Windsor Locks, Connecticut
Windsor Locks is a town in Hartford County, United States. As of the 2010 census, its population was 12,498, it is the site of Bradley International Airport, which serves the Greater Hartford-Springfield region and occupies 1/3 of the town. Windsor Locks is the site of the New England Air Museum. Located beside the Connecticut River and equidistant from the densely populated cities of Springfield and Hartford, Windsor Locks is named for a set of canal locks that opened in 1829. Windsor Locks is situated just south of the first large falls in the Connecticut River, the Enfield Falls, the northernmost point that seagoing vessels can reach on the Connecticut River before transferring to smaller ships; the Enfield Falls Canal circumvents its nearby shallows. Part of Windsor, Windsor Locks broke off into its own settlement in 1854 after the thriving Enfield Locks going around Enfield Falls which opened in 1829; the Bradley International Airport opened as a military base in 1940, opened to civilian use in 1947.
In 1967 the town boundary was somewhat altered due to the opening of the Bradley Connector. The town boundary between Windsor Locks and Windsor changed several times and was altered with Windsor Locks being on the westbound side and the Windsor side on the eastbound side with the border on the median; the 1965 Little League World Series winning team is from Windsor Locks. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 9.4 square miles, of which 9.0 square miles is land and 0.35 square miles, or 3.65%, is water. Windsor Locks has a humid subtropical climate with hot and humid summer days to cold sometimes frigid winter nights. Average January temperature high is 36 °F and a low of 18 °F temps can reach zero degrees or below 4 nights a year. Summer in Windsor Locks can be hot with the average July temperature of 87 °F at daytime and 63 °F at nighttime. Temperatures at or above 90 can occur 15 to 25 days per year; the hottest temperature at Windsor Locks was 103 °F on July 22, 2011, the coldest recorded temperature was -26 °F on January 22, 1961.
Average rainfall in Windsor Locks is 46.27 inches. As of the census of 2000, there are 12,043 people, 4,935 households, 3,306 families residing in the town; the population density is 1,333.8 inhabitants per square mile. There are 5,101 housing units at an average density of 218.1 persons/km². The racial makeup of the town is 92.47% White, 2.67% African American, 0.12% Native American, 2.57% Asian, 0.00% Pacific Islander, 0.75% from other races, 1.42% from two or more races. 2.22% of the population are Hispanic or Latino of any race. There are 4,935 households out of which 29.3% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.9% are married couples living together, 11.7% have a woman whose husband does not live with her, 33.0% are non-families. 27.0% of all households are made up of individuals and 11.3% have someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size is 2.43 and the average family size is 2.97. In the town, the population is spread out with 23.7% under the age of 18, 6.2% from 18 to 24, 31.2% from 25 to 44, 22.5% from 45 to 64, 16.5% who are 65 years of age or older.
The median age is 39 years. For every 100 females, there are 94.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 92.1 males. The median income for a household in the town is $48,837, the median income for a family is $59,054. Males have a median income of $41,179 versus $33,641 for females; the per capita income for the town is $23,079. 4.4% of the population and 3.3% of families are below the poverty line. Out of the total people living in poverty, 4.5% are under the age of 18 and 4.7% are 65 or older. Until 2000, Windsor Locks was home to the oldest corporation listed on the New York Stock Exchange, the Dexter Corporation. Established in 1767 as C. H. Dexter and Sons, the company grew from a family-owned saw and grist mill and evolved into a multi-national producer of long fiber papers and chemical laminates. In its 233 years of operation, the company grew from manufacturing tissues, toilet paper, tea bags to marketing more specialized products like medical garments and industrial finishes.
