click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Johann von Werth

Count Johann von Werth Jan von Werth or in French Jean de Werth, was a German general of cavalry in the Thirty Years' War. Werth was born in 1591 at Büttgen in the Duchy of Jülich as the eldest son of lesser noble Johann von Wierdt and Elisabeth Streithoven, he had eight sisters. At an early age he left home to become a soldier of fortune in the Walloon cavalry in the Spanish Netherlands. In 1622, at the taking of Jülich, he won promotion to the rank of lieutenant, he served as a colonel of cavalry in the Bavarian army in 1630. He obtained the command of a regiment, both titular and effective, in 1632, in 1633 and 1634 laid the foundations of his reputation as a swift and terrible leader of cavalry forays, his services were more conspicuous in the great pitched Battle of Nördlingen, after which the emperor made him a Freiherr of the Empire, the elector of Bavaria gave him the rank of lieutenant field-marshal. About this time he armed his regiment with the musket as well as the sword. In 1635 and 1636 Werth's forays extended into Lorraine and Luxembourg, after which he projected an expedition into the heart of France.

Starting in July 1636, from the country of the lower Meuse, he raided far and wide, urged his commander in chief, the cardinal infante, to "plant the double eagle on the Louvre". Though this was not attempted. Werth's horsemen appeared at Saint-Denis before the a French army of fifty thousand men at Compiègne forced the invaders to retreat; the memory of this raid lasted long, the name of "Jean de Wert" figures in folk-songs and serves as a bogey to quieten unruly children. In 1637 Werth was once more in the Rhine valley, destroying convoys, relieving besieged towns and surprising the enemy's camps. In February 1638 he defeated the Weimar troops in an engagement at Rheinfelden, but shortly afterwards was made prisoner by Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar, his hopes of being exchanged for the Swedish field marshal Gustaf Horn were disappointed for Bernhard had to deliver up his captive to the French. The terrible Jean de Wert was brought to Paris, amidst great rejoicings from the country people, he was lionized by the society of the capital, visited in prison by high ladies.

So light was his captivity. His release, delayed until March 1642 because the imperial government feared to see Horn at the head of the Swedish army and would not allow an exchange; when at last Werth reappeared in the field it was as general of cavalry in the imperial and Bavarian and Cologne services. His first campaign against the French marshal Guebriant was uneventful, but his second in which Baron Franz von Mercy was his commander-in-chief, ended with the battle of Tuttlingen in which Werth was instrumental in a surprise victory. In 1644 he was in the lower Rhine country, but he returned to Mercy's headquarters in time to fight in the battle of Freiburg. In the following year he played a decisive role in the second battle of Nördlingen. Mercy was killed in this action, Werth temporarily commanded the defeated arm until succeeded by Field-marshal Geleen. Werth was disappointed, but remained loyal to his soldierly code of honour, found an outlet for his anger in renewed military activity.

In 1647 differences arose between the elector and the emperor as to the allegiance due from the Bavarian troops, in which, after long hesitation, fearing that the cause of the Empire and of the Catholic religion would be ruined if the elector resumed control of the troops, attempted to take his men over the Austrian border. But they refused to follow and, escaping with great difficulty from the elector's vengeance, Werth found a refuge in Austria; the emperor was grateful for his conduct in this affair, ordered the elector to rescind his ban, made Werth a count. The last campaign of the war was uneventful, shortly after its close he retired to live on the estates which he had bought in the course of his career, on one of these, Benatek 40 kilometres NE of Prague in Bohemia, a gift from the emperor, he died on 16 of January 1652, he was buried in the church of Nativity of the Virgin Mary in Benátky. Johann von Werth's life became a popular legend in the Rhineland and Cologne, reenacted at Karneval time: The poor peasant Jan fell in love with Griet but she wanted a wealthier partner and declined his offer of marriage.

Devastated by her rejection he signed up to go to war. Through hard work and good fortune he rose celebrating several victories. After taking the fort at Hermannstein he was leading his triumphant troops into Cologne through St. Severin's Gate, when he saw his former love Griet selling fruit at a market. Griet was filled with regret at turning down such a successful person and exclaimed "Jan, who would have thought it?" to which he replied "Griet, the person who should have done it!" and turns away. The story has several variants, it has inspired many songs including one in 2001 by the rock band BAP. Jan von Werth's name has been used for centuries to name military and recreational organisations groups of mounted marksmen at Schützenfests and Karneval. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Werth, Count von". Encyclopædia Britannica. 28. Cambridge University Press. P. 524. Endnotes: Lives F. W. Barthold, W. von Janko, F. Teicher.

