SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Johann Gottlieb Fichte

Johann Gottlieb Fichte was a German philosopher who became a founding figure of the philosophical movement known as German idealism, which developed from the theoretical and ethical writings of Immanuel Kant. Philosophers and scholars have begun to appreciate Fichte as an important philosopher in his own right due to his original insights into the nature of self-consciousness or self-awareness. Fichte was the originator of thesis–antithesis–synthesis, an idea, erroneously attributed to Hegel. Like Descartes and Kant before him, Fichte was motivated by the problem of subjectivity and consciousness. Fichte wrote works of political philosophy. Fichte was born in Upper Lusatia; the son of a ribbon weaver, he came of peasant stock which had lived in the region for many generations. The family was noted in the neighborhood for its piety. Christian Fichte, Johann Gottlieb's father, married somewhat above his station, it has been suggested that a certain impatience which Fichte himself displayed throughout his life was an inheritance from his mother.

He received the rudiments of his education from his father. He showed remarkable ability from an early age, it was owing to his reputation among the villagers that he gained the opportunity for a better education than he otherwise would have received; the story runs that the Freiherr von Militz, a country landowner, arrived too late to hear the local pastor preach. He was, informed that a lad in the neighborhood would be able to repeat the sermon verbatim; as a result, the baron took the lad into his protection. Fichte was placed in the family of Pastor Krebel at Niederau near Meissen, there received a thorough grounding in the classics. From this time onward, Fichte saw little of his parents. In October 1774, he was attending the celebrated foundation-school at Pforta near Naumburg; this school is associated with the names of Novalis, August Wilhelm Schlegel, Friedrich Schlegel and Nietzsche. The spirit of the institution was semi-monastic and, while the education given was excellent in its way, it is doubtful whether there was enough social life and contact with the world for a pupil of Fichte's temperament and antecedents.

His education strengthened a tendency toward introspection and independence, characteristics which appear in his doctrines and writings. In 1780, he began study at the theology seminary of the University of Jena, he was transferred a year to study at the Leipzig University. Fichte seems to have supported himself at this period of hard struggle. Freiherr von Militz continued to support him, but when he died in 1784, Fichte had to end his studies prematurely, without completing his degree. During the years 1784 to 1788, he supported himself in a precarious way as tutor in various Saxon families. In early 1788, he returned to Leipzig in the hope of finding a better employment, but he had to settle for a much less promising position with the family of an innkeeper in Zurich, he lived in Zurich for the next two years, a time of great contentment for him. There he met his future wife, Johanna Rahn, Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi. There he became, in 1793, a member of the Freemasonry lodge "Modestia cum Libertate" with which Johann Wolfgang Goethe was connected.

In the spring of 1790, he became engaged to Johanna. Fichte began to study the works of Kant in the summer of 1790, but this occurred because one of his students wanted to know about them, they thought. While he was assimilating the Kantian philosophy and preparing to develop it, fate dealt him a blow: the Rahn family had suffered financial reverses, his impending marriage had to be postponed. From Zurich, Fichte returned to Leipzig in May 1790. In the spring of 1791, he obtained a tutorship at Warsaw in the house of a Polish nobleman; the situation, however proved disagreeable and he was released. He got a chance to see Kant at Königsberg. After a disappointing interview on July 4 of the same year, he shut himself in his lodgings and threw all his energies into the composition of an essay which would compel Kant's attention and interest; this essay, completed in five weeks, was the Versuch einer Critik aller Offenbarung. In this book, according to Henrich, Fichte investigated the connections between divine revelation and Kant's critical philosophy.

The first edition of the book was published without Kant's or Fichte's knowledge, moreover without Fichte's name or signed preface. It was thus mistakenly thought to be a new work by Kant himself. Reviews were assuming Kant was the author when Kant cleared the confusion and praised the work and author. Fichte's reputation skyrocketed as many intellectuals of the day were of the opinion that it was "the most shocking and astonishing news... nobody but Kant could have written this book. This amazing news of a third sun in the philosophical heavens has set me into such confusion". Karl Popper considers the book as "a fraud" which though rather boring cleverly imitated Kant's style and that the rumours that Kant himself had written the book to be contrived. Kant waited seven years to make public statement about the incident. In his statement, he inscribed, "May God protect us from our friends. From our enemies, we can try to protect ourselves." In October 1793, he was married in Zurich. Stirred by the events and principles of the French Revolu

Gustave Augustin Rouxel

Gustave Augustin Rouxel was an American bishop of the Catholic Church. He served as auxiliary bishop of the Archdiocese of New Orleans from 1899–1908. Born in Redon, Ille-et-Vilaine, Gustave Rouxel was ordained a priest for the Archdiocese of New Orleans on November 4, 1863. On February 10, 1899 Pope Leo XIII appointed him as the Titular Bishop of Curium and Auxiliary Bishop of New Orleans, he was consecrated a bishop by Archbishop Placide Chapelle on April 9, 1899. The principal co-consecrators were Bishops Thomas Heslin of Natchez and Jose Maria Ignacio Montes de Oca y Obregón of San Luis Potosí, he continued to serve as an auxiliary bishop until his death on March 16, 1908 at the age of 68. He is buried in the Cathedral-Basilica of Saint Louis King of France in New Orleans

