SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Johann Joachim Winckelmann

Johann Joachim Winckelmann was a German art historian and archaeologist. He was a pioneering Hellenist who first articulated the difference between Greek, Greco-Roman and Roman art. "The prophet and founding hero of modern archaeology", Winckelmann was one of the founders of scientific archaeology and first applied the categories of style on a large, systematic basis to the history of art. Many consider him the father of the discipline of art history, he was one of the first to separate Greek Art into periods, time classifications. His would be the decisive influence on the rise of the neoclassical movement during the late 18th century, his writings influenced not only a new science of archaeology and art history but Western painting, sculpture and philosophy. Winckelmann's History of Ancient Art was one of the first books written in German to become a classic of European literature, his subsequent influence on Lessing, Goethe, Hölderlin, Nietzsche and Spengler has been provocatively called "the Tyranny of Greece over Germany."Today, Humboldt University of Berlin's Winckelmann Institute is dedicated to the study of classical archaeology.

Winckelmann was homosexual, open homoeroticism formed his writings on aesthetics. This was recognized by his contemporaries, such as Goethe. Winckelmann was born in poverty in Stendal in the Margraviate of Brandenburg, his father, Martin Winckelmann, worked as a cobbler, while his mother, Anna Maria Meyer, was the daughter of a weaver. Winckelmann's early years were full of hardship. In Rome, when he had become a famous scholar, he wrote: "One gets spoiled here. Winckelmann attended the Köllnisches Gymnasium in Berlin and the Altstädtisches Gymnasium at Salzwedel, in 1738, at age 21, went as a student of theology to the University of Halle. However, Winckelmann was no theologian, he nonetheless devoted himself to Greek and followed the lectures of Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten, who coined the term "aesthetics". With the intention of becoming a physician, in 1740 Winckelmann attended medical classes at Jena, he taught languages. From 1743 to 1748, he was the deputy headmaster of the gymnasium of Seehausen in the Altmark but Winckelmann felt that work with children was not his true calling.

Moreover, his means were insufficient: his salary was so low that he had to rely on his students' parents for free meals. He was thus obliged to accept a tutorship near Magdeburg. While tutor for the powerful Lamprecht family, he fell into unrequited love with the handsome Lamprecht son; this was one of a series of such loves throughout his life. His enthusiasm for the male form excited Winckelmann's budding admiration of ancient Greek and Roman sculpture. In 1748, Winckelmann wrote to Count Heinrich von Bünau: "... little value is set on Greek literature, to which I have devoted myself so far as I could penetrate, when good books are so scarce and expensive". In the same year, Winckelmann was appointed secretary of von Bünau's library at Nöthnitz, near Dresden; the library contained some 40,000 volumes. Winckelmann had read Homer, Sophocles and Plato, but he found at Nöthnitz the works of such famous Enlightenment writers as Voltaire and Montesquieu. To leave behind the spartan atmosphere of Prussia came as a great relief for him.

Winckelmann's major duty involved assisting von Bünau in writing a book on the Holy Roman Empire and helping collect material for it. During this period he made several visits to the collection of antiquities at Dresden, but his description of its best paintings remained unfinished; the treasures there awakened in Winckelmann an intense interest in art, deepened by his association with various artists the painter Adam Friedrich Oeser —Goethe's future friend and influence—who encouraged Winckelmann in his aesthetic studies.. In 1755, Winckelmann published his Gedanken über die Nachahmung der griechischen Werke in der Malerei und Bildhauerkunst, followed by a feigned attack on the work and a defense of its principles, ostensibly by an impartial critic; the Gedanken contains the first statement of the doctrines he afterwards developed, the ideal of "noble simplicity and quiet grandeur" and the definitive assertion, "he one way for us to become great inimitable, is by imitating the ancients". The work won warm admiration not only for its literary style.

It made Winckelmann famous, was reprinted several times and soon translated into French. In England, Winckelmann's views stirred discussion in the 1760s and 1770s, although it was limited to artistic circles: Henry Fuseli's translation of Reflections on the Painting and Sculpture of the Greeks was published in 1765, reprinted with corrections in 1767. In 1751, the papal nuncio and Winckelmann's future employer, Alberico Archinto, visited Nöthnitz, in 1754 Winckelmann joined the Roman Catholic Church. Goethe concluded that Winckelmann was a pagan, while Gerhard Gietmann contended that Winckelmann "died a devout and sincere Catholic". On the strength of the Gedanken über die Nachahmung der Griechischen Werke, Augustus III, king of Poland and elector of Saxony, granted him a pension of 200 thalers, so that

2008–09 Eredivisie

The Eredivisie 2008–09 is the 53rd season of Eredivisie since its establishment in 1955. PSV were the reigning champions; the season began on 29 August 2008 with a game between Vitesse Arnhem and FC Groningen and ended on 10 May 2009. A total of 18 teams take part in the league, consisting of 16 who competed in the previous season and two promoted from the Eerste Divisie; the teams promoted from the Eerste Divisie at the end of the previous season were champions FC Volendam, play-off winners ADO Den Haag. AZ clinched their second title, their first coming in 1981. Last updated: 11 May 2009 Source: ESPN Top Scorers Contrary to the play-offs of previous years, only teams placed 6th through 9th compete in a play-off tournament for one spot in the second qualifying round of the UEFA Europa League 2009–10; the 16th and 17th placed teams, along with the teams from Eerste Divisie, participate in a play-off for two spots in 2009–10 Eredivisie. RKC Waalwijk and Roda JC will play in Eredivisie 2009–10. Ajax lost the opening match 2–1 away at Willem II.