"The Legend of Jan van Werth". Kellscraft.com

Superior, Colorado

Superior is a Statutory Town in Boulder County in the U. S. state of Colorado, with a small, uninhabited segment of land area extending into Jefferson County. According to the 2019 census, the population of the city was 13,175. Superior's history is one of coal mining; the first mines in the area were developed in the late 19th century. Coal was discovered on the Hake family farm in 1894, recollections of members of pioneer families in Superior, including the Hakes and Autreys, are preserved as part of the Maria Rogers Oral History Program at the Carnegie Library for Local History in Boulder, Colorado; the town was named after its superior quality of coal. Mining was the major force in Superior's history until the Industrial Mine closed in 1945. Subsequently, many people moved out of the area and the Town evolved into a quiet ranching and farming community. Superior's population hovered around 250 until the late 1990s, when subdivisions were built in the town and the population rose 3,433.7% to 9,011 by 2000.

Superior is located at 39°56′N 105°10′W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 4.01 square miles, of which 3.968 square miles is land and 0.041 square miles it is water. As of 2013 there were 27 miles of trails and 594 acres of parks, green space, open space, about 23.2% of the land area. In addition, the town operates two pools with tennis courts for its residents; as of the 2019 census, there were 13,175 people, 4,493 households, 3,491 families living in the town. The population density was 3298.11 people per square mile. There were 4,698 housing units at an average density of 1,186.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 77.26% White, 1% African American, 0.2% Native American, 17.8% Asian, less than 0.1% Pacific Islander, 0.6% from other races, 3.13% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6.6% of the population. Of all households, 46.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.9% were married couples living together, 9.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 22.3% were non-families.

14.9% of all households were individuals living alone and 1.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.87 and the average family size was 3.81. In the town, the population was spread out with 31.5% under the age of 18, 12.9% from 18 to 24, 33.4% from 25 to 44, 24.1% from 45 to 64, 3.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32.5 years. For every 100 females, there were 103.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 101.1 males. The median income for a household in the town was $119,810, the median income for a family was $133,011; the per capita income for the town was $44,318. About 1.4% of families and 4.57% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3.1% of those under age 18 and none of those age 65 or over. Of residents 25 years and over, 96.45% were high school graduates and 76.24% held a bachelor's degree or higher, with 35.58% holding graduate or professional degrees. Superior has two public schools, run by the Boulder Valley School District: Superior Elementary, Eldorado PK-8.

The home public high school is Monarch High School in Colorado. Sections of the 1985 movie American Flyers were filmed in Superior. Marcelo Balboa - soccer star Josh Sims - Lacrosse player Outline of Colorado Index of Colorado-related articles State of Colorado Colorado cities and towns Colorado municipalities Colorado counties Boulder County, Colorado Boulder Valley School District Jefferson County, Colorado Jefferson County R-1 School District Colorado metropolitan areas Front Range Urban Corridor North Central Colorado Urban Area Denver-Aurora-Boulder, CO Combined Statistical Area Boulder, CO Metropolitan Statistical Area Denver-Aurora-Broomfield, CO Metropolitan Statistical Area Jefferson Parkway Rocky Flats National Wildlife Refuge Town of Superior CDOT map of Superior Superior Observer Superior Elementary School

Black's Medical Dictionary

Black's Medical Dictionary is a comprehensive medical dictionary featuring definitions of medical terms and conditions, published by A & C Black Publishers. It was first published in 1906, is now in its forty-second edition, it is considered a simplified home reference for medical terms. According to the publisher, It contains over 5000 definitions and descriptions of medical terms and concepts with over 1000 diagrams; the latest edition contains new and expanded sections on: HPV vaccine Monoclonal Antibodies Fibroid treatment Endoscopy and laparoscopy Coronary angioplasty MRSA and stem cell researchOn April 1, 2010, Bloomsbury Academic & Professional became the new U. S. publisher of A&C Black titles. Distribution continues through Macmillan Publishers. John Dixon Comrie1906 – 1942 H. A. Clegg 1944 W. A. R. Thomson 1948 – 1984 C. W. H. Havard 1987 – 1990 Gordon MacPherson 1992 – 2002 Harvey Marcovitch 2005 - Reviews of early editions

