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Johann Heinrich Lambert

Johann Heinrich Lambert was a Swiss polymath who made important contributions to the subjects of mathematics, philosophy and map projections. Edward Tufte calls him and William Playfair "The two great inventors of modern graphical designs". Lambert was born in 1728 into a Huguenot family in the city of Mulhouse, at that time an exclave of Switzerland. Leaving school at 12, he continued to study in his free time whilst undertaking a series of jobs; these included assistant to his father, a clerk at a nearby iron works, a private tutor, secretary to the editor of Basler Zeitung and, at the age of 20, private tutor to the sons of Count Salis in Chur. Travelling Europe with his charges allowed him to meet established mathematicians in the German states, The Netherlands and the Italian states. On his return to Chur he began to seek an academic post. After a few short posts he was rewarded by an invitation to a position at the Prussian Academy of Sciences in Berlin, where he gained the sponsorship of Frederick II of Prussia, became a friend of Euler.

In this stimulating and financially stable environment, he worked prodigiously until his death in 1777. Lambert was the first to introduce hyperbolic functions into trigonometry, he made conjectures regarding non-Euclidean space. Lambert is credited with the first proof that π is irrational by using a generalized continued fraction for the function tan x. Euler believed the conjecture but could not prove that π was irrational, it is speculated that Aryabhata believed this, in 500 CE. Lambert devised theorems regarding conic sections that made the calculation of the orbits of comets simpler. Lambert devised a formula for the relationship between the angles and the area of hyperbolic triangles; these are triangles drawn on a concave surface, as on a saddle, instead of the usual flat Euclidean surface. Lambert showed that the angles added up to less than π, or 180°; the amount of shortfall, called the defect, increases with the area. The larger the triangle's area, the smaller the sum of the angles and hence the larger the defect C△ = π —.

That is, the area of a hyperbolic triangle is equal to π, or 180°, minus the sum of the angles α, β, γ. Here C denotes, in the present sense, the negative of the curvature of the surface; as the triangle gets larger or smaller, the angles change in a way that forbids the existence of similar hyperbolic triangles, as only triangles that have the same angles will have the same area. Hence, instead of expressing the area of the triangle in terms of the lengths of its sides, as in Euclid's geometry, the area of Lambert's hyperbolic triangle can be expressed in terms of its angles. Lambert was the first mathematician to address the general properties of map projections. In particular he was the first to discuss the properties of conformality and equal area preservation and to point out that they were mutually exclusive.. In 1772, Lambert published seven new map projections under the title Anmerkungen und Zusätze zur Entwerfung der Land- und Himmelscharten. Lambert did not give names to any of his projections but they are now known as: Lambert conformal conic Transverse Mercator Lambert azimuthal equal area Lagrange projection Lambert cylindrical equal area Transverse cylindrical equal area Lambert conical equal areaThe first three of these are of great importance.

Further details may be found in several texts. Lambert invented the first practical hygrometer. In 1760, he published a book on the Photometria. From the assumption that light travels in straight lines, he showed that illumination was proportional to the strength of the source, inversely proportional to the square of the distance of the illuminated surface and the sine of the angle of inclination of the light's direction to that of the surface; these results were supported by experiments involving the visual comparison of illuminations and used for the calculation of illumination. In Photometria Lambert formulated the law of light absorption—the Beer–Lambert law) and introduced the term albedo. Lambertian reflectance is named after Johann Heinrich Lambert, who introduced the concept of perfect diffusion in his 1760 book Photometria, he contributed to geometrical optics. The photometric unit lambert is named in recognition of his work in establishing the study of photometry. Lambert was a pioneer in the development of three-dimensional colour models.

Late in life, he published a description of a triangular colour pyramid, which shows a total of 107 colours on six different levels, variously combining red and blue pigments, with an increasing amount of white to provide the vertical component. His investigations were built on the earlier theoretical proposals of Tobias Mayer extending these early ideas. Lambert was assisted in this project by the court painter Benjamin Calau. In his main philosophical work, Neues Organon, Lambert studied the rules for distinguishing subjective from objective appearances; this connects with his work in the science of optics. In 1765 he began corresponding with Immanuel Kant who intended to dedicate to him the Critique of Pure Reason but

Breaking News (album)

