United States Naval Academy
The United States Naval Academy is a four-year coeducational federal service academy adjacent to Annapolis, Maryland. Established on 10 October 1845, under Secretary of the Navy George Bancroft, it is the second oldest of the United States' five service academies, educates officers for commissioning into the United States Navy and United States Marine Corps; the 338-acre campus is located on the former grounds of Fort Severn at the confluence of the Severn River and Chesapeake Bay in Anne Arundel County, 33 miles east of Washington, D. C. and 26 miles southeast of Baltimore. The entire campus is a National Historic Landmark and home to many historic sites and monuments, it replaced Philadelphia Naval Asylum, in Philadelphia, that served as the first United States Naval Academy from 1838 to 1845 when the Naval Academy formed in Annapolis. Candidates for admission must both apply directly to the academy and receive a nomination from a Member of Congress. Students are referred to as midshipmen. Tuition for midshipmen is funded by the Navy in exchange for an active duty service obligation upon graduation.
1,200 "plebes" enter the Academy each summer for the rigorous Plebe Summer. About 1,000 midshipmen graduate. Graduates are commissioned as ensigns in the Navy or second lieutenants in the Marine Corps, but a small number can be cross-commissioned as officers in other U. S. services, the services of allied nations. The United States Naval Academy has some of the highest paid graduates in the country according to starting salary; the academic program grants a bachelor of science degree with a curriculum that grades midshipmen's performance upon a broad academic program, military leadership performance, mandatory participation in competitive athletics. Midshipmen are required to adhere to the academy's Honor Concept; the United States Naval Academy's campus is located in unincorporated Anne Arundel County, adjacent to Annapolis, at the confluence of the Severn River and the Chesapeake Bay. In its 2016 edition, U. S. News & World Report ranked the U. S. Naval Academy as the No. 1 public liberal arts college and tied for the 12th best overall liberal arts college in the U.
S. In the category of High School Counselor Rankings of National Liberal Arts Colleges, the Naval Academy is tied for No. 1 with the U. S. Military Academy and the U. S. Air Force Academy, is tied for the No. 5 spot for Best Undergraduate Engineering program at schools where doctorates not offered. In 2016, Forbes ranked the U. S. Naval Academy as No. 24 overall in its report "America's Top Colleges". Prospective candidates must either be nominated by certain public officials—or be the child of a Medal of Honor recipient, which entitles a qualified candidate to automatic admission without nomination. Nominations may be made by members of and delegates to Congress, the President or Vice-President, the Secretary of the Navy or certain other sources. Candidates must pass a physical fitness test and a thorough medical exam as part of the application process; the class of 2020 had 1,355 offers of appointment made to 17,043 applicants. In the 21st century, there have been about 1,200 students in each new class of plebes.
The U. S. government pays for tuition and board. Midshipmen receive monthly pay of $1,017.00, as of 2015. From this amount, pay is automatically deducted for the cost of uniforms, supplies and other miscellaneous expenses. Midshipmen only receive a portion of their total pay in cash while the rest is released during "firstie" year. Midshipmen fourth-class to midshipmen second-class receive monthly stipends of $100, $200, $300, respectively. Midshipmen first-class receive the difference between pay and outstanding expenses. Students at the naval academy are addressed as an official military rank and paygrade; as midshipmen are in the United States Navy, starting from the moment that they raise their hands and affirm the oath of office at the swearing-in ceremony, they are subject to the Uniform Code of Military Justice, of which USNA regulations are a part, as well as to all executive policies and orders formulated by the Department of the Navy. The same term covers both females. Upon graduation, most naval academy midshipmen are commissioned as ensigns in the Navy or second lieutenants in the Marine Corps and serve a minimum of five years after their commissioning.