Faced with a proposed buyout by International Specialty Products Incorporated in 2000, the Dexter Corporation separated its three divisions and sold them off to avoid a hostile takeover. The Life Sciences division merged with Invitrogen Corporation; the Specialty Polymers division was sold in part to AkzoNobel, the remaining businesses merged with Loctite Corporation. The third division, Dexter Nonwoven Materials, located on the company's original site in Windsor Locks, was sold to the Finnish Ahlstrom Paper Group; the physical plant continues to operate, with offices located nearby at 2 Elm Street. In 2011, the Home and Personal Nonwovens division of Ahlstrom Windsor Locks was sold to Suominen Corporation headquartered in Finland. In 1952 Hamilton Standard opened its aircraft propeller plant in Windsor Locks. In 1999, Hamilton Standard merged with Sundstrand Corporation to become Hamilton Sundstrand, headquartered in Windsor Locks. Hamilton Sundstrand is now UTC Aerospace. On 19 September 2008, the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston ceased operations at Windsor Locks and moved them to the Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia.
Primary and secondary education falls under the oversight of "Windsor Locks Public Schools". The following places are in the National Register of Historic Places: Dave Pinney House and Barn — 58 West St. Enfield Falls Canal — along Connecticut River from Windsor Locks north to Suffiel
Paktia is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, located in the east of the country. Forming part of the larger Loya Paktia region, Paktia Province is divided into thirteen districts and has a population of 525,000, a tribal society living in rural areas. Pashtuns make up the majority of the population but smaller number of Tajiks are found. Gardez is the provincial capital, while district is Zurmat. Paktia used to be a unified province with Khost and Paktika, these three provinces are now referred to as Loya Paktia, meaning "Greater Paktia". Paktia came to prominence during the 1980s, when a significant portion of Afghanistan's leadership originated from the province; some of the more notable leaders include: Najibullah Ahmadzai, a former President of Afghanistan, Mohammad Aslam Watanjar, Shahnawaz Tanai, Sayed Muhammad Gulabzoi. Between 7–8 January, 1988, in Paktia Province, near the Pakistani-Afghan border the Battle for Hill 3234 took place, a successful defensive action fought by the 345th Independent Guards Airborne Regiment, 39 Soviet Airborne Troops, in Soviet occupied Afghanistan against a force of up to 200 to 250 Mujahideen rebels.
Soviet commanders wanted to secure the entire section of the road from Gardez to Khost. One of the most important points was the nameless hill designated Hill 3234 by its height of 3234m, assigned to the 9th company of the 345th Independent Guards Airborne Regiment led by Colonel Valery Vostrotin; the 39-man company landed on the hilltop on January 7, 1988, tasked with creating and holding a hilltop strong point from which to observe and control a long section of the road beneath and thus secure it for the safe passage of convoys. Shortly after landing, the airborne troopers, who were well trained and experienced in Afghan conditions, started to take up positions which covered both the road and the uphill passages. Just as they had dug in, the mujahideen began their attack at 1530 hrs. First they fired with all possible weapons including recoilless guns and RPG. After a few salvos, Soviet artillery replied and silenced some of the mujahideen's guns, with the commander of the first platoon, Lt. Viktor Gagarin, directing fire via a radio.
When rebel fire slackened, it was clear. The airborne troopers were attacked by a coordinated and well-armed force of between 200 and 250 mujahideen. Attacks were made from two directions, indicating that the assailants may have been assisted by rebels trained in Pakistan by American agents. During the ensuing battle, the Soviet unit was in constant communication with headquarters and received everything the leadership of 40th Army had to offer in terms of artillery support, ammunition and helicopter evacuation of the wounded; the exhausted and wounded Soviets were nearly out of ammunition but continued to occupy the hill until the last convoy passed through the road below. The Soviet forces sustained low casualties, with 6 men out of 39 killed and 28 injured. Two of the soldiers killed, Vyacheslav Alexandrovich Alexandrov and Andrey Alexandrovich Melnikov, were posthumously awarded the golden star of the Hero of the Soviet Union. All of the paratroopers in this battle were given the Order of the Red Banner and Order of the Red Star.
