberg Bank and became, together with the related Amsinck family, one of the two most prominent families of the city-state's ruling class of Hanseaten, she was the daughter of owner of Berenberg Bank Johann Berenberg and Anna Maria Lastrop, was named for her grandmother Anna Elisabeth Amsinck. Her grandfather Rudolf Berenberg was elected a Senator in 1735 and her great-grandfather Cornelius Berenberg had become an hereditary grand burgher in 1684 and developed the Berenberg merchant house into a successful merchant bank.
She was descended from numerous other prominent merchant and banking families, such as the Welser family. Her only brother Rudolf Berenberg was mentally ill and died at 20 in Suriname, where his father had sent him to manage the family's business interests, her uncle, Senator Paul Berenberg, died without heirs in the same year. Elisabeth Berenberg thus remained as the only heiress of Berenberg Bank. In 1768, she married Johann Hinrich Gossler, who had joined Berenberg Bank as an apprentice, her father made Gossler a partner in 1769. After Johann Berenberg's death, Gossler became the sole head of the company; the historian Percy Ernst Schramm describes their marriage as a marriage of convenience. She survived her husband by 32 years and after his death in 1790 managed the firm together with her son-in-law until 31 December 1800, from which point the company was run by her son-in-law and her son alone, she however retained a large account with the Berenberg company of several hundred thousand Mark Banco until her death.
The company's name was changed to Joh. Berenberg, Gossler & Co. in 1791. She was the mother of Anna Henriette Gossler, who married Ludwig Erdwin Seyler, of Senator Johann Heinrich Gossler, her son-in-law, became a partner in 1788 and head of Berenberg Bank in 1790. Her son Johann Heinrich Gossler joined the bank as a partner in 1798, her grandson Hermann Gossler became First Mayor and President of the Senate, whereas her great-grandson, Baron Johann von Berenberg-Gossler, was granted the name Berenberg-Gossler by the Senate of Hamburg in 1880, subsequently ennobled by Prussia in 1888 and raised to baronial rank in 1910. From 1793 until her death in 1822, she used the Frustberg manor house as summer residence. Percy Ernst Schramm describes her as "a Maria Theresia in miniature" and "a practical woman, who until the end governed her family with undiminished vitality." Her daughter Anna Henriette Gossler, married Seyler, once wrote that "we all love and revere her indescribably. She is alive and bright for her age."
She was well educated and made sure that both her daughters and sons received a good education. Joh. Berenberg, Gossler & Co.: Die Geschichte eines deutschen Privatbankhauses, Berenberg Bank, Hamburg 1990 Percy Ernst Schramm, Kaufleute zu Haus und über See. Hamburgische Zeugnisse des 17. 18. Und 19. Jahrhunderts, Hoffmann und Campe, 1949 Percy Ernst Schramm, Neun Generationen: Dreihundert Jahre deutscher Kulturgeschichte im Lichte der Schicksale einer Hamburger Bürgerfamilie, Vol. 1, Göttingen, 1963. Percy Ernst Schramm, "Kaufleute während Besatzung, Krieg und Belagerung: der Hamburger Handel in der Franzosenzeit, dargestellt an Hand von Firmen- und Familienpapieren." Tradition: Zeitschrift für Firmengeschichte und Unternehmerbiographie, Vol. 4. Jahrg. No. 1. Pp. 1–22. Https://www.jstor.org/stable/40696638 Percy Ernst Schramm, "Hamburger Kaufleute in der 2. Hälfte des 18. Jahrhunderts," in: Tradition. Zeitschrift für Firmengeschichte und Unternehmerbiographie 1957, No 4. Pp. 307–332. Https://www.jstor.org/stable/40696554
Neue Deutsche Biographie
Neue Deutsche Biographie is a biographical reference work. It is the successor to the Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie; the 26 volumes published thus far cover more than 22,500 individuals and families who lived in the German language area. NDB is published in German by the Historical Commission at the Bavarian Academy of Sciences and Humanities and printed by Duncker & Humblot in Berlin; the index and full-text articles of the first 25 volumes are available online via the website German Biography and the Biographical Portal. NDB is a comprehensive reference work, similar to Dictionary of National Biography, Dictionary of American Biography, American National Biography, Dictionary of Canadian Biography, Dictionary of Australian Biography, Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, Diccionario Biográfico Español, Dictionary of Irish Biography, Svenskt biografiskt lexikon, Österreichisches Biographisches Lexikon 1815-1950, its first volume, alphabetically covering names from "Aachen" to "Behaim", was published in 1953.