If they are selected to serve as a pilot, they will serve 8–11 years minimum from their date of winging, if they are selected to serve as a naval flight officer they will serve 6–8 years. Foreign midshipmen are commissioned into the armed forces of their native countries; the most recent graduating class, that of 2017, inducted 1,200 midshipmen in 2013 and graduated 1,053 in 2017. 768 were commissioned as 259 as Marine 2nd Lieutenants. This graduating class was composed of 242 women and 811 men Since 1959, midshipmen have been eligible for an interservice commission in the Air Force or Army, provided they meet that service's eligibility standards. Starting in 2004, midshipmen became eligible to seek Coast Guard commissions; every year, a small number of graduates do this -- four. In 2017, two members of the class were commissioned as Air Force 2nd Lieutenants. A small number of foreign students are admitted each year. In 2017, 17 foreign midshipmen were graduated. At the beginning of their second-class year, midshipmen make their commitment known as signing their "2-for-7."
This represents a commitment to f
USS Monitor was an iron-hulled steamship. Built during the American Civil War, she was the first ironclad warship commissioned by the Union Navy. Monitor is most famous for her central role in the Battle of Hampton Roads harbor on 9 March 1862, under the command of Lieutenant John L. Worden U. S. N, she fought the casemate ironclad CSS Virginia to a standstill. The unique design of the ship, distinguished by its revolving turret, designed by American inventor Theodore Timby, was duplicated and established the monitor class and type of armored steam-powered warship built for the American Navy in the next several decades; the remainder of the ship was designed by the Swedish-born engineer and inventor John Ericsson, hurriedly built in Brooklyn, New York on the East River beginning in the first year of the conflict in late 1861 in only 101 days. U. S. S. Monitor presented a new concept in ship design and employed a variety of new inventions and innovations in ship building that caught the attention of the world.
The impetus to build Monitor was prompted by the news that the Confederates were building a iron plated armored vessel of an ironclad warship, named the C. S. S. Virginia, in the old Federal naval shipyard at Gosport, near Norfolk, that could engage the Union ships blockading Hampton Roads harbor and the James River leading northwest to Richmond, advance on Washington, D. C. up the Potomac River and other seacoast cities unchallenged. Before Monitor could reach Hampton Roads, the Confederate ironclad had destroyed the sail frigates USS Cumberland and USS Congress and had run the steam frigate USS Minnesota aground; that night Monitor arrived and the following morning, just as Virginia set to finish off Minnesota and St. Lawrence on the second day, the new Union ironclad confronted the Confederate ship, preventing her from wreaking further destruction on the wooden Union sailing ships. A four-hour battle ensued, both ships pounding the other with close-range cannon fire, although neither ship could destroy or damage the other.
This was the first-ever battle fought between two armored warships and marked a turning point in world naval warfare. After the Confederates were forced to scuttle and destroy Virginia as they withdrew in early May 1862 from Norfolk and its naval shipyard, Monitor sailed up the James River to support the Union Army during the Peninsula Campaign under General-in-Chief George B. McClellan The ship participated in the Battle of Drewry's Bluff that month and remained in the area giving support to General McClellan's forces on land until she was ordered to join the Union Navy blockaders off North Carolina in December. On her way there she foundered while under tow, during a storm off Cape Hatteras on the last day of the year. Monitor's wreck was discovered in 1973 and has been salvaged, her guns, gun turret and other relics are on display at the Mariners' Museum in Newport News, just a mile from the site of it's most important military action. While the concept of ships protected by armor existed before the advent of the ironclad Monitor, the need for iron plating on ships only arose after the shell-firing cannon was introduced to naval warfare in the 1820s.
The use of heavy iron plating on the sides of warships was not practical until steam propulsion matured enough to carry its great weight. Developments in gun technology had progressed by the 1840s so that no practical thickness of wood could withstand the power of a shell. In response, the United States began construction in 1854 of a steam-powered ironclad warship, Stevens Battery, but work was delayed and the designer, Robert Stevens, died in 1856, stalling further work. Since there was no pressing need for such a ship at the time, there was little demand to continue work on the unfinished vessel, it was France that introduced the first operational armored ships as well as the first shell guns and rifled cannons. Experience during the Crimean War of 1854–55 showed that armored ships could withstand repeated hits without significant damage when French ironclad floating batteries defeated Russian coastal fortifications during the Battle of Kinburn. Ericsson claimed to have sent the French Emperor Napoléon III a proposal for a monitor-type design, with a gun turret, in September 1854, but no record of any such submission could be found in the archives of the French Ministry of the Navy when they were searched by naval historian James Phinney Baxter III.