Wawel Dragon

The Wawel Dragon known as the Dragon of Wawel Hill, is a famous dragon in Polish folklore. His lair was in a cave at the foot of Wawel Hill on the bank of the Vistula River. Wawel Hill is in Kraków, the capital of Poland, it was defeated during the rule of Krakus, by his sons according to the earliest account. The oldest known telling of the story comes from the 13th-century work attributed to Bishop of Kraków and historian of Poland, Wincenty Kadłubek; the inspiration for the name of Skuba was a church of St. Jacob, situated near the Wawel Castle. In one of the hagiographic stories about St. Jacob, he defeats a fire-breathing dragon. According to Wincenty Kadłubek's Polish Chronicle, the Wawel dragon appeared during the reign of King Krakus; the dragon required weekly offerings of cattle, if not. In the hope of killing the dragon, Krakus called on his two sons and Krakus II, they could not, defeat the creature by hand, so they came up with a trick. They fed him; the brothers argued about who deserved the honor for slaying the dragon.

The older brother killed the younger brother Grakch, told others that the dragon killed him. When Lech became king, his secret was revealed, he got expelled from the country; the city was named in recognition of the innocent Krakus. Jan Długosz in his 15th-century chronicle wrote that the one who defeated the dragon was King Krakus, who ordered his men to stuff the flesh of a calf skin with flammable substances and set them on fire; the dragon died breathing fire just before death. Another version by Marcin Bielski from the 16th century gave credit to the shoemaker Skuba for defeating the dragon; the story still takes place in Kraków during the reign of King Krakus, the city's legendary founder, a calf's skin filled with sulfur was used as bait to the dragon. The dragon was unable to swallow this, drank water until it died. Afterwards, Skuba was rewarded handsomely. Bielski adds, "One can still see his cave under the castle, it is called the Dragon's Cave" The most popular, fairytale version of the Wawel Dragon tale takes place in Kraków during the reign of King Krakus, the city's legendary founder.

Each day the evil dragon would beat a path of destruction across the countryside, killing the civilians, pillaging their homes, devouring their livestock. In many versions of the story, the dragon enjoyed eating young maidens. Great warriors from near and far failed. A cobbler's apprentice accepted the challenge, he set it outside the dragon's cave. The dragon ate it and became so thirsty, it drank until it burst; the cobbler married the King's daughter as promised, founded the city of Kraków. Legends of the Wawel dragon have similarities with the biblical story about Daniel and the Babylonian dragon. Similar stories are told about Alexander the Great but it is believed that the Kraków story has its own pre-Christian origins. In addition to attempts to explain the legend of the Wawel Dragon as a symbol of evil, there might be some echoes of historical events. According to some historians, the dragon is a symbol of the presence of the Avars on Wawel Hill in the second half of the sixth century, the victims devoured by the beast symbolise the tribute pulled by them.

There are attempts to interpret the story as a reference to human sacrifices and part of an older, unknown myth. Wawel Cathedral and Kraków's Wawel Castle stand on Wawel Hill. In front of the entrance to the cathedral, there are bones of Pleistocene creatures hanging on a chain, which were found and carried to the cathedral in medieval times as the remains of a dragon, it is believed. The Wawel Cathedral features a statue of the Wawel dragon and a plaque commemorating his defeat by Krakus, a Polish prince who, according to the plaque, founded the city and built his palace over the slain dragon's lair; the dragon's cave below the castle is now a popular tourist stop. A metal sculpture of the Wawel Dragon, designed in 1969 by Bronisław Chromy, was placed in front of the dragon's den in 1972; the dragon has seven heads, but people think that it has one head and six forelegs. To the amusement of onlookers, it noisily breathes fire every few minutes, thanks to a natural gas nozzle installed in the sculpture's mouth.

The street leading along the banks of the river leading towards the castle is ulica Smocza, which translates as "Dragon Street". Wawel Dragons are awards presented at Kraków Film Festival in Poland The Dragon appeared in the eighth issue of a comic book series Nextwave from Marvel Comics; the Dragon appears in a series of shorts published by Polish company Allegro. The shorts re-visit classic Polish legends and folk tales in modernised form: in the first short, titled Smok, the dragon is presented as a flying machine used by a mysterious outlaw to capture Kraków girls. Wawel Dragon is one of main characters in Stanisław Pagaczewski's series of books about a scientist Baltazar Gąbka, as well as short animations based on them. List of dragons in mythology and folklore The Legend of Wawel's Dragon The Dragon of Wawel and the Jewish Prophet Daniel. Parada Smokow: The Parade of Dragons Traditional Po