As of 2016, the most recent volume is the 26th, covering names from "Tecklenburg" to "Vocke", published in October 2016. So far, more than 22,500 biographies of individuals and families, who lived in the German language area, have been published; some 1,600 further articles will be added in two further volumes, with completion expected in 2021. An NDB article contains genealogical information such as date and place of birth and place of death, parents, marriages, number of children and birth names, academic degrees, a curriculum vitae in whole sentences, a valuation of the subject's political, social, technical or artistic achievements, a bibliography and references to portraits. Only deceased persons with a close relation to the German language area are recorded; each article is signed by its author. An index cataloguing all articles and the full text of articles in the first 26 volumes, covering names from "Aachen" to "Vocke", is available online; the index is part of the Biographie-Portal.
This cooperative project of the Bavarian State Library, the Historical Commission at the Bavarian Academy of Sciences and Humanities, the Austrian Academy of Sciences and Humanities the Foundation Historical Dictionary of Switzerland, Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts makes available data of Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, Österreichisches Biographisches Lexikon 1815-1950, Historisches Lexikon der Schweiz / Dictionnaire Historique de la Suisse / Dizionario Storico della Svizzera, Slovenska Biografija, Rheinland-Pfälzische Personendatenbank, Sächsische Biografie, Oesterreichisches Musiklexikon. Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie Biographical Portal Neue deutsche Biographie / herausgegeben von der Historischen Kommission bei der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, since 1953. ISBN 3-428-00181-8. Reinert, Schrott, Ebneth, Rehbein, Team Deutsche Biographie et al. From Biographies to Data Curation - The Making of www.deutsche-biographie.de, in: BD2015. Biographical Data in a Digital World.
Proceedings of the First Conference on Biographical Data in a Digital World 2015. Amsterdam, The Netherlands, April 9, 2015, ed. by. Serge ter Braake, Antske Fokkens, Ronald Sluijter, Thierry Declerck, Eveline Wandl-Vogt, CEUR Workshop Proceedings Vol-1399. P. 13-19. German Biography - complete full-text articles and further information Biographical Portal - complete index Neue Deutsche Biographie Historische Kommission bei der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften Munich Digitisation Centre, Digital Library department of the Bavarian State Library
Joh. Berenberg, Gossler & Co. KG known as Berenberg Bank and branded as Berenberg, is a Hamburg-based multinational full-service investment bank, it was founded by the Flemish-origined Berenberg family in 1590 and is the world's oldest merchant bank and the world's oldest or second oldest bank, depending on the definition. Its owners, the Berenberg/Gossler family, belonged to the ruling elite of Hanseatic merchants of the city-republic of Hamburg and several family members served in the city-state's government from 1735. Like many other merchant bankers, the Berenbergs were cloth merchants; the bank's name refers to Johann Berenberg and his son-in-law Johann Hinrich Gossler, has remained unchanged since 1791. The bank has operated continuously since 1590 and is still part-owned by members of the Berenberg-Gossler family. Berenberg Bank is active in investment banking pan-European equity research and capital markets transactions, in addition to private banking for wealthy customers and institutional asset management.
