SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

John Adams

John Adams was an American statesman, diplomat and Founding Father who served as the second president of the United States, from 1797 to 1801. Before his presidency, he was a leader of the American Revolution that achieved independence from Great Britain and served as the first vice president of the United States. Adams was a dedicated diarist and corresponded with many important figures in early American history, including his wife and adviser Abigail Adams, Thomas Jefferson, his letters and other papers serve as an important source of historical information about the era. A lawyer and political activist prior to the revolution, Adams was devoted to the right to counsel and presumption of innocence, he defied anti-British sentiment and defended British soldiers against murder charges arising from the Boston Massacre. Adams was a Massachusetts delegate to the Continental Congress and became a principal leader of the Revolution, he assisted in drafting the Declaration of Independence in 1776 and was its foremost advocate in Congress.

As a diplomat in Europe, he helped negotiate the peace treaty with Great Britain and secured vital governmental loans. Adams was the primary author of the Massachusetts Constitution in 1780, which influenced the United States' own constitution, as did his earlier Thoughts on Government. Adams was elected to two terms as vice president under President George Washington and was elected as the United States' second president in 1796, he was the first, only, president elected under the banner of the Federalist Party. During his single term, Adams encountered fierce criticism from the Jeffersonian Republicans and from some in his own Federalist Party, led by his rival Alexander Hamilton. Adams signed the controversial Alien and Sedition Acts and built up the Army and Navy in the undeclared "Quasi-War" with France; the main accomplishment of his presidency was a peaceful resolution of this conflict in the face of public anger and Hamilton's opposition. During his term, he became the first president to reside in the executive mansion now known as the White House.

In his bid for reelection, opposition from Federalists and accusations of despotism from Republicans led to Adams's loss to his former friend Thomas Jefferson, he retired to Massachusetts. He resumed his friendship with Jefferson by initiating a correspondence that lasted fourteen years, he and his wife generated a family of politicians and historians now referred to as the Adams political family, which includes their son John Quincy Adams, the sixth president of the United States. John Adams died on July 4, 1826 – the fiftieth anniversary of the adoption of the Declaration of Independence – hours after Jefferson's death. Surveys of historians and scholars have favorably ranked his administration. John Adams was born on October 1735, to John Adams Sr. and Susanna Boylston. He had two younger brothers and Elihu. Adams was born on the family farm in Massachusetts, his mother was from a leading medical family of Massachusetts. His father was a deacon in the Congregational Church, a farmer, a cordwainer, a lieutenant in the militia.

John Sr. supervised the building of schools and roads. Adams praised his father and recalled their close relationship. Adams's great-great-grandfather Henry Adams emigrated to Massachusetts from Braintree, England, around 1638. Though raised in modest surroundings, Adams felt pressured to live up to his heritage, his was a family of Puritans, who profoundly affected their region's culture and traditions. By the time of John Adams's birth, Puritan tenets such as predestination had waned and many of their severe practices moderated, but Adams still "considered them bearers of freedom, a cause that still had a holy urgency." Adams recalled that his parents "held every Species of Libertinage in... Contempt and horror," and detailed "pictures of disgrace, or baseness and of Ruin" resulting from any debauchery. Adams noted that "As a child I enjoyed the greatest of blessings that can be bestowed upon men – that of a mother, anxious and capable to form the characters of her children."Adams, as the eldest child, was compelled to obtain a formal education.

This began at age six at a dame school for boys and girls, conducted at a teacher's home, was centered upon The New England Primer. Shortly thereafter, Adams attended Braintree Latin School under Joseph Cleverly, where studies included Latin, rhetoric and arithmetic. Adams's early education included incidents of truancy, a dislike for his master, a desire to become a farmer. All discussion on the matter ended with his father's command that he remain in school: "You shall comply with my desires." Deacon Adams hired a new schoolmaster named Joseph Marsh, his son responded positively. At age sixteen, Adams entered Harvard College in 1751; as an adult, Adams was a keen scholar, studying the works of ancient writers such as Thucydides, Plato and Tacitus in their original languages. Though his father expected him to be a minister, after his 1755 graduation with an A. B. degree, he taught school while pondering his permanent vocation. In the next four years, he began to seek prestige, craving "Honour or Reputation" and "more defference from fellows", was determined to be "a great Man."

He decided to become a lawyer to further those ends, writing his father that he found among lawyers "noble and gallant achievements" but, among the clergy, the "pretended sanctity of some absolute dunces." His aspirations conflicted with his Puritanism, prompting reservations ab

Philip Leverhulme Prize

The Philip Leverhulme Prize is awarded by the Leverhulme Trust to recognise the achievement of outstanding researchers whose work has attracted international recognition and whose future career is exceptionally promising. The prize scheme makes up to thirty awards of £100,000 a year, across a range of academic disciplines; the award is named after Philip Leverhulme who died in 2000. He was the grandson of William Leverhulme, was the third Viscount Leverhulme; the prizes are payable, in instalments, over a period of two to three years. Prizes can be used for any purpose which can advance the prize-holder’s research, with the exception of enhancing the prize-holder’s salary. Nominees must hold either a permanent post or a long-term fellowship in a UK institution of higher education or research that would extend beyond the duration of the Philip Leverhulme Prize; those otherwise without salary are not eligible to be nominated. Nominees should have been awarded their doctoral degree not more than ten years prior to the closing date.