Breaking News is a smooth mix of musical genres, melodious interface of the African music form Highlife, with the Jamaican music forms dancehall and reggae as well as the American styling of hip hop. Samini calls this the hybrid world music presentation. Breaking News known as the #ThePeoplesAlbum, features top notch artiste like Busy Signal, both from Jamaica and Ice Prince, Tiwa Savage, Phyno, Seyi Shay and many more. Credits to the lead guitarist Owura K; this album was predominantly produced by Brainy Beatz, with additional work from JMJ, Masta Garzy, Musicman TY, Magnom and JR. Three Official Single from the album were released, "New Style'", "Violate" ft Popcaan and "Ye Ko Paapi" respectively

Chin Woo Athletic Association

Chin Woo Athletic Association is an international martial arts organisation founded in Shanghai, China, on July 7, 1910, but some sources cite dates in 1909. Its name is spelled in many other ways throughout the world - Ching Mo, Chin Woo, Ching Mou, Ching Wu, Jing Mo, Jing Wo, Jing Wu - but all of them are based on the same two Chinese characters - jing wu, it has at least 59 branches based in 22 or more countries worldwide, where it is known as an "athletic association" or "federation". Jing Wu was founded as the Jing Wu Athletic Association in Shanghai, China in the early 20th century. Many sources, including the official websites of its branches in various countries, claim that Jing Wu was founded by the martial artist Huo Yuanjia, who died not long after its establishment. Jing Wu was founded by a committee of persons, including members of the Tongmenghui, such as Chen Qimei, Nong Zhu, Chen Tiesheng. Due to Huo's popularity and recent death, the committee had decided that he should be the "face" of Jing Wu, resulting in his strong association with it.

After Jing Wu was founded, a number of prominent martial artists in China at that time were invited to teach there. They include: Chen Zizheng, Eagle Claw master; as one of the first public martial arts institutes in China, Jing Wu was intended to create a structured environment for teaching and learning martial arts as opposed to the secretive training, common in the past. The founders of Jing Wu felt that the association would keep alive traditions that secrecy and social change would otherwise doom; the basic curriculum drew from several styles of martial arts, giving practitioners a well-rounded martial background in addition to whatever they wished to specialise in. Jing Wu inspired the ecumenism seen in the Chinese martial arts community during the Republican era, giving rise to such efforts as the National Martial Arts Institutes. Sun Yat-sen, founder of the Republic of China, attended the third annual event held by Jing Wu in 1915, giving a speech of encouragement to the attendees; when Sun Yat-sen attended again at the 10th annual event in 1920, he wrote for a special Jing Wu newsletter and made a plaque with the engraving "martial spirit".

During the period of the Japanese sphere of influence, the Twenty-One Demands sent to the government of the Republic of China resulted in two treaties with Japan on 25 May 1915. This prevented the ruling class from exercising full control over the commoners. With their new freedom, Huo's students purchased a new building to serve as the organisation's headquarters and named it "Jing Wu Athletic Association"; the association accepted new styles of martial arts other than those taught by Huo. In 1918, Jing Wu Athletic Association opened a branch at Nathan Road in Hong Kong. In July 1919, Jing Wu Athletic Association sent five representatives to Southeast Asia to expand their activities overseas; the five were Li Huisheng, Luo Xiaoao, Chen Shizhao and Ye Shutian. They made their first stop in Saigon, where they opened the first Chin Woo school outside of China, they opened schools in Malaysia and Singapore as well. By 1923, these five masters had opened schools all over Southeast Asia and visited nine different countries.

In 1966, Shanghai's Jing Wu school was forced to discontinue its activities by the Chinese Communist Party due to the Cultural Revolution, whose goals were to destroy old ideas and customs for the purpose of modernizing China. Those restrictions were lifted in 1976, after which Shanghai's Chin Woo school resumed its activities. Chin Woo is one of the largest wushu organisations in the world with branches in various countries, including Japan, Hong Kong, Vietnam, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Canada, the United Kingdom, the United States and Switzerland; the United States headquarters of Chin Woo is located at 719 Gate City Blvd, Greensboro North Carolina 27403. During the early days of Jing Wu in Shanghai, the chief instructor, Zhao Lianhe, developed a curriculum that became the standard Jing Wu sets. Shi Er Lu Tan Tui Gong Li Quan Jie Quan Da Zhan Quan Qun Yang Gun Ba Gua Dao Wu Hu Qiang Jie Tan Tui Tao Quan Dan Dao Chuan Qiang Other styles were taught to students as well, but they varied from school to school and depended on the background of the master teaching that style.