According to the Soviet estimates, the Mujahideen lost over 200+ men. The Mujahideen wore black uniforms with rectangular black-yellow-red stripes. After the fall of the Taliban government, Paktia was one of the most chaotic regions in the country, as a small civil war broke out between rival militia commanders for control of the province, Taliban and al-Qaeda fighters gave occupying U. S. troops some of their heaviest losses in the cave complexes south of Gardez. Paktia was the site of heavy fighting between Taliban insurgents and ISAF-backed Afghan National Security Forces. Paktia was one of the last redoubts of organized Taliban resistance. February 2003, the 1st Provincial Reconstruction Team in Gardez commenced with the objective of providing funding for local Afghan projects concurrent to a reinforce security presence in overwatch; the PRT Gardez composition includes a reinforced platoon from the 504th 82nd ABN along with US Army Civil Military Affairs contingent plus Special Forces. In March 2003, USAID and State Department representatives joined the 1st Provincial Reconstruction Team in Gardez.
In September 2006, Governor Hakim Taniwal was killed by a Taliban suicide bomber as he left his office in Gardez. At the time, Taniwal was the highest-ranking post-Taliban official to be killed by insurgent forces in the country. On February 12, 2010, five civilians including two pregnant women and a teenage girl were killed by U. S. special forces during the Khataba raid. U. S. special forces were accused of attempting to cover up the incident. Head of Joint Special Operations Command, U. S. Vice Admiral William McRaven stated that the deaths were a "terrible mistake", offered an apology, accepted responsibility for the deaths and made a traditional Afghan condolence offering of sheep. After some early unrest a long period of relative calm followed, despite the occasional high-profile incident such as the 2006 assassination of the governor, by a suicide bomber. There was a rise in violent incidents when the pullout of Americans troops neared in 2014. Parts of Paktia are believed to be a safe haven for militants from the Haqqani network, an anti-government combat organisation involved in the Taliban insurgency.
The current governor of the province is Maj Gen Zalmai Weesa. His predecessor was Nasratullah Arsala; the city of Gardez serves as the capital of the province. All law enforcement a
Air Force Cross (United States)
The Air Force Cross is the second highest military award that can be given to a member of the United States Air Force. The Air Force Cross is the Air Force decoration equivalent to the Distinguished Service Cross, the Navy Cross, the Coast Guard Cross; the Air Force Cross is awarded for extraordinary heroism not justifying the award of the Medal of Honor. It may be awarded to any individual who, while serving in any capacity with the U. S. Air Force, herself by extraordinary heroism in combat. Entitled the "Distinguished Service Cross", the Air Force Cross was first proposed in 1947 after the creation of the United States Air Force as a separate armed service; the medal was designed by Eleanor Cox, an employee of the Air Force, was sculpted by Thomas Hudson Jones of the Institute of Heraldry. The Air Force Cross was established by Congress in Public Law 88-593 on July 6, 1960, amending Section 8742 of Title 10, U. S. Code to change the designation of "Distinguished Service Cross" to "Air Force Cross" in case of awards made under Air Force Authority.
Additional awards of the Air Force Cross are annotated by oak leaf clusters, the reverse of every Air Force Cross is engraved with the recipient's name. Title 10, Section 8742. Air Force Cross: Award "The President may award an Air Force Cross of appropriate design, with ribbons and appurtenances, to a person who, while serving in any capacity with the Air Force, distinguishes himself by extraordinary heroism not justifying the award of a Medal of Honor: while engaged in an action against an enemy of the United States; the Air Force Cross consists of a bronze cross with an oxidized satin finish. Centered on the obverse of the cross is a gold-plated American bald eagle, wings displayed against a cloud formation; this design is encircled by a laurel wreath in green enamel, edged in gold. The reverse of the cross is suitable for engraving; the service ribbon has a wide center stripe of Brittany blue with narrow stripes of white and red at the edges. The ribbon is identical to that of the Distinguished Service Cross, except for the lighter blue center stripe, indicating the close connection of these awards.
