Johannes Gutenberg

Johannes Gensfleisch zur Laden zum Gutenberg was a German blacksmith, inventor and publisher who introduced printing to Europe with the printing press. His introduction of mechanical movable type printing to Europe started the Printing Revolution and is regarded as a milestone of the second millennium, ushering in the modern period of human history, it played a key role in the development of the Renaissance, the Age of Enlightenment, the scientific revolution and laid the material basis for the modern knowledge-based economy and the spread of learning to the masses. Gutenberg in 1439 was the first European to use movable type. Among his many contributions to printing are: the invention of a process for mass-producing movable type, his epochal invention was the combination of these elements into a practical system that allowed the mass production of printed books and was economically viable for printers and readers alike. Gutenberg's method for making type is traditionally considered to have included a type metal alloy and a hand mould for casting type.

The alloy was a mixture of lead and antimony that melted at a low temperature for faster and more economical casting, cast well, created a durable type. In Renaissance Europe, the arrival of mechanical movable type printing introduced the era of mass communication which permanently altered the structure of society; the unrestricted circulation of information—including revolutionary ideas—transcended borders, captured the masses in the Reformation and threatened the power of political and religious authorities. Across Europe, the increasing cultural self-awareness of its people led to the rise of proto-nationalism, accelerated by the flowering of the European vernacular languages to the detriment of Latin's status as lingua franca. In the 19th century, the replacement of the hand-operated Gutenberg-style press by steam-powered rotary presses allowed printing on an industrial scale, while Western-style printing was adopted all over the world, becoming the sole medium for modern bulk printing.

The use of movable type was a marked improvement on the handwritten manuscript, the existing method of book production in Europe, upon woodblock printing, revolutionized European book-making. Gutenberg's printing technology spread throughout Europe and the world, his major work, the Gutenberg Bible, was the first printed version of the Bible and has been acclaimed for its high aesthetic and technical quality. Gutenberg was born in the German city of Mainz, the youngest son of the patrician merchant Friele Gensfleisch zur Laden, his second wife, Else Wyrich, the daughter of a shopkeeper, it is assumed. According to some accounts, Friele was a goldsmith for the bishop at Mainz, but most he was involved in the cloth trade. Gutenberg's year of birth is not known, but it was sometime between the years of 1394 and 1404. In the 1890s the city of Mainz declared his official and symbolic date of birth to be June 24, 1400. John Lienhard, technology historian, says "Most of Gutenberg's early life is a mystery.

His father worked with the ecclesiastic mint. Gutenberg grew up knowing the trade of goldsmithing." This is supported by historian Heinrich Wallau, who adds, "In the 14th and 15th centuries his claimed a hereditary position as... retainers of the household of the master of the archiepiscopal mint. In this capacity they doubtless acquired considerable knowledge and technical skill in metal working, they supplied the mint with the metal to be coined, changed the various species of coins, had a seat at the assizes in forgery cases."Wallau adds, "His surname was derived from the house inhabited by his father and his paternal ancestors'zu Laden, zu Gutenberg'. The house of Gänsfleisch was one of the patrician families of the town, tracing its lineage back to the thirteenth century." Patricians in Mainz were named after houses they owned. Around 1427, the name zu Gutenberg, after the family house in Mainz, is documented to have been used for the first time. In 1411, there was an uprising in Mainz against the patricians, more than a hundred families were forced to leave.

As a result, the Gutenbergs are thought to have moved to Eltville am Rhein, where his mother had an inherited estate. According to historian Heinrich Wallau, "All, known of his youth is that he was not in Mainz in 1430, it is presumed that he migrated for political reasons to Strasbourg, where the family had connections." He is assumed to have studied at the University of Erfurt, where there is a record of the enrolment of a student called Johannes de Altavilla in 1418—Altavilla is the Latin form of Eltville am Rhein. Nothing is now known of Gutenberg's life for the next fifteen years, but in March 1434, a letter by him indicates that he was living in Strasbourg, where he had some relatives on his mother's side, he appears to have been a goldsmith member enrolled in the Strasbourg militia. In 1437, there is evidence that he was instructing a wealthy tradesman on polishing gems, but where he had acquired this knowledge is unknown. In 1436/37 his name comes up in court in connection with a broken promise of marriage to a woman from Strasbourg, Ennelin.

