Humanism is a philosophical and ethical stance that emphasizes the value and agency of human beings and collectively, prefers critical thinking and evidence over acceptance of dogma or superstition. The meaning of the term humanism has fluctuated according to the successive intellectual movements which have identified with it; the term was coined by theologian Friedrich Niethammer at the beginning of the 19th century to refer to a system of education based on the study of classical literature. However, humanism refers to a perspective that affirms some notion of human freedom and progress, it views humans as responsible for the promotion and development of individuals and emphasizes a concern for man in relation to the world. In modern times, humanist movements are non-religious movements aligned with secularism, today humanism refers to a nontheistic life stance centred on human agency and looking to science rather than revelation from a supernatural source to understand the world; the word "humanism" is derived from the Latin concept humanitas.
It entered English in the nineteenth century. However, historians agree that the concept predates the label invented to describe it, encompassing the various meanings ascribed to humanitas, which included both benevolence toward one's fellow humans and the values imparted by bonae litterae or humane learning. In the second century AD, a Latin grammarian, Aulus Gellius, complained: Those who have spoken Latin and have used the language do not give to the word humanitas the meaning which it is thought to have, what the Greeks call φιλανθρωπία, signifying a kind of friendly spirit and good-feeling towards all men without distinction; those who earnestly desire and seek after these are most humanized. For the desire to pursue of that kind of knowledge, the training given by it, has been granted to humanity alone of all the animals, for that reason it is termed humanitas, or "humanity". Gellius says that in his day humanitas is used as a synonym for philanthropy – or kindness and benevolence toward one's fellow human beings.
Gellius maintains that this common usage is wrong, that model writers of Latin, such as Cicero and others, used the word only to mean what we might call "humane" or "polite" learning, or the Greek equivalent Paideia. Yet in seeking to restrict the meaning of humanitas to literary education this way, Gellius was not advocating a retreat from political engagement into some ivory tower, though it might look like that to us, he himself was involved in public affairs. According to legal historian Richard Bauman, Gellius was a judge as well as a grammarian and was an active participant the great contemporary debate on harsh punishments that accompanied the legal reforms of Antoninus Pius. "By assigning pride of place to Paideia in his comment on the etymology of humanitas, Gellius implies that the trained mind is best equipped to handle the problems troubling society."Gellius's writings fell into obscurity during the Middle Ages, but during the Italian Renaissance, Gellius became a favorite author.
Teachers and scholars of Greek and Latin grammar, rhetoric and poetry were called and called themselves "humanists". Modern scholars, point out that Cicero, most responsible for defining and popularizing the term humanitas, in fact used the word in both senses, as did his near contemporaries. For Cicero, a lawyer, what most distinguished humans from brutes was speech, allied to reason, could enable them to settle disputes and live together in concord and harmony under the rule of law, thus humanitas included two meanings from the outset and these continue in the modern derivative, which today can refer to both humanitarian benevolence and to a method of study and debate involving an accepted group of authors and a careful and accurate use of language. During the French Revolution, soon after, in Germany, humanism began to refer to an ethical philosophy centered on humankind, without attention to the transcendent or supernatural; the designation Religious Humanism refers to organized groups that sprang up during the late-nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
It is similar to Protestantism, although centered on human needs and abilities rather than the supernatural. In the Anglophone world, such modern, organized forms of humanism, which are rooted in the 18th-century Enlightenment, have to a considerable extent more or less detached themselves from the historic connection of humanism with classical learning and the liberal arts; the first Humanist Manifesto was issued by a conference held at the University of Chicago in 1933. Signatories included the philosopher John Dewey, they identified humanism as an ideology that espouses reason and social and economic justice, they called for science to replace dogma and the supernatural as the basis of morality and decision-making. In 1808 Bavarian educational commissioner Friedrich Immanuel Niethammer coined the term Humanismus to describe the new classical curriculum he planned to offer in German secondary schools, by 1836 the word "humanism" had been absorbed into the English language in this sense; the coinage gained universal acceptance in 1856, when
Konrad Heresbach was a Rhenish Reformer, Calvinist and educator. Konrad or Conrad Heresbach was born at Manor Herzbach near Mettmann as the youngest of seven children to the wealthy holder of the Herzbach estate. In 1503, he left Mettmann to attend the Latin ecclesiastical school at the Benedictine Monastery at Werden. Here he became acquainted with the Latin language through reciting the biblical Psalms. Two years he was schooled at the Latin school in Hamm, which provided children from the wealthy Rhenish–Markian bourgeois with an education. From 1510 onwards, he attended the cathedral school at Münster, from 1512 the University of Cologne of liberal arts. Here he read Hebrew -- graduating with the degree of magister artium. Thereafter, he pursued a degree in law in 1517, the year in which Martin Luther posted his 95 theses at Wittenberg. At Cologne he became acquainted to the Dutch reformer Erasmus of Rotterdam, who after a brief stay at Paris and Orléans, found him a position at the University of Freiburg, where he graduated in 1522 with a doctorate in law.
