John, King of England

John was King of England from 1199 until his death in 1216. He was the third king of the House of Plantagenet, he lost the Duchy of Normandy and most of his other French lands to King Philip II of France, resulting in the collapse of the Angevin Empire and contributing to the subsequent growth in power of the French Capetian dynasty during the 13th century. The baronial revolt at the end of John's reign led to the sealing of Magna Carta, a document sometimes considered an early step in the evolution of the constitution of the United Kingdom. John was the youngest of the four surviving sons of King Henry II of England and Duchess Eleanor of Aquitaine, he was nicknamed John Lackland. He became Henry's favourite child following the failed revolt of 1173–74 by his brothers Henry the Young King and Geoffrey against the King. John was given lands in England and on the continent; the war between Henry II and his eldest sons ended with the deaths of Henry the Young King and Geoffrey. John unsuccessfully attempted a rebellion against the royal administrators of his brother, King Richard, whilst Richard was participating in the Third Crusade, but he was proclaimed king after Richard died in 1199.

He came to an agreement with Philip II of France to recognise John's possession of the continental Angevin lands at the peace treaty of Le Goulet in 1200. When war with France broke out again in 1202, John achieved early victories, but shortages of military resources and his treatment of Norman and Anjou nobles resulted in the collapse of his empire in northern France in 1204, he spent much of the next decade attempting to regain these lands, raising huge revenues, reforming his armed forces and rebuilding continental alliances. His judicial reforms had a lasting effect on the English common law system, as well as providing an additional source of revenue. An argument with Pope Innocent III led to John's excommunication in 1209, a dispute he settled in 1213. John's attempt to defeat Philip in 1214 failed due to the French victory over John's allies at the battle of Bouvines; when he returned to England, John faced a rebellion by many of his barons, who were unhappy with his fiscal policies and his treatment of many of England's most powerful nobles.

Although both John and the barons agreed to the Magna Carta peace treaty in 1215, neither side complied with its conditions. Civil war broke out shortly afterwards, with the barons aided by Louis VIII of France, it soon descended into a stalemate. John died of dysentery contracted whilst on campaign in eastern England during late 1216. Contemporary chroniclers were critical of John's performance as king, his reign has since been the subject of significant debate and periodic revision by historians from the 16th century onwards. Historian Jim Bradbury has summarised the current historical opinion of John's positive qualities, observing that John is today considered a "hard-working administrator, an able man, an able general". Nonetheless, modern historians agree that he had many faults as king, including what historian Ralph Turner describes as "distasteful dangerous personality traits", such as pettiness and cruelty; these negative qualities provided extensive material for fiction writers in the Victorian era, John remains a recurring character within Western popular culture as a villain in films and stories depicting the Robin Hood legends.

John was born on 24 December 1166. His father, Henry II of England, had inherited significant territories along the Atlantic seaboard – Anjou and England – and expanded his empire by conquering Brittany. John's powerful mother Eleanor, Duchess of Aquitaine, had a tenuous claim to Toulouse and Auvergne in southern France, was the former wife of Louis VII of France; the territories of Henry and Eleanor formed the Angevin Empire, named after Henry's paternal title as Count of Anjou and, more its seat in Angers. The Empire, was inherently fragile: although all the lands owed allegiance to Henry, the disparate parts each had their own histories and governance structures; as one moved south through Anjou and Aquitaine, the extent of Henry's power in the provinces diminished scarcely resembling the modern concept of an empire at all. Some of the traditional ties between parts of the empire such as Normandy and England were dissolving over time, it was unclear. Although the custom of primogeniture, under which an eldest son would inherit all his father's lands, was becoming more widespread across Europe, it was less popular amongst the Norman kings of England.

Most believed that Henry would divide the empire, giving each son a substantial portion, hoping that his children would continue to work together as allies after his death. To complicate matters, much of the Angevin empire was held by Henry only as a vassal of the King of France of the rival line of the House of Capet. Henry had allied himself with the Holy Roman Emperor against France, making the feudal relationship more challenging. Shortly after his birth, John was passed from Eleanor into the care of a wet nurse, a traditional practice for medieval noble families. Eleanor left for Poitiers, the capital of Aquitaine, sent John and his sister Joan north to Fontevrault Abbey; this may have been done with the aim of steering her youngest son, with no obvious inheritance, towards a future ecclesiastical career. Eleanor spent the next few years conspiring against Henry and neither parent played a part i

PO Surjeet Singh

PO Surjeet Singh is an Indian professional kabaddi player playing for the Puneri Paltan in the VIVO Pro Kabaddi League. He plays in the Right Cover position, he specializes in dashing his opponents out of the mat. Pro Kabaddi career Surjeet Singh played for the Puneri Paltan in his first edition of VIVO Pro Kabaddi League, he had a tackle strike rate of 64% in his debut season and helped Puneri Paltan reach the semifinals of PKL for the first time. Surjeet played for the U Mumba in the fourth edition of VIVO Pro Kabaddi League, he had a tackle strike rate of 50.68% in the season. In 14 matches he scored 37 points. Surjeet played for the Bengal Warriors in Season 5 of VIVO Pro Kabaddi, he had a tackle strike rate of 52.05% in the season. Surjeet had 9 High Five, he was the captain of the Bengal Warriors side for the season. Surjeet was the part of Bengal Warriors in sixth season of VIVO Pro Kabaddi League, he scored 57 points in 23 matches with a tackle strike rate of 41.86%. VIVO Pro Kabaddi Champion 2016 Kabaddi World Cup winner Gold at 2017 Southeast Asian Games Gold at 2017 Asian Beach Games


Bookboon is an online publishing company of eBooks. It is focused on publishing student literature for engineering, IT and business students as well as short and practical business books. Bookboon was founded in Denmark in 1988 under the name Ventus, is based in Copenhagen and London, United Kingdom. Bookboon's over 900 academic textbooks available to students on their website are written by academics and are financed by employer branding ads which are placed in the books and which allows them to be downloaded for free; the subjects covered by Bookboon's student textbooks include economics, engineering, IT and the natural sciences, while its professional eBooks focus on topics including personal development, management and computer software skills. Aside from Bookboon Premium, 2014 was the year Bookboon launched its Corporate eLibrary, an internal learning solution for companies; the company started. At that time, Ventus focused on publishing student textbooks written by an in-house staff and freelancers.

The owners of Ventus had two sons named Kristian Buus Madsen. In 2005, the two brothers launched Bookboon. Soon after, while the brothers were working on the launch of Metro, a free Swedish newspaper, they developed an innovative business model: free digital books financed by a few in-book ads, with a limit of 15% advertising space per book; the advertisers were to be companies looking to promote their career opportunities towards students and professionals. Bookboon focused on free academic textbooks and business eBooks for the Danish market. In 2006, the company expanded to Sweden, followed by Germany and the Netherlands in 2007. In 2008, Bookboon started publishing eBooks in English. In 2011, Bookboon was featured in BBC News' Webscape segment technology show Click presented by Kate Russell,In 2012, The Guardian's Higher Education Network published an article entitled "Academic publishing: The essential checklist for ebook authors", mentioning Bookboon. Bookboon was featured in an article by the German newspaper Die Zeit.

In 2015, Bookboon was featured in newspapers such as the German Handelsblatt and one of its Swedish books was mentioned in the Swedish Metro. In 2016, Bookboon expanded its market to African countries in terms of employer branding; this was reported by the Danish newspaper, the German channel Deutsche Welle as well as CNBC South Africa