Whether the marriage took place is not recor

Internet censorship in France

There is medium internet censorship in France, including limited filtering of child pornography, laws against websites that promote terrorism or racial hatred, attempts to protect copyright. The "Freedom on the Net" report by Freedom House has listed France as a country with Internet freedom, its global ranking was 6 in 2013 and 12 in 2017. A sharp decline in its score, second only to Libya was noted in 2015 and attributed to "problematic policies adopted in the aftermath of the Charlie Hebdo terrorist attack, such as restrictions on content that could be seen as ‘apology for terrorism,’ prosecutions of users, increased surveillance." France continues to promote freedom of the press and speech online by allowing unfiltered access to most content, apart from limited filtering of child pornography and web sites that promote terrorism, or racial violence and hatred. The French government has undertaken numerous measures to protect the rights of Internet users, including the passage of the Loi pour la Confiance dans l’Économie Numérique in 2004.

However, the passage of a new copyright law threatening to ban users from the Internet upon their third violation has drawn much criticism from privacy advocates as well as the European Union parliament. In November 2010, France was classified by the OpenNet Initiative as showing no evidence of Internet filtering in any of the four areas monitored However, with the implementation of the "three-strikes" legislation and a law providing for the administrative filtering of the web and the defense of a "civilized" Internet, 2010 was a difficult year for Internet freedom in France; the offices of several online media firms and their journalists were targeted for break-ins and court summons and pressured to identify their sources. As a result, France has been added to Reporters Without Borders list of "Countries Under Surveillance"; as of 2013, controversial clauses within the HADOPI, LOPPSI 2, LCEN laws were provoking the ire of Internet advocates in the country over fears of disproportionate punishments for copyright violators, overreaching administrative censorship, threats to privacy.

However, Freedom House ranks France amongst the top 12 countries for Internet freedom. In 2000, French courts demanded Yahoo! Block Nazi material in the case LICRA vs. Yahoo. In 2001, a U. S. District Court Judge held that Yahoo cannot be forced to comply with French laws against the expression of pro-Nazi and anti-Semitic views, because doing so would violate its right to free expression under the First Amendment of the U. S. Constitution. In 2006, a U. S. Court of Appeals reversed the District Court, finding either a lack of jurisdiction or an inability to enforce its order in France and the U. S. Supreme Court refused to consider an appeal; the Hadopi law, enacted in 2009, allows disconnecting from the Internet users that have been caught illegally downloading copyrighted content, or failing to secure their system against such illegal downloads. The LOPPSI 2 law, brought before Parliament in 2009, will authorize a blacklist of sites providing child pornography, established by the Ministry of the Interior, which Internet service providers will have to block.

The Loppsi "Bill on direction and planning for the performance of domestic security" is a far-reaching security bill that seeks to modernise Internet laws, criminalising online identity theft, allowing police to tap Internet connections as well as phone lines during investigations and targeting child pornography by ordering ISPs to filter Internet connections. In 2010, French parliament opposed all the amendments seeking to minimise the use of filtering Internet sites; this move has stirred controversy throughout French society, as the Internet filtering intended to catch child pornographers could be extended to censor other material. Critics warn that filtering URLs will have no effect, as distributors of child pornography and other materials are using encrypted peer-to-peer systems to deliver their wares. In 2011 the Constitutional Council of France validated Article 4 of the LOPPSI 2 law, thereby allowing filtering the Internet without any justice decision; the filtered sites blacklist being under the control of an administrative authority depending directly from the Ministry of the Interior without any independent monitoring.

On 21 April 2011, the Hadopi announced they planned integrating a spyware called "securization software" in the French Internet Service Providers provided modem-routers with the explicit goal of tracking any communication including private correspondence and instant messengers exchanges. A June 2011 draft executive order implementing Article 18 of the Law for Trust in the Digital Economy would give several French government ministries the power to restrict online content "in case of violation, or where there is a serious risk of violation, of the maintenance of public order, the protection of minors, the protection of public health, the preservation of interests of the national defense, or the protection of physical persons." According to Félix Tréguer, a Policy and Legal Analyst for the digital rights advocacy group La Quadrature du Net, this is "a censorship power over the Internet, unrivaled in the democratic world." In response to criticism, on 23 June 2011 the minister for the Industry and the Digital economy, Éric Besson, announced that the Government would rewrite the order calling for a judge to review the legality of the content and the proportionality of the measures to be taken.

Any executive order has to be approved by the French Council of State, which will have to decide whether Internet censorship authorization

Ya! Ya! (1964 album)

Ya! Ya! is an album by saxophonist Budd Johnson, recorded in early 1964 and released on the Argo label. All compositions by Budd Johnson except. "Ya! Ya!" – 5:19 "Come Rain or Come Shine" – 4:09 "Big Al" – 2:00 "Exotique" – 4:08 "The Revolution" – 3:46 "Tag Along with Me" – 2:38 "Chloe" – 3:46 "When Hearts Are Young" – 4:10 "Where It's At" – 3:54 Budd Johnson – tenor saxophone Al Williamsorgan Richard Davis, George Duvivierbass Belton Evans – drums