After some further Hebrew studies at the University of Padua at the age of 26 years, he returned to his native Duchy of Berg. Through Erasmus he gained a position as an educator with the dukes of Cleves at Wesel, he died at Manor Lorward near Wesel. His educational teachings influenced the philologist and reformer of the German language Konrad Duden. De Educandis Erudiendisque Principum Liberis, 1592 Jean‑Claude Margolin. Un humaniste réformiste rhénan—Conrad Heresbach. In Jean Boisset. Réforme et humanisme. Actes du IVe colloque, Impr. de Recherche, Montpellier 1977, pp. 113–148. Latin Works available on the Internet including some from Heresbach Portrait of Heresbach Heresbach Memorial in Wesel
A grimoire is a textbook of magic including instructions on how to create magical objects like talismans and amulets, how to perform magical spells and divination, how to summon or invoke supernatural entities such as angels, spirits and demons. In many cases, the books themselves are believed to be imbued with magical powers, although in many cultures, other sacred texts that are not grimoires have been believed to have supernatural properties intrinsically. In this manner, while all books on magic could be thought of as grimoires, not all magical books should be thought of as grimoires. While the term grimoire is European and many Europeans throughout history ceremonial magicians and cunning folk, have used grimoires, the historian Owen Davies noted that similar books can be found all across the world, ranging from Jamaica to Sumatra, he noted that in this sense, the world's first grimoires were created in Europe and the Ancient Near East. It is most believed that the term grimoire originated from the Old French word grammaire, used to refer to all books written in Latin.
By the 18th century, the term had gained its now common usage in France, had begun to be used to refer purely to books of magic. Owen Davies presumed this was because "many of them continued to circulate in Latin manuscripts". However, the term grimoire developed into a figure of speech amongst the French indicating something, hard to understand. In the 19th century, with the increasing interest in occultism amongst the British following the publication of Francis Barrett's The Magus, the term entered the English language in reference to books of magic; the earliest known written magical incantations come from ancient Mesopotamia, where they have been found inscribed on cuneiform clay tablets that archaeologists excavated from the city of Uruk and dated to between the 5th and 4th centuries BC. The ancient Egyptians employed magical incantations, which have been found inscribed on amulets and other items; the Egyptian magical system, known as heka, was altered and enhanced after the Macedonians, led by Alexander the Great, invaded Egypt in 332 BC.
Under the next three centuries of Hellenistic Egypt, the Coptic writing system evolved, the Library of Alexandria was opened. This had an influence upon books of magic, with the trend on known incantations switching from simple health and protection charms to more specific things, such as financial success and sexual fulfillment. Around this time the legendary figure of Hermes Trismegistus developed as a conflation of the Egyptian god Thoth and the Greek Hermes; the ancient Greeks and Romans believed. The 1st-century AD writer Pliny the Elder stated that magic had been first discovered by the ancient philosopher Zoroaster around the year 647 BC but that it was only written down in the 5th century BC by the magician Osthanes, his claims are not, supported by modern historians. The ancient Jewish people were viewed as being knowledgeable in magic, according to legend, they had learned from Moses, who had learned it in Egypt. Among many ancient writers, Moses was seen as an Egyptian rather than a Jew.
Two manuscripts dating to the 4th century, both of which purport to be the legendary eighth Book of Moses, present him as a polytheist who explained how to conjure gods and subdue demons. Meanwhile, there is definite evidence of grimoires being used by certain Gnostic, sects of early Christianity. In the Book of Enoch found within the Dead Sea Scrolls, for instance, there is information on astrology and the angels. In possible connection with the Book of Enoch, the idea of Enoch and his great-grandson Noah having some involvement with books of magic given to them by angels continued through to the medieval period. Israelite King Solomon was a Biblical figure associated with sorcery in the ancient world; the 1st-century Romano-Jewish historian Josephus mentioned a book circulating under the name of Solomon that contained incantations for summoning demons and described how a Jew called Eleazar used it to cure cases of possession. The book may have been the Testament of Solomon but was more a different work.