This was Ajax' first opening round defeat since the 1988–89 season. Ajax and Feyenoord both lost; the last times this happened was in the 1965–66 season. ADO Den Haag topped; the last time ADO was in first place was on 16 January 1971. NAC Breda led the Eredivisie after round six; this was the first time in club history. A record 6,067,288 spectators passed through an average of 19,827 per match; the Dutch public broadcaster NOS broadcast the match highlights after beating rival broadcaster RTL for the contract. The new pay-per-view channel Eredivisie Live broadcast. In Australia the Eredivisie was broadcast exclusive by Setanta Sports. 2008–09 Eerste Divisie 2008–09 KNVB Cup

Kaine Parker

Kaine Parker is a fictional character appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. The character has been depicted as a superhero and former supervillain who serves as an ally, an enemy, a foil of Spider-Man and Ben Reilly. Created by Terry Kavanagh and Steven Butler, the character first appeared in Web of Spider-Man #119 as the Jackal's first failed attempt of a clone of Spider-Man, he appeared as the new Scarlet Spider in the Marvel Point One one-shot in November 2011 before starring in his own series. Kaine is the Jackal's first temporary success at cloning Peter Parker but, due to the flawed cloning process is left deformed and mentally unstable. Kaine is identified by the Jackal as "Parker 3.0". The Jackal discards Kaine because the clone starts showing early signs of the degeneration process, Kaine experiences a strong feeling of rejection similar to that between a father and son. Kaine realizes the partial degeneration caused a slight amplification of the powers he "inherited" from Peter.

Not only has his strength and agility been copied from the original Peter's, but he gains a "precognitive sense" that shows him flashes of the future. He possesses a "Mark of Kaine," a burning touch that he uses to leave eaten away hand prints on his victims' faces. Though never explicitly stated within the story, in a interview former Spider-Man editor/writer Glenn Greenberg revealed that the Mark of Kaine was meant to be another analog of one of Spider-Man's powers, namely the ability to cling to walls; the Jackal goes on to create a new, better clone. When the Jackal uses Reilly against Peter, the ensuing battle leaves the Jackal for dead, they both manage to survive. Behind the scenes, Norman Osborn manages to have the files on Ben and Peter switched, so the Jackal would think Peter is the clone and Ben is the real deal. Consulting the Jackal's files, Kaine believes the same, so he follows Ben through his "exile". For a time, he finds love in the arms of police detective Louise Kennedy of Salt Lake City, until he discovers she is working for the criminals.

This revelation, coupled with Kaine's increased cellular degeneration, pushes Kaine further towards insanity and he kills Louise. Kaine continues to stalk Ben, making it appear as though Janine Godbe, Ben's new love, has committed suicide. Kaine, hoping to give the man who he thinks is the clone the life he could never have, frames Ben for a number of murders he commits since both men have the same fingerprints. Flashback scenes reveal that Kaine worked as a bounty hunter for a time, being dispatched to eliminate Kraven the Hunter. Kaine experienced a'vision' via his enhanced spider-sense that Kraven would kill him in the future. Despite the two engaging in a brutal confrontation—Kraven briefly mistook Kaine for Spider-Man due to a vague recognition of Spider-Man's template in Kaine—both survive despite Kaine burying Kraven alive. Kraven dug himself out after three days, but his friend and manservant was killed by Kaine during the fight. Peter Parker is tried and convicted for Kaine's crimes because they have the same fingerprints.

Although Peter goes to prison for some time, Ben Reilly arranges to take his place in prison. Kaine wanders New York and executing scores of Spider-Man's enemies, including the Grim Hunter and Doctor Octopus, they grow fearful of him and form coalitions to protect themselves proactively—including the short-lived'Sinister Seven'—but meet with little success. Peter wants Kaine to stand for what he has done, but Kaine refuses; the two fight and end up getting dragged into a mock-trial where Spider-Man is on trial, Kaine is his defense attorney, Carnage is the prosecutor, several Ravencroft inmates are the jury, a powerful being known as Judas Traveller is the judge. During the one-sided trial, Kaine tries to physically fight off all those who are against Spider-Man before Traveller returns them to their previous place of battle, declaring the proof of a lost soul such as Kaine willing to defend Spider-Man is proof of his innocence. After an incident involving a superpowered villainess named Stunner, a weakened Kaine still refuses to confess to his crimes.

Spider-Man responds by webbing him up before heading to the courthouse. Kaine reawakens before they struggles again with Spider-Man in refusing to confess. At this point, Kaine admits that he's done everything to protect Peter's life and reveals that he is the first clone of Peter, now degenerated. Spider-Man decides that if Kaine will not reveal the truth he will reveal his true identity to the entire courtroom and end everything. Kaine pleads for Peter not to do this and gives into revealing the real truth about the murders and the "Mark of Kaine". After Peter Parker gives in to the news that he is a clone and Ben Reilly is the true individual, he allies himself with the Jackal. Kaine refuses to let him throw his life away, he confronts the Jackal with the full intent of destroying him, when the Jackal manipulates his mind once more by leading Kaine to believe he will be cured of the degeneration process. Once Jackal reveals he has lied again, Kaine leaves feeling dejected, he goes back to Mary Jane Watson for answers, after a conversation of power and responsibility, Kaine returns to the Jackal's lab in time to assist Ben in a battle against numerous Spider-clones.

In the ensuing battle, Spidercide impales him with a spike taken from nearby machinery, serious