Since the 2000s the company has focused on investment banking. Berenberg Bank has around 1,600 employees. After years of expanding its activities in London, now the second largest office and seat of most of its investment banking activities, Berenberg Bank has focused on expanding in the United States and Asia; the bank is organized as a limited partnership with liable partners, is noted for its conservative business strategy. Following the 2000s financial crisis, the bank has expanded rapidly; the current senior partner and head of the bank Hans-Walter Peters is President of the Association of German Banks, having succeeded Deutsche Bank CEO Jürgen Fitschen in 2016. In 2018 Berenberg Bank, in line with its increasing focus on investment banking, sold its Swiss private banking subsidiary Berenberg Bank AG to a group of investors, the Swiss company will be known as Bergos Berenberg; the Berenberg Company was founded in Hamburg in 1590 by the brothers Paul Berenberg. In 1585, the Protestant Berenbergs left Antwerp in today's Belgium, at the time one of Europe's commercial centres, as Protestants in the Low Countries were given the choice either to convert to Catholicism or leave the country.
The bank has been continuously owned by their descendants since. The Berenbergs were cloth merchants and extended their business to other commodities. Hans Berenberg's grandson Cornelius Berenberg was the first to engage in merchant banking and developed the company into a successful merchant house and merchant bank, he forged trade links with France, Portugal, Italy and Russia. Family connections of the Berenbergs were instrumental to the development in Livorno and Lisbon with their colonies of wealthy Dutch merchants. Members of the Berenberg family were merchants in London from the 17th century. Cornelius Berenberg's son, Rudolf Berenberg, was elected a Senator, that is, a member of the government of the city-state, in 1735. By the mid 18th century, investment banking and acceptance credits comprised a significant part of the firm's activities. Rudolf Berenberg was married to Anna Elisabeth Amsinck, a daughter of the Lisbon and Hamburg merchant Paul Amsinck and a descendant of the Welser family.
Their sons, Senator Paul Berenberg and Johann Berenberg, became owners of the Berenberg company. In 1768 Senator Paul Berenberg died childless, while his brother Johann Berenberg lost his only son in the same year. To ensure the continuation of the firm, Johann Berenberg took on his son-in-law Johann Hinrich Gossler as a new partner in 1769; the Gossler family is known since the 17th century, when Johann Hinrich Gossler's great-grandfather was a Hamburg burgher. Elisabeth Berenberg was the last member of the Hamburg Berenberg family, which became extinct in the male line upon her death in 1822. Johann Hinrich Gossler and Elisabeth Berenberg were the founders of the Berenberg-Gossler family, that rose to great prominence in Hamburg from the late 18th century. In the 19th-century city republic of Hamburg the Gossler family and the related Amsinck family were regarded as the city state's two most prominent families. In 1788 Johann Hinrich Gossler took on a new partner, his son-in-law L. E. Seyler, who had married his eldest child Anna Henriette Gossler.
From 1790, the company was led by L. E. Seyler, his mother-in-law Elisabeth Berenberg was a partner in her own right from 1790 to 1800. L. E. Seyler, a son of the famous theatre director Abel Seyler, was one of Hamburg's foremost merchants in his lifetime, served as President of the Commerz-Deputation and as a member of the city's government during the French rule of the city. To reflect Seyler joining the company, its name was changed to Joh. Berenberg, Gossler & Co. from 1 January 1791, has remained unchanged since. As head of the Berenberg company L. E. Seyler increased the company's international trade, was one of the first merchants and bankers from Germany who established trade relations with the newly independent United States and with East Asia. By 1800 the capital of the company has doubled. Seyler remained the company's senior partner for 46 years, when he died in 1836 he had been with the company for 61 years. Seyler's seventeen years younger brother
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Suriname known as the Republic of Suriname, is a country on the northeastern Atlantic coast of South America. It is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the north, French Guiana to the east, Guyana to the west and Brazil to the south. At just under 165,000 square kilometers, it is the smallest sovereign state in South America. Suriname has a population of 558,368, most of whom live on the country's north coast, in and around the capital and largest city, Paramaribo. Suriname was long inhabited by various indigenous people before being invaded and contested by European powers from the 16th century coming under Dutch rule in the late 17th century; as the chief sugar colony during the Dutch colonial period, it was a plantation economy dependent on African slaves and, following the abolition of slavery in 1863, indentured servants from Asia. Suriname was ruled by the Dutch-chartered company Sociëteit van Suriname between 1683 and 1795. In 1954, Suriname became one of the constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.