The pseudepigraphic Testament of Solomon is one of the oldest magical texts. It is a Greek manuscript attributed to Solomon and written in either Babylonia or Egypt sometime in the first five centuries AD, over 1,000 years after Solomon's death; the work tells of the building of The Temple and relates that construction was hampered by demons until the angel Michael gave the king a magical ring. The ring, engraved with the Seal of Solomon, had the power to bind demons from doing harm. Solomon used it to lock demons in jars and commanded others to do his bidding, although according to the Testament, he was tempted into worshiping "false gods", such as Moloch and Rapha. Subsequently, after losing favour with God, King Solomon wrote the work as a warning and a guide to the reader; when Christianity became the dominant faith of the Roman Empire, the early Church frowned upon the propagation of books on magic, connecting it with paganism, burned books of magic. The New Testament records that after the unsuccessful exorcism by the seven sons of Sceva became known, many converts decided to burn their own magic and pagan books in the city of Ephesus.
In the Medieval period, the production of grimoires con
Jean Bodin was a French jurist and political philosopher, member of the Parlement of Paris and professor of law in Toulouse. He is best known for his theory of sovereignty. Bodin lived during the aftermath of the Protestant Reformation and wrote against the background of religious conflict in France, he remained a nominal Catholic throughout his life but was critical of papal authority over governments, favouring the strong central control of a national monarchy as an antidote to factional strife. Toward the end of his life he wrote, but did not publish, a dialogue among different religions, including representatives of Judaism and natural theology, in which all agreed to coexist in concord. Bodin was successively a friar, professional lawyer, political adviser. An excursion as a politician having proved a failure, he lived out his life as a provincial magistrate. Bodin was born near Angers the son of a master tailor, into a modestly prosperous middle-class background, he received a decent education in the Carmelite monastery of Angers, where he became a novice friar.
Some claims made about his early life remain obscure. There is some evidence of a visit to Geneva in 1547/48 in which he became involved in a heresy trial; the records of this episode, are murky and may refer to another person. He went to Paris, he studied at the university, but at the humanist-oriented Collège des Quatre Langues. His education was not only influenced by an orthodox Scholastic approach but was apparently in contact with Ramist philosophy. In the 1550s he studied Roman law at the University of Toulouse, under Arnaud du Ferrier, taught there, his special subject at that time seems to have been comparative jurisprudence. Subsequently he worked on a Latin translation of Oppian of Apamea, under the continuing patronage of Gabriel Bouvery, Bishop of Angers. Bodin failed to raise local support, he left in 1560. From 1561 he was licensed as an attorney of the Parlement of Paris, his religious convictions on the outbreak of the Wars of Religion in 1562 cannot be determined, but he affirmed formally his Catholic faith, taking an oath that year along with other members of the Parlement.
He continued to pursue his interests in legal and political theory in Paris, publishing significant works on historiography and economics. Bodin became a member of the discussion circles around the Prince François d'Alençon, he was the intelligent and ambitious youngest son of Henry II, was in line for the throne in 1574, with the death of his brother Charles IX. He withdrew his claim, however, in favor of his older brother Henry III who had returned from his abortive effort to reign as the King of Poland. Alençon was a leader of the politiques faction of political pragmatists. After the failure of Prince François' hopes to ascend the throne, Bodin transferred his allegiance to the new king Henry III. In practical politics, however, he lost the king's favor in 1576–7, as delegate of the Third Estate at the Estates-General at Blois, leader in his Estate of the February 1577 moves to prevent a new war against the Huguenots, he attempted to exert a moderating influence on the Catholic party, tried restrict the passage of supplemental taxation for the king.
Bodin retired from political life. His wife, Françoise Trouillart, was the widow of Claude Bayard, sister of Nicolas Trouillart who died in 1587. Bodin was in touch with William Wade in Paris, Lord Burghley's contact, at the time of publication of the Six livres, he accompanied Prince François, by Duke of Anjou, to England in 1581, in his second attempt to woo Elizabeth I of England. On this visit Bodin saw the English Parliament, he brushed off a request to secure better treatment for English Catholics, to the dismay of Robert Persons, given that Edmund Campion was in prison at the time. Bodin saw some of Campion's trial, he is said to have witnessed Campion's execution in December 1581, making the hanging the occasion for a public letter against the use of force in matters of religion. Bodin became a correspondent of Francis Walsingham. Prince François became Duke of Brabant in 1582, embarked on an adventurer's campaign to expand his territory; the disapproving Bodin accompanied him, was trapped in the Prince's disastrous raid on Antwerp that ended the attempt, followed shortly by the Prince's death in 1584.