Black Mill, Barham

Black Mill or Barham Downs Mill was a smock mill at Barham, England, accidentally burnt down in 1970 while under restoration. Black Mill was the third mill on the site. There was a mill on Barham Down in the thirteenth century. A mill was marked on Philip Symonson's map of 1596, John Speed's map of 1611, Robert Morden's map of 1695 and Emanuel Bowen's map of 1736; this mill was a little lower down the hill, was moved to a new position higher up. The second mill was marked on the 1819-43 Ordnance Survey map; the Black Mill was built by John Holman, the Canterbury millwright in 1834. She was worked for many years by H S Pledge R Walter for over 50 years, after that by T Denne and Sons; the mill lost a sail. Over £150 had to be spent to repair the mill; the last owner, Mr E Mannering, fitted the fantail from Willesborough windmill in 1946, restored the mill in 1956. He was awarded a Windmill Certificate by the Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings for his efforts; the work was done by Holman's of Canterbury, the last millwrighting they did before the firm stopped doing millwrighting work.

Kent County Council contributed £400 towards the restoration work. The work included the replacement of two sails, blown off in a storm on 13 March 1951; the mill featured in the 1955 film "Raising a Riot" starring Kenneth More. The mill was purchased by Kent County Council in the late 1960s and burnt down on 3 March 1970 when a spark from a bonfire set light to the mill. A new stage had been prepared for the restored mill, this was donated to Draper's Windmill and erected there by Vincent Pargeter. Black Mill was a four-storey smock mill mounted on a single-storey brick base, it was winded by a fantail. The mill drove four pairs of millstones. E Lawrence, miller in 1845 Henry Sturgess Pledge, miller in 1850 working the Wind and Water mill at Kennington. Richard Walter T Denne and Sons Ltd, millers in 1933, still in business at Hanover Mill, Mersham. W Mannering Windmill World page on the mill

Ch√Ęteau de Saint-Aubin-du-Cormier

Château de Saint-Aubin-du-Cormier is a medieval castle, built in the 13th century in the commune of Saint-Aubin-du-Cormier in the département d'Ille-et-Vilaine in Brittany. Dismantled in 1490, only the donjon remains today, it was registered as a monument historique on 15 December 1926. Château de Saint-Aubin is located near the forest of Rennes, where there was a chapel dedicated to Albinus of Angers. In 1225, Peter I, Duke of Brittany ordered the construction of a castle; the enceinte measures 100m by 30m with ten towers. After the death of king Louis VIII, Peter I changed allegiance and fought for King Henry III of England; the French army under orders from Louis IX unsuccessfully attempted a siege in 1231, but Peter handed over the in 1234 when he submitted to the king of France. During the War of Breton Succession, the castle was taken by Charles de Blois in 1342 before it was handed over to Jean IV de Montfort in 1381; the castle was remodelled in 1430 and at the same time ramparts were built around the town.

The castle was abandoned. Dominique Le Page et Michel Nassiet, L'union de la Bretagne à la France, Skol Vreizh, 2003, 198 pages. ISBN 2-911447840. René Cintré, Les marches de Bretagne au Moyen Âge, Presses Universitaires de Rennes, 1992, 242 pages. Cucarull, Jérôme, "Destruction symbolique et persistance emblématique d'un château médiéval, Saint-Aubin-du-Cormier", La Fortresse a l'épreuve du templs: Destruction, dissolution, dénaturation, XIe-XXe siecle, ISBN 978-2-7355-0633-0 Le château de Saint-Aubin-du-Cormier Histoire sur le site officiel de la ville

The Babylonian Marriage Market

The Babylonian Marriage Market is an 1875 painting by the British painter Edwin Long of young women being auctioned into marriage. It received attention for its provocative depiction of women being sold and its attention to historical detail; the painting was inspired by a passage in the Histories by Herodotus, the artist painstakingly copied some of the images from Assyrian artefacts in the British Museum. The composition is influenced by Victorian painting auctions; the painting made its public debut at the Royal Academy in 1875, where it drew large crowds and won widespread acclaim. The art critic John Ruskin praised the painting and highlighted the similarity between its subject matter and modern European marriage practices, which Ruskin thought were mercenary and immoral, it is held in the Picture Gallery of Royal Holloway College, after being bought by Thomas Holloway in 1882, where it fetched a then-record price for a painting by a living artist at £6,615. Holloway's reasons for giving this work to Royal Holloway College are still debated by historians.

Although the painting is interpreted as a faithful illustration of the passage in the Histories, Imogen Hart suggests that it in fact modifies and critiques Herodotus's description. The silent film Intolerance includes a seven‐and‐a‐half‐minute scene based on this painting. "Babylonian Marriage Market". Royal Holloway, University of London. Retrieved 12 September 2015