On 25 November 1975, the country of Suriname left the Kingdom of the Netherlands to become an independent state, nonetheless maintaining close economic and cultural ties to its former colonizer. Suriname is considered to be a culturally Caribbean country, is a member of the Caribbean Community. While Dutch is the official language of government, business and education, Sranan Tongo, an English-based creole language, is a used lingua franca. Suriname is the only sovereign nation outside Europe where Dutch is spoken by a majority of the population; as a legacy of colonization, the people of Suriname are among the most diverse in the world, spanning a multitude of ethnic and linguistic groups. The name Suriname may derive from an indigenous people called Surinen, who inhabited the area at the time of European contact. British settlers, who founded the first European colony at Marshall's Creek along the Suriname River, spelled the name as "Surinam"; when the territory was taken over by the Dutch, it became part of a group of colonies known as Dutch Guiana.
The official spelling of the country's English name was changed from "Surinam" to "Suriname" in January 1978, but "Surinam" can still be found in English. A notable example is Surinam Airways; the older English name is reflected in the English pronunciation. In Dutch, the official language of Suriname, the pronunciation is, with the main stress on the third syllable and a schwa terminal vowel. Indigenous settlement of Suriname dates back to 3,000 BC; the largest tribes were a nomadic coastal tribe that lived from hunting and fishing. They were the first inhabitants in the area; the Carib settled in the area and conquered the Arawak by using their superior sailing ships. They settled in Galibi at the mouth of the Marowijne River. While the larger Arawak and Carib tribes lived along the coast and savanna, smaller groups of indigenous people lived in the inland rainforest, such as the Akurio, Trió, Wayana. Beginning in the 16th century, French and English explorers visited the area. A century Dutch and English settlers established plantation colonies along the many rivers in the fertile Guiana plains.
The earliest documented colony in Guiana was an English settlement named Marshall's Creek along the Suriname River. After that there was another short-lived English colony called Willoughbyland that lasted from 1650 to 1674. Disputes arose between the English for control of this territory. In 1667, during negotiations leading to the Treaty of Breda, the Dutch decided to keep the nascent plantation colony of Suriname they had gained from the English; the English were able to keep New Amsterdam, the main city of the former colony of New Netherland in North America on the mid-Atlantic coast. A cultural and economic hub in those days, they renamed it after the Duke of York: New York City. In 1683, the Society of Suriname was founded by the city of Amsterdam, the Van Aerssen van Sommelsdijck family, the Dutch West India Company; the society was chartered to defend the colony. The planters of the colony relied on African slaves to cultivate and process the commodity crops of coffee, sugar cane and cotton plantations along the rivers.
Planters' treatment of the slaves was notoriously bad—historian C. R. Boxer wrote that "man's inhumanity to man just about reached its limits in Surinam"—and many slaves escaped the plantations. With the help of the native South Americans living in the adjoining rain forests, these runaway slaves established a new and unique culture in the interior, successful in its own right, they were known collectively in English as Maroons, in French as Nèg'Marrons, in Dutch as Marrons. The Maroons developed several independent tribes through a process of ethnogenesis, as they were made up of slaves from different African ethnicities; these tribes include the Saramaka, Ndyuka or Aukan, Aluku or Boni, Matawai. The Maroons raided plantations to recruit new members from the slaves and capture women, as well as to acquire weapons and supplies, they sometimes killed their families in the raids. The colonists mounted armed campaigns against the Maroons, who escaped through the rain forest, which they knew much better than did the colonis