In the wars that followed the death of Henry III, the Catholic League attempted to prevent the succession of the Protestant Henry of Navarre by placing another king on the throne. Bodin gave support to the powerful League, he died, during one of the many plague epidemics of the time. Bodin wrote in French, with Latin translations. Several of the works have been seen. Bodin wrote in turn books on history, politics and natural philosophy. A modern edition of Bodin's works was begun in 1951 as Oeuvres philosophiques de Jean Bodin by Pierre Mes
In religion and folklore, Hell is an afterlife location, sometimes a place of torment and punishment. Religions with a linear divine history depict hells as eternal destinations while religions with a cyclic history depict a hell as an intermediary period between incarnations; these traditions locate hell in another dimension or under the Earth's surface and include entrances to Hell from the land of the living. Other afterlife destinations include Heaven, Purgatory and Limbo. Other traditions, which do not conceive of the afterlife as a place of punishment or reward describe Hell as an abode of the dead, the grave, a neutral place located under the surface of Earth; the modern English word hell is derived from Old English hel, helle reaching into the Anglo-Saxon pagan period. The word has cognates in all branches of the Germanic languages, including Old Norse hel, Old Frisian helle, Old Saxon hellia, Old High German hella, Gothic halja. All forms derive from the reconstructed Proto-Germanic feminine noun *xaljō or *haljō.
In turn, the Proto-Germanic form derives from the o-grade form of the Proto-Indo-European root *kel-, *kol-:'to cover, save'. Indo-European cognates including Latin cēlāre and early Irish ceilid. Upon the Christianization of the Germanic peoples, extension of Proto-Germanic *xaljō were reinterpreted to denote the underworld in Christian mythology, for which see Gehenna. Related early Germanic terms and concepts include Proto-Germanic *xalja-rūnō, a feminine compound noun, *xalja-wītjan, a neutral compound noun; this form is reconstructed from the Latinized Gothic plural noun *haliurunnae, Old English helle-rúne, Old High German helli-rūna'magic'. The compound is composed of two elements: *xaljō and *rūnō, the Proto-Germanic precursor to Modern English rune; the second element in the Gothic haliurunnae may however instead be an agent noun from the verb rinnan, which would make its literal meaning "one who travels to the netherworld". Proto-Germanic *xalja-wītjan is reconstructed from Old Norse hel-víti'hell', Old English helle-wíte'hell-torment, hell', Old Saxon helli-wīti'hell', the Middle High German feminine noun helle-wīze.
The compound is a compound of * * wītjan. Hell appears in several religions, it is inhabited by demons and the souls of dead people. A fable about Hell which recurs in folklore across several cultures is the allegory of the long spoons. Hell is depicted in art and literature most famously in Dante's Divine Comedy. Punishment in Hell corresponds to sins committed during life. Sometimes these distinctions are specific, with damned souls suffering for each sin committed, but sometimes they are general, with condemned sinners relegated to one or more chamber of Hell or to a level of suffering. In many religious cultures, including Christianity and Islam, Hell is depicted as fiery and harsh, inflicting suffering on the guilty. Despite these common depictions of Hell as a place of fire, some other traditions portray Hell as cold. Buddhist - and Tibetan Buddhist - descriptions of Hell feature an equal number of hot and cold Hells. Among Christian descriptions Dante's Inferno portrays the innermost circle of Hell as a frozen lake of blood and guilt.
But cold played a part in earlier Christian depictions of Hell, beginning with the Apocalypse of Paul from the early third century. The Sumerian afterlife was a dark, dreary cavern located deep below the ground, where inhabitants were believed to continue "a shadowy version of life on earth"; this bleak domain was known as Kur, was believed to be ruled by the goddess Ereshkigal. All souls went to the same afterlife, a person's actions during life had no effect on how the person would be treated in the world to come; the souls in Kur were believed to eat nothing but dry dust and family members of the deceased would ritually pour libations into the dead person's grave through a clay pipe, thereby allowing the dead to drink. Nonetheless, funerary evidence indicates that some people believed that the goddess Inanna, Ereshkigal's younger sister, had the power to award her devotees with special favors in the afterlife. During the Third Dynasty of Ur, it was believed that a person's treatment in the afterlife depended on how he or she was buried.