The French followed those ships with the first ocean-going ironclad, the armored frigate Gloire in 1859, the British responded with HMS Warrior. The Union Navy's attitude towards ironclads changed when it was learned that the Confederates were converting the captured USS Merrimack to an ironclad at the naval shipyard in Norfolk, Virginia. Subsequently, the urgency of Monitor's completion and deployment to Hampton Roads was driven by fears of what the Confederate ironclad, now renamed Virginia, would be capable of doing, not only to Union ships but to cities along the coast and riverfronts. Northern newspapers published daily accounts of the Confederates' progress in converting the Merrimack to an ironclad. Word of Merrimack's reconstruction and conversion was confirmed in the North in late February 1862 when Mary Louveste of Norfolk, a freed slave who worked as a housekeeper for one of the Confederate engineers working on Merrimack, made her way through Confederate lines with news that the Confederates were building an ironclad warship.
Concealed in her dress was a message from a Union
John Olof Dahlgren
John O. Dahlgren was an American corporal serving in the United States Marine Corps during the Boxer Rebellion who received the Medal of Honor for bravery. Dahlgren was born September 14, 1872 in Kalmar and after entering the Marine Corps he was sent to fight in the Chinese Boxer Rebellion, he received the Medal for his actions in Peking, China from June 20 – July 16, 1900 and it was presented to him July 19, 1901. He is buried in Golden Gate National Cemetery, San Bruno, California, his grave can be found in section Z, grave 1950. Rank and organization: Corporal, U. S. Marine Corps. Born: September 14, 1872, Sweden. Accredited to: California. G. O. No.: 55, July 19, 1901. Citation: In the presence of the enemy during the battle of Peking, China, 20 June to 16 July 1900, Dahlgren distinguished himself by meritorious conduct. List of Medal of Honor recipients List of Medal of Honor recipients for the Boxer Rebellion Karl Schuon. U. S. Marine Corps biographical dictionary: the corps' fighting men, what they did, where they served.
Dahlgren, John Olof. Franklin Watts, Inc. p. 51. Retrieved February 6, 2010. "John Olof Dahlgren". Hall of Valor. Military Times. Retrieved February 6, 2010
Rear admiral (United States)
Rear admiral in the United States refers to two different ranks of commissioned officers — one-star flag officers and two-star flag officers. By contrast, in most nations, the term "rear admiral" refers to an officer of two-star rank. Rear admiral, is a one-star flag officer, with the pay grade of O-7 in the United States Navy, the United States Coast Guard, the United States Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Commissioned Officer Corps; the abbreviation for personnel from the USN, USCG, NOAA is RDML, whereas for the USPHS, the rank abbreviation is RADM. Rear admiral ranks below rear admiral. Rear admiral is equivalent to the rank of brigadier general in the other uniformed services, equivalent to the rank of commodore in most other navies. In the United States uniformed services, rear admiral replaced the rank of commodore in 1983. Rear admiral sometimes referred to as rear admiral, is a two-star flag officer, with the pay grade of O-8 in the United States Navy, the United States Coast Guard, the United States Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Commissioned Officer Corps and the United States Maritime Service.