The standard curriculum, was taught in all Jing Wu schools. Fearless the movie. Morris, Adam. Marrow of the Nation: A History of Sport and Physical Culture in Republican China; the University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-24084-7. Kennedy, Brian. Chinese Martial Arts Training Manuals: A Historical Survey. Berkeley, California: North AtlanticBooks. ISBN 1-55643-557-6. Yandle, Robert'Jingwu Athletic Association - 100 Years'. Beckett Media. Dallas, Texas Main branches: Shanghai Chin Woo Athletic Federation World Jing Wu Federation Locations of Jing Wu Sports Federations all over the world with contact details Malaysia Jing Wu Athletic Association Selangor and Kuala Lumpur Western Australia Chin Woo Athletic Association Chin Woo

Abat Oliba CEU University

Abat Oliba CEU University is a private university located in Barcelona, Spain. It was founded in 1973 as the Abat Oliba College. In 2003, the Parliament of Catalonia approved its conversion to Abat Oliba CEU University; the university adopts the name of Abat Oliba, Count of Berga and Ripoll, bishop of Vic, founder of Montserrat because "aimed at making its spirit who established a thousand years the foundations of emerging Catalonia based on Roman and Christian culture". The origin of the current university is in the CDES Abat Oliba, an institution created by Fundación San Pablo-CEU in 1973 in Barcelona; the center started its activities in January 1974 through an affiliation agreement with the University of Barcelona. In 1995 it became known as the Center for Higher Education Abat Oliba and offered degrees in Law, Business Administration and Management, Economy. In 2003, the Parliament of Catalonia recognized Abat Oliba CEU University as a new university; the spring of 2007 saw the birth of the Goliad UAO CEU Awards, prizes given annually by the advertising and communication students of the Abat Oliba CEU University.

In 2012 the institution started an annual conferenced titled UAO CEU International Journalism Week, lasting an entire week, hosting presentations by professionals and scholars of Journalism. In 2012, the Abat Oliba CEU University and the totality of the Catalan universities pledged to defend the Catalan linguistic immersion model and proposed a coordinated access to the Catalan university system. On 2017 Universitat Abat Oliba received the Catedra UNESCO. According to the 2009 Spanish universities ranking by the Institute for Industrial and Financial Analysis of the Complutense University of Madrid, the Abat Oliba CEU University ranks 1st among the Catalan private universities in terms of teaching. In research, the university holds the 3rd position nationwide. Official site

Gangatikuri railway station

Gangatikuri railway station is a railway station on the Howrah-Azimganj Line of Howrah railway division of Eastern Railway zone. It is situated beside State Highway 6 at Balutia, Purba Bardhaman in the Indian state of West Bengal, it serves Uddharanpur area. In 1913, the Hooghly–Katwa Railway constructed a 1,676 mm wide broad gauge line from Bandel to Katwa, the Barharwa–Azimganj–Katwa Railway constructed the 1,676 mm wide broad gauge Barharwa-Azimganj-Katwa Loop Line. With the construction of the Farakka Barrage and opening of the railway bridge in 1971, the railway communication picture of this line were changed. Total 26 trains including few Passengers trains and EMU stop at Gangatikuri; the distance between Howrah and Gangatikuri railway station is 155 km

Poul-Erik Høyer Larsen

Poul-Erik Høyer Larsen is the current President of the Badminton World Federation and a retired Danish badminton player who won major international singles titles in the 1990s, ranks among Denmark's badminton greats. Høyer Larsen competed in three Summer Olympics. In Barcelona 1992 he was defeated in quarterfinals by Ardy Wiranata. In Atlanta 1996 he won the gold medal in the men's singles after beating Dong Jiong in the final. In 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney he lost in the opening round, he won two All-England Open Badminton Championships in 1995 and 1996, the European Badminton Championships in 1992, 1994 and 1996. Høyer became President of Badminton Europe in 2010. In February 2007 he was nominated Vice-President of the Danmarks Badminton Forbund. On 18 May 2013 Høyer was elected President of the Badminton World Federation. Poul-Erik Høyer Larsen at Poul-Erik Høyer's Profile - Evans, Hilary. "Poul-Erik Høyer Larsen". Olympics at Sports Reference LLC