The first award of that Air Force Cross was made posthumously to Major Rudolf Anderson, a U-2 pilot, for extraordinary heroism during the Cuban Missile Crisis. As of October 2017, there have been 202 awards of the Air Force Cross to 197 individuals. One award, the first made, was for actions in the Cuban Missile Crisis. Three were retroactively awarded for actions in World War II. One hundred eighty were awarded for heroism in the Vietnam War, four for heroism during the 1975 Mayagüez Incident following. Two were awarded for the 1991 Gulf War. One was awarded to combat controller Zachary Rhyner for actions in the Shok Valley, Afghanistan on April 6, 2008. Another was awarded to USAF Pararescueman MSgt Ivan Ruiz for heroism in Kandahar Province, Dec. 10, 2013. On October 17, 2017, the Air Force Cross was awarded to Staff Sergeant Richard Hunter, for actions against the Taliban in Kunduz province Afghanistan on November 2, 2016. Fifty awards have been posthumous, including 30 to members missing in action.
Twenty-four have been awarded including 12 Pararescuemen. Seventeen graduates of the United States Air Force Academy have been presented the award, 13 were awarded for conduct while a prisoner of war. There have been four multiple recipients: James H. Kasler John A. Dramesi Leland T. Kennedy Robinson Risner Maj Rudolf Anderson, Jr.: First recipient, posthumously awarded for valor during the Cuban Missile Crisis. Gen Charles G. Boyd, POW for 7 years and the only Vietnam-era POW to reach the four-star rank. Lt Col Charlie L. Brown: One of the three recipients of the award for actions during World War II, while serving with the United States Army Air Forces, the predecessor of USAF. MSgt John A. Chapman, awarded posthumously for heroism in the Battle of Takur Ghar, during the War in Afghanistan. Upgraded to the Medal of Honor. Col George E. "Bud" Day: Medal of Honor recipient and Vietnam War POW Capt Charles B. "Chuck" DeBellevue: F-4 weapon systems officer ace, credited with six MiG kills, the most of any U.
S. aviator during the Vietnam War. Maj Urban L. Drew: One of the three recipients of the award for actions during World War II, while serving with the United States Army Air Forces, the predecessor of USAF. CMSgt Richard Etchberger: USAF Airman who died in the Battle of Lima Site 85. Award upgraded to Medal of Honor. A2C Duane D. Hackney: Pararescueman decorated for valor in Vietnam. Maj Gen Paul Johnson: an A-10 pilot during the Gulf War, helped rescue a downed pilot behind enemy lines. Lt Col James H. Kasler: Vietnam War fighter pilot and POW. Capt Leland T. Kennedy: Vietnam War rescue helicopter pilot. Brig Gen Robin Olds: World War II and Vietnam War fighter pilot, triple ace. Col Ralph Parr: Korean War fighter ace a recipient of the Distinguished Service Cross. A1C William H. Pitsenbarger: Pararescueman and the f
United States Navy
The United States Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. It is the largest and most capable navy in the world and it has been estimated that in terms of tonnage of its active battle fleet alone, it is larger than the next 13 navies combined, which includes 11 U. S. allies or partner nations. With the highest combined battle fleet tonnage and the world's largest aircraft carrier fleet, with eleven in service, two new carriers under construction. With 319,421 personnel on active duty and 99,616 in the Ready Reserve, the Navy is the third largest of the service branches, it has 282 deployable combat vessels and more than 3,700 operational aircraft as of March 2018, making it the second-largest air force in the world, after the United States Air Force. The U. S. Navy traces its origins to the Continental Navy, established during the American Revolutionary War and was disbanded as a separate entity shortly thereafter.
The U. S. Navy played a major role in the American Civil War by blockading the Confederacy and seizing control of its rivers, it played the central role in the World War II defeat of Imperial Japan. The US Navy emerged from World War II as the most powerful navy in the world; the 21st century U. S. Navy maintains a sizable global presence, deploying in strength in such areas as the Western Pacific, the Mediterranean, the Indian Ocean, it is a blue-water navy with the ability to project force onto the littoral regions of the world, engage in forward deployments during peacetime and respond to regional crises, making it a frequent actor in U. S. foreign and military policy. The Navy is administratively managed by the Department of the Navy, headed by the civilian Secretary of the Navy; the Department of the Navy is itself a division of the Department of Defense, headed by the Secretary of Defense. The Chief of Naval Operations is the most senior naval officer serving in the Department of the Navy.