Rear admiral ranks below vice admiral. Rear admiral is equivalent to the rank of major general in the other uniformed services, it is the highest permanent rank during peacetime in the uniformed services. All higher ranks are temporary ranks and linked to their specific commands or office and expire with the expiration of their term of command or office. Before the American Civil War, the American Navy had resisted creating the rank of admiral. Instead, they preferred the term "flag officer", in order to distinguish the rank from the traditions of the European navies. During the American Civil War, the US Congress honored David Glasgow Farragut's successful assault on the city of New Orleans by creating the rank of rear admiral on July 16, 1862. During World War II, the U. S. Navy and the U. S. Coast Guard both had a temporary one-star rank of commodore, used in limited circumstances. By the end of the war, all incumbents had been advanced to the rank of two-star rear admiral and the commodore rank was eliminated in both services.
Both the Navy and the Coast Guard divided their rear admirals into "lower half" and full rear admirals, or "upper half", the former being paid at the same rate as a one-star brigadier general in the U. S. Army, U. S. Marine Corps and the newly independent U. S. Air Force. Lower-half rear admirals were promoted to full rear admirals, or upper half status, where they would receive pay equivalent to a two-star major general. However, both categories of rear admiral wore two-star insignia, an issue, a source of consternation to the other services. At the same time, the Navy bestowed the title of commodore on selected U. S. Navy captains who commanded multiple subordinate units, such as destroyer squadrons, submarine squadrons and air wings and air groups not designated as carrier air wings or carrier air groups. Although not flag officers, these officers were entitled to a personal blue and white command pennant containing the initials, acronym abbreviation or numerical designation of their command.
In 1981, Pub. L. 97–86 expanded commodore from a title to an official permanent grade by creating the one-star rank of commodore admiral. After only 11 months, the rank kept the one-star insignia. However, this caused issues with the Navy due to the difficulty in discriminating those commodores who were flag officers from commodores who were senior captains in certain command positions. In 1985, Pub. L. 99–145 renamed commodore to the current grade of rear admiral effective on November 8, 1985. Up until 1981, all rear admirals wore two stars on their shoulder bars and rank insignia. Since rear admirals wear one star while rear admirals wear two. On correspondence, where the rear admiral's rank is spelled out, the acronym and follows the rear admiral's rank title to distinguish between one and two stars. Beginning around 2001, the Navy, Coast Guard, NOAA Corps started using the separate rank abbreviations RDML and RADM, while the Public Health Service continued to use the abbreviation RADM for both.
As flag officers, the flags flown for rear admirals of the unrestricted line of the U. S. Navy have one or two white, single-point-up stars on blue fields for the lower half or upper half, respectively; the flags of restricted line officers and staff corps officers have blue stars on a white field. All services list the two-star grade as rear admiral and not rear admiral as stated by 10 U. S. C. § 5501 and 37 U. S. C. § 201 of the U. S. Code of law. However, the four uniformed services will sometimes list the rank as rear admiral to help the general public distinguish between the two grades. Although it exists as a maritime training organization, the United States Maritime Service does use the ranks of rear admiral and rear admiral. By law, the Service has the same rank structure of the United States Coast Guard, but its uniforms are more similar to the United States Navy. U. S. Code of law explicitly limits the total number of flag officers that may be on active duty at any given time; the total number of active duty flag officers is capped at 162 for the Regular Navy, augmented by a smaller number of additional flag officers in the Navy Reserve who are either on full-time active duty, temporary active duty, or on the Reserv
A foundry is a factory that produces metal castings. Metals are cast into shapes by melting them into a liquid, pouring the metal into a mold, removing the mold material after the metal has solidified as it cools; the most common metals processed are cast iron. However, other metals, such as bronze, steel and zinc, are used to produce castings in foundries. In this process, parts of desired shapes and sizes can be formed. In metalworking, casting involves pouring liquid metal into a mold, which contains a hollow cavity of the desired shape, allowing it to cool and solidify; the solidified part is known as a casting, ejected or broken out of the mold to complete the process. Casting is most used for making complex shapes that would be difficult or uneconomical to make by other methods. Melting is performed in a furnace. Virgin material, external scrap, internal scrap, alloying elements are used to charge the furnace. Virgin material refers to commercially pure forms of the primary metal used to form a particular alloy.