The entrance to Kur was believed to be located in the Zagros mountains in the far east. It had seven gates; the god Neti was the gatekeeper. Ereshkigal's sukkal, or messenger, was the god Namtar. Galla were a class of demons, they are fr
Leuven or Louvain is the capital of the province of Flemish Brabant in Belgium. It is located about 25 kilometres east of Brussels; the municipality itself comprises the historic city and the former neighbouring municipalities of Heverlee, Kessel-Lo, a part of Korbeek-Lo, Wilsele and Wijgmaal. It is the eighth largest city in Belgium and the fourth in Flanders with more than 100,244 inhabitants. Leuven is home to the KU Leuven, the largest and oldest university of the Low Countries and the oldest Catholic university still in existence; the related university hospital of UZ Leuven is one of the largest hospitals in Europe. The city is known for being the headquarters of Anheuser-Busch InBev, the world's largest brewer and one of the five largest consumer-goods companies in the world; the earliest mention of Leuven dates from 891, when a Viking army was defeated by the Frankish king Arnulf of Carinthia. According to a legend, the city's red and white arms depict the blood-stained shores of the river Dyle after this battle to Austria’s Flag.
Situated beside this river, near to the stronghold of the Dukes of Brabant, Leuven became the most important centre of trade in the duchy between the 11th and 14th centuries. A token of its former importance as a centre of cloth manufacture is shown in that ordinary linen cloth was known, in late-14th-century and 15th-century texts, as lewyn. In the 15th century, a new golden era began with the founding of what is now the largest and oldest university in the Low Countries, the Catholic University of Leuven, in 1425. In the 18th century, the brewery Den Horen flourished. In 1708, Sebastien Artois became the master brewer at Den Horen, gave his name to the brewery in 1717, now part of AB InBev, whose flagship beer, Stella Artois, is brewed in Leuven and sold in many countries. Leuven occupied by foreign armies. In the 20th century, both world wars inflicted major damage upon the city. Upon Germany's entry into World War I, the town was damaged by rampaging soldiers. In all, about 300 civilians lost their lives.
The university library was destroyed on 25 August 1914, using petrol and incendiary pastilles. 230,000 volumes were lost in the destruction, including Gothic and Renaissance manuscripts, a collection of 750 medieval manuscripts, more than 1,000 incunabula. The destruction of the library shocked the world, with the Daily Chronicle describing it as war not only against civilians but against "posterity to the utmost generation." It was rebuilt after the war, much of the collection was replaced. Great Britain and the United States were major providers of material for the replenishment of the collection; the new library building was financed by the National Committee of the United States for the Restoration of the University of Louvain and built to the design of architect Whitney Warren. Richard Harding Davis, a war correspondent for the New York Tribune, was in Leuven and wrote a column titled "The Germans Were Like Men After an Orgy" in which he described the organized civilian murders and vandalism committed by the occupying troops.
In World War II, after the start of the German offensive, Leuven formed part of the British Expeditionary Force's front line and was defended by units of the 3rd Division and Belgian troops. From 14 to 16 May 1940, the German Army Group B assaulted the city with heavy air and artillery support; the British withdrew their forces to the River Senne on the night of 16 May and the town was occupied the next day. The new university library building was set on fire by shelling, on 16 May, nearly a million books were lost. Given the presence of the KU Leuven, Europe's most innovative university according to Reuters, much of the local economy is concentrated on spin-offs from academic research. In addition, the Leuven-based research centre, IMEC, is a world class research centre in the field of nano-electronics and digital technologies; as a result, dozens of companies in high technological fields such as biotech, additive manufacturing and IT, are located near these research institutes on the Arenberg Science Park and Haasrode Research-Park.
Quite a few international companies such as Siemens, Nitto Denko, JSR Corporation or Commscope have important research oriented branches, in Leuven. The academic hospital Gasthuisberg is another advanced research institute, it is one of Europe's most advanced hospitals. As a result, large numbers of private service providers are active in the medical and legal fields; because it is the capital of the region of Flemish Brabant, many governmental institutions are located in Leuven, as well as the regional headquarters of transport corporations such as De Lijn. As one of Flanders Art-Cities, with a large range of cafés, cultural institutions and shopping neighbourhoods, Leuven attracts a fair share of tourists. Leuven is the worldwide headquarters of Anheuser-Busch InBev, the largest beer company in the world and is considered one of the largest fast-moving consumer goods companies in the world. InBev's Stella Artois brewery and main offices dominate the entire north-eastern part of the town, between the railway station and the canal to Mechelen.
As of 1 November 2016, the population of Leuven was 100,244. The arrondissement of Leuven