The mission of the Navy is to maintain and equip combat-ready Naval forces capable of winning wars, deterring aggression and maintaining freedom of the seas. The U. S. Navy is a seaborne branch of the military of the United States; the Navy's three primary areas of responsibility: The preparation of naval forces necessary for the effective prosecution of war. The maintenance of naval aviation, including land-based naval aviation, air transport essential for naval operations, all air weapons and air techniques involved in the operations and activities of the Navy; the development of aircraft, tactics, technique and equipment of naval combat and service elements. U. S. Navy training manuals state that the mission of the U. S. Armed Forces is "to be prepared to conduct prompt and sustained combat operations in support of the national interest." As part of that establishment, the U. S. Navy's functions comprise sea control, power projection and nuclear deterrence, in addition to "sealift" duties, it follows as certain as that night succeeds the day, that without a decisive naval force we can do nothing definitive, with it, everything honorable and glorious.
Naval power... is the natural defense of the United States The Navy was rooted in the colonial seafaring tradition, which produced a large community of sailors and shipbuilders. In the early stages of the American Revolutionary War, Massachusetts had its own Massachusetts Naval Militia; the rationale for establishing a national navy was debated in the Second Continental Congress. Supporters argued that a navy would protect shipping, defend the coast, make it easier to seek out support from foreign countries. Detractors countered that challenging the British Royal Navy the world's preeminent naval power, was a foolish undertaking. Commander in Chief George Washington resolved the debate when he commissioned the ocean-going schooner USS Hannah to interdict British merchant ships and reported the captures to the Congress. On 13 October 1775, the Continental Congress authorized the purchase of two vessels to be armed for a cruise against British merchant ships. S. Navy; the Continental Navy achieved mixed results.
In August 1785, after the Revolutionary War had drawn to a close, Congress had sold Alliance, the last ship remaining in the Continental Navy due to a lack of funds to maintain the ship or support a navy. In 1972, the Chief of Naval Operations, Admiral Elmo Zumwalt, authorized the Navy to celebrate its birthday on 13 October to honor the establishment of the Continental Navy in 1775; the United States was without a navy for nearly a decade, a state of affairs that exposed U. S. maritime merchant ships to a series of attacks by the Barbary pirates. The sole armed maritime presence between 1790 and the launching of the U. S. Navy's first warships in 1797 was the U. S. Revenue-Marine, the primary predecessor of the U. S. Coast Guard. Although the USRCS conducted operations against the pirates, their depredations far outstripped its abilities and Congress passed the Naval Act of 1794 that established a permanent standing navy on 27 March 1794; the Naval Act ordered the construction and manning of six frigates and, by October 1797, the first three were brought into service: USS United States, USS Constellation, USS Constitution.
Due to his strong posture on having a strong standing Navy during this period, John Adams is "often called the father of the American Navy". In 1798–99 the Navy was involved in an undeclared Quasi-War with France. From 18
United States Air Force Combat Control Team
United States Air Force Combat Control Teams, singular Combat Controller, are American special operations forces who specialize in all aspects of air-ground communication, including air traffic control, fire support, command and communications in covert, forward, or austere environments. Assigned to Special Tactics Squadrons and Special Tactics Teams along with Pararescuemen, Special Operations Weather Technicians, Tactical Air Control Party operators, Combat Controllers are an integral part of Air Force Special Operations Command, the Air Force component of United States Special Operations Command, of Joint Special Operations Command. Trained in underwater and maritime operations, freefall parachuting, many other deployment methods, Combat Controllers are assigned individually or as a team to Army Special Forces, Army Ranger, Navy SEAL, Delta Force teams to provide expert airfield seizure, airstrike control, communications capabilities. Combat Controllers are FAA-certified air traffic controllers and maintain proficiency throughout their career.