Alloying elements are either pure forms of an alloying element, like electrolytic nickel, or alloys of limited composition, such as ferroalloys or master alloys. External scrap is material from other forming processes such as forging, or machining. Internal scrap consists of gates, defective castings, other extraneous metal oddments produced within the facility; the process includes melting the charge, refining the melt, adjusting the melt chemistry and tapping into a transport vessel. Refining is done to remove deleterious gases and elements from the molten metal to avoid casting defects. Material is added during the melting process to bring the final chemistry within a specific range specified by industry and/or internal standards. Certain fluxes may be used to separate the metal from slag and/or dross and degassers are used to remove dissolved gas from metals that dissolve certain gasses. During the tap, final chemistry adjustments are made. Several specialised furnaces are used to heat the metal.
Furnaces are refractory-lined vessels that contain the material to be melted and provide the energy to melt it. Modern furnace types include electric arc furnaces, induction furnaces, cupolas and crucible furnaces. Furnace choice is dependent on the alloy. For ferrous materials EAFs, induction furnaces are used. Reverberatory and crucible furnaces are common for producing aluminium and brass castings. Furnace design is a complex process, the design can be optimized based on multiple factors. Furnaces in foundries can be any size, ranging from small ones used to melt precious metals to furnaces weighing several tons, designed to melt hundreds of pounds of scrap at one time, they are designed according to the type of metals. Furnaces must be designed based on the fuel being used to produce the desired temperature. For low temperature melting point alloys, such as zinc or tin, melting furnaces may reach around 500 °C. Electricity, propane, or natural gas are used to achieve these temperatures. For high melting point alloys such as steel or nickel-based alloys, the furnace must be designed for temperatures over 1,600 °C.
The fuel used to reach these high temperatures can be coke. The majority of foundries specialize in a particular metal and have furnaces dedicated to these metals. For example, an iron foundry may use a cupola, induction furnace, or EAF, while a steel foundry will use an EAF or induction furnace. Bronze or brass foundries use crucible furnaces or induction furnaces. Most aluminium foundries use either electric resistance or gas heated crucible furnaces or reverberatory furnaces. Degassing is a process that may be required to reduce the amount of hydrogen present in a batch of molten metal. Gases can form in metal castings in one of two ways: by physical entrapment during the casting process or by chemical reaction in the cast material. Hydrogen is a common contaminant for most cast metals, it forms from water vapor or machine lubricants. If the hydrogen concentration in the melt is too high, the resulting casting will be porous. Porosity seriously deteriorates the mechanical properties of the metal.
An efficient way of removing hydrogen from the melt is to bubble a dry, insoluble gas through the melt by purging or agitation. When the bubbles go up in the melt, they bring it to the surface. Chlorine, nitrogen and argon are used to degas non-ferrous metals. Carbon monoxide is used for iron and steel. There are various types of equipment. Alternatively, the presence of hydrogen can be measured by determining the density of a metal sample. In cases where porosity still remains present after the degassing process, porosity sealing can be accomplished through a process called metal impregnating. In the casting process, a pattern is made in the shape of the desired part. Simple designs can be made in solid pattern. More complex designs are made in two parts, called split patterns. A split pattern has a top or upper section, called a cope, a bottom or lower section called a drag. Both solid and split patterns can have cores inserted to complete the final part shape. Cores are used to create hollow areas in the mold.
Where the cope and drag separates is called the parting line. When making a pattern it is best to taper the edges so that the pattern c
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
United States Navy
The United States Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. It is the largest and most capable navy in the world and it has been estimated that in terms of tonnage of its active battle fleet alone, it is larger than the next 13 navies combined, which includes 11 U. S. allies or partner nations. With the highest combined battle fleet tonnage and the world's largest aircraft carrier fleet, with eleven in service, two new carriers under construction. With 319,421 personnel on active duty and 99,616 in the Ready Reserve, the Navy is the third largest of the service branches, it has 282 deployable combat vessels and more than 3,700 operational aircraft as of March 2018, making it the second-largest air force in the world, after the United States Air Force. The U. S. Navy traces its origins to the Continental Navy, established during the American Revolutionary War and was disbanded as a separate entity shortly thereafter.