Along with TACPs, many Combat Controllers qualify and maintain proficiency as joint terminal attack controllers where they call in and direct air strikes, close air support and fire support. Out of the seven Air Force Crosses awarded since the Global War on Terror started in 2001, five have been awarded to Combat Controllers for extraordinary heroism in combat. CCT Motto: "First There", which reaffirms the Combat Controller's commitment to undertaking the most dangerous missions behind enemy lines by leading the way for other forces to follow. Air Force Special Operations Command's Combat Controllers are battlefield airmen assigned to special tactics squadrons, they are trained special operations forces and certified Federal Aviation Administration air traffic controllers. The mission of a Combat Controller is to deploy undetected into combat and hostile environments to conduct special reconnaissance, establish assault zones or airfields, while conducting air traffic control, fire support, command and communications and forward air control.
They deploy with air and ground forces in support of direct action, such as counter-terrorism, foreign internal defense, humanitarian assistance, combat search and rescue. Combat Controllers employ all-terrain vehicles, amphibious vehicles and demolitions in pursuit of their objectives, which may include obstacle destruction. Combat Controller training, nearly two years long, is among the most rigorous in the US military; the CCT pipeline has a wash out rate upwards of 90–95% due to self-eliminations, injuries sustained during training, academic failures. The Air Force is working to lower the washout rate through proper education and rigorous pre-pipeline training. Combat Controllers maintain air traffic controller qualification skills throughout their career in addition to other special operations skills. Many maintain proficiency as joint terminal attack controllers, their 35-week initial training and unique mission skills earn them the right to wear the scarlet beret and their 3 skill level.
From that point they attend a 12–15-month advanced skill training course to obtain their 5 skill level. Once they complete AST their training pipeline is finished and they are mission-ready Combat Controllers; the first course Combat Controller trainees attend after the 8.5-week Basic Military Training is the two-week-long Combat Control Selection Course at Lackland Air Force Base, Texas. The selection course focuses on sports physiology, basic exercises, combat control history and fundamentals; the second course in the CCT pipeline is the Combat Control Operator Course located at Keesler Air Force Base, Mississippi. The Operator course is 15.5 weeks long. The Operator course teaches aircraft recognition and performance, air navigation aids, airport traffic control, flight assistance service, communication procedures, conventional approach control, radar procedures and air traffic rules. After the Operator course the trainee attends the Army Airborne School at Georgia. In the three-week course the trainees learn basic parachuting skills required to infiltrate an objective area by static line airdrop.
The next course after Airborne School is the Air Force Basic Survival School located at Fairchild Air Force Base, Washington. SERE School lasts three weeks; the course teaches techniques for survival in remote areas. Instruction includes principles, procedures and techniques that enable individuals to survive, regardless of climatic conditions or unfriendly environments, return alive; the last course in the Combat Control pipeline is the Combat Control School located at Pope Field, North Carolina. The CCT School is thirteen weeks long and it provides the final Combat Controller qualifications; the training includes physical training, small unit tactics, land navigation, assault zones, fire support and field operations including parachuting. Graduates of Combat Control school are awarded their 3-skill level on their Air Force Specialty Code, scarlet beret and CCT flash; the Benini Heritage Center Fund Raising effort supports education and training at the Combat Control School. After the Combat Controller gains their three level they attend Special Tactics Advanced Skills Training for 12 to 15 months as part of the Special Tactics Training Squadron located at Hurlburt Field, Florida.
Advanced Skills Training is a program for newly assigned Combat Controllers and Special Operations Weather Technicians. AST produ
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Colorado is a state of the Western United States encompassing most of the southern Rocky Mountains as well as the northeastern portion of the Colorado Plateau and the western edge of the Great Plains. It is the 8th most extensive and 21st most populous U. S. state. The estimated population of Colorado was 5,695,564 on July 1, 2018, an increase of 13.25% since the 2010 United States Census. The state was named for the Colorado River, which early Spanish explorers named the Río Colorado for the ruddy silt the river carried from the mountains; the Territory of Colorado was organized on February 28, 1861, on August 1, 1876, U. S. President Ulysses S. Grant signed Proclamation 230 admitting Colorado to the Union as the 38th state. Colorado is nicknamed the "Centennial State" because it became a state one century after the signing of the United States Declaration of Independence. Colorado is bordered by Wyoming to the north, Nebraska to the northeast, Kansas to the east, Oklahoma to the southeast, New Mexico to the south, Utah to the west, touches Arizona to the southwest at the Four Corners.