The U. S. Navy played a major role in the American Civil War by blockading the Confederacy and seizing control of its rivers, it played the central role in the World War II defeat of Imperial Japan. The US Navy emerged from World War II as the most powerful navy in the world; the 21st century U. S. Navy maintains a sizable global presence, deploying in strength in such areas as the Western Pacific, the Mediterranean, the Indian Ocean, it is a blue-water navy with the ability to project force onto the littoral regions of the world, engage in forward deployments during peacetime and respond to regional crises, making it a frequent actor in U. S. foreign and military policy. The Navy is administratively managed by the Department of the Navy, headed by the civilian Secretary of the Navy; the Department of the Navy is itself a division of the Department of Defense, headed by the Secretary of Defense. The Chief of Naval Operations is the most senior naval officer serving in the Department of the Navy.
The mission of the Navy is to maintain and equip combat-ready Naval forces capable of winning wars, deterring aggression and maintaining freedom of the seas. The U. S. Navy is a seaborne branch of the military of the United States; the Navy's three primary areas of responsibility: The preparation of naval forces necessary for the effective prosecution of war. The maintenance of naval aviation, including land-based naval aviation, air transport essential for naval operations, all air weapons and air techniques involved in the operations and activities of the Navy; the development of aircraft, tactics, technique and equipment of naval combat and service elements. U. S. Navy training manuals state that the mission of the U. S. Armed Forces is "to be prepared to conduct prompt and sustained combat operations in support of the national interest." As part of that establishment, the U. S. Navy's functions comprise sea control, power projection and nuclear deterrence, in addition to "sealift" duties, it follows as certain as that night succeeds the day, that without a decisive naval force we can do nothing definitive, with it, everything honorable and glorious.
Naval power... is the natural defense of the United States The Navy was rooted in the colonial seafaring tradition, which produced a large community of sailors and shipbuilders. In the early stages of the American Revolutionary War, Massachusetts had its own Massachusetts Naval Militia; the rationale for establishing a national navy was debated in the Second Continental Congress. Supporters argued that a navy would protect shipping, defend the coast, make it easier to seek out support from foreign countries. Detractors countered that challenging the British Royal Navy the world's preeminent naval power, was a foolish undertaking. Commander in Chief George Washington resolved the debate when he commissioned the ocean-going schooner USS Hannah to interdict British merchant ships and reported the captures to the Congress. On 13 October 1775, the Continental Congress authorized the purchase of two vessels to be armed for a cruise against British merchant ships. S. Navy; the Continental Navy achieved mixed results.
In August 1785, after the Revolutionary War had drawn to a close, Congress had sold Alliance, the last ship remaining in the Continental Navy due to a lack of funds to maintain the ship or support a navy. In 1972, the Chief of Naval Operations, Admiral Elmo Zumwalt, authorized the Navy to celebrate its birthday on 13 October to honor the establishment of the Continental Navy in 1775; the United States was without a navy for nearly a decade, a state of affairs that exposed U. S. maritime merchant ships to a series of attacks by the Barbary pirates. The sole armed maritime presence between 1790 and the launching of the U. S. Navy's first warships in 1797 was the U. S. Revenue-Marine, the primary predecessor of the U. S. Coast Guard. Although the USRCS conducted operations against the pirates, their depredations far outstripped its abilities and Congress passed the Naval Act of 1794 that established a permanent standing navy on 27 March 1794; the Naval Act ordered the construction and manning of six frigates and, by October 1797, the first three were brought into service: USS United States, USS Constellation, USS Constitution.
Due to his strong posture on having a strong standing Navy during this period, John Adams is "often called the father of the American Navy". In 1798–99 the Navy was involved in an undeclared Quasi-War with France. From 18