Colorado is noted for its vivid landscape of mountains, high plains, canyons, plateaus and desert lands. Colorado is part of the western and southwestern United States, is one of the Mountain States. Denver is most populous city of Colorado. Residents of the state are known as Coloradans, although the antiquated term "Coloradoan" is used. Colorado is notable for its diverse geography, which includes alpine mountains, high plains, deserts with huge sand dunes, deep canyons. In 1861, the United States Congress defined the boundaries of the new Territory of Colorado by lines of latitude and longitude, stretching from 37°N to 41°N latitude, from 102°02'48"W to 109°02'48"W longitude. After 158 years of government surveys, the borders of Colorado are now defined by 697 boundary markers and 697 straight boundary lines. Colorado and Utah are the only states that have their borders defined by straight boundary lines with no natural features; the southwest corner of Colorado is the Four Corners Monument at 36°59'56"N, 109°2'43"W.
This is the only place in the United States where four states meet: Colorado, New Mexico and Utah. The summit of Mount Elbert at 14,440 feet elevation in Lake County is the highest point in Colorado and the Rocky Mountains of North America. Colorado is the only U. S. state that lies above 1,000 meters elevation. The point where the Arikaree River flows out of Yuma County and into Cheyenne County, Kansas, is the lowest point in Colorado at 3,317 feet elevation; this point, which holds the distinction of being the highest low elevation point of any state, is higher than the high elevation points of 18 states and the District of Columbia. A little less than half of Colorado is flat and rolling land. East of the Rocky Mountains are the Colorado Eastern Plains of the High Plains, the section of the Great Plains within Nebraska at elevations ranging from 3,350 to 7,500 feet; the Colorado plains are prairies but include deciduous forests and canyons. Precipitation averages 15 to 25 inches annually. Eastern Colorado is presently farmland and rangeland, along with small farming villages and towns.
Corn, hay and oats are all typical crops. Most villages and towns in this region boast both a grain elevator. Irrigation water is available from subterranean sources. Surface water sources include the South Platte, the Arkansas River, a few other streams. Subterranean water is accessed through artesian wells. Heavy use of wells for irrigation caused underground water reserves to decline. Eastern Colorado hosts considerable livestock, such as hog farms. 70% of Colorado's population resides along the eastern edge of the Rocky Mountains in the Front Range Urban Corridor between Cheyenne and Pueblo, Colorado. This region is protected from prevailing storms that blow in from the Pacific Ocean region by the high Rockies in the middle of Colorado; the "Front Range" includes Denver, Fort Collins, Castle Rock, Colorado Springs, Pueblo and other townships and municipalities in between. On the other side of the Rockies, the significant population centers in Western Colorado are the cities of Grand Junction and Montrose.
The Continental Divide of the Americas extends along the crest of the Rocky Mountains. The area of Colorado to the west of the Continental Divide is called the Western Slope of Colorado. West of the Continental Divide, water flows to the southwest via the Colorado River and the Green River into the Gulf of California. Within the interior of the Rocky Mountains are several large parks which are high broad basins. In the north, on the east side of the Continental Divide is the North Park of Colorado; the North Park is drained by the North Platte River, which flows north into Nebraska. Just to the south of North Park, but on the western side of the Continental Divide, is the Middle Park of Colorado, drained by the Colorado River; the South Park of Colorado is the region of the headwaters of the South Platte River. In southmost Colorado is the large San Luis Valley, where the headwaters of the Rio Grande are located; the valley sits between the Sangre De Cristo Mountains and San Juan Mountains, consists of large desert lands that run into the mountains.
The Rio Grande drains due south into New Mexico and Texas. Across the Sangre de Cristo Range to the east of the S