Leverhulme awards are granted annually. In 2019 the prizes were awarded in the following fields: Archaeology: Kate Britton, Enrico Crema, Jessica Hendy, Jane Kershaw, Ben Russell Chemistry: Artem Bakulin, Thomas Bennett, Kim Jelfs, Daniele Leonori, Silvia Vignolini Economics: Gabriella Conti, James Fenske, Xavier Jaravel, Friederike Mengel, Benjamin Moll Engineering: Jessica Boland, Rainer Groh, Hannah Joyce, Camille Petit, Alister Smith Geography: Sarah Batterman, Christina Hicks, Robert Hilton, Fiona McConnell, Philippa Williams Languages & Literature: Marc Alexander, Emma Bond, Merve Emre, Martin Paul Eve, Joseph Moshenska In 2018 the prizes were awarded in the following fields: Classics: Amin Benaissa, Myles Lavan, Alex Mullen, Amy Russell, Shaul Tor Earth Sciences: Juliet Biggs, Stephen L. Brusatte, Heather Graven, Babette Hoogakker, Amanda Maycock Physics: Alis Deason, Simone De Liberato, Katherine Dooley, Rahul Raveendran Nair, John Russo Politics and International Relations: Ezequiel Gonzalez Ocantos, Chris Hanretty, Sophie Harman, Lauren Wilcox, Lea Ypi Psychology: Emily S Cross, Stephen Fleming, Claire Haworth, Harriet Over, Nichola Raihani Visual and Performing Arts: Erika Balsom, Daisy Fancourt, Ian Kiaer, Peter McMurray, Tiffany Watt Smith In 2017 the prizes were awarded in the following fields: Biological Sciences: Tom Baden, Katie Field, Nick Graham, Kayla King, Andrea Migliano History: Andrew Arsan, Toby Green, David Motadel, Lucie Ryzova, Alice Taylor Law: Pinar Akman, Ana Aliverti, Fiona de Londras, Rosie Harding, Jeff King Mathematics and Statistics: Anders Hansen, Oscar Randal-Williams, Carola-Bibiane Schönlieb, Dominic Vella, Hendrik Weber Philosophy and Theology: Naomi Appleton, Joel Cabrita, John Michael, Ian Phillips, Bryan W Roberts Sociology and Social Policy: David Clifford, Des Fitzgerald, Suzanne Hall, Tim Huijts, Alice Mah In 2016 the prizes were awarded in the following fields.

Archaeology: Susana Carvalho, Manuel Fernandez-Gotz, Oliver Harris, Camilla Speller, Fraser Sturt Chemistry: John Bower, Scott Cockroft, David Glowacki, Susan Perkin, Aron Walsh Economics: Vasco Carvalho, Camille Landais, Kalina Manova, Uta Schönberg, Fabian Waldinger Engineering: Anna Barnett, Cinzia Casiraghi, David Connolly, Alexandra Silva, Peter Vincent Geography: Katherine Brickell, Vanesa Castán Broto, Mark Graham, Harriet Hawkins, David Thornalley Languages and Literatures: William Abberley, Alexandra Harris, Daisy Hay, Lily Okalani Kahn, Hannah Rohde In 2015 the prizes were awarded in the following fields. Classics: Mirko Canevaro, Esther Eidinow, Renaud Gagné, Naoise Mac Sweeney, Laura Swift Earth sciences: John Rudge, James Screen, Karin Sigloch, Dominick Spracklen, Nicholas Tosca Physics: Jacopo Bertolotti, Daniele Faccio, Jo Dunkley, Philip King, Suchitra Sebastian Politics: John Bew, Elena Fiddian-Qasmiyeh, Dominik Hangartner, Laura Valentini, Nick Vaughan-Williams Psychology: Caroline Catmur, Bhismadev Chakrabarti, Steve Loughnan, Liz Pellicano, Jonathan Roiser Visual arts: Sara Davidmann, Mattias Frey, Hannah Rickards, Martin Suckling, Corin Sworn In 2014, thirty-one prizes were awarded.

The 2014 subjects and prizewinners were: Biological Sciences: Michael Brockhurst, Elizabeth Murchison, Ewa Paluch, Thomas Richards, Nikolay Zenkin History: Manuel Barcia Paz, Aaron Moore, Renaud Morieux, Hannah Skoda, David Trippett Mathematics and Statistics: Alexandros Beskos, Daniel Kral, David Loeffler and Sarah Zerbes, Richard Samworth, Corinna Ulcigrai Philosophy and Theology: Jonathan Birch, Tim Button, Ofra Magidor, Anna Mahtani, Holger Zellentin Law: Alan Bogg, Prabha Kotiswaran, Sarah Nouwen, Erika Rackley, Michael Waibe Sociology and Social Policy: Lucie Cluver, Hazem Kandil, Victoria Redclift, Katherine Smith, Imogen Tyler The 2013 subjects were: Astronomy and Astrophysics: Richard Alexander, Stefan Kraus, Mathew Owens, Mark Swinbank, John Taylor Economics: Jane Cooley Fruehwirth Engineering: Haider Butt, Bharathram Ganapathisubramani, Eileen Gentleman, Aline Miller, Ferdinando Rodriguez y Baena Geography: Ben Anderson, Dabo Guan, Anna Lora-Wainwright, Erin McClymont, Colin McFarlane, David Nally, Lindsay Stringer Modern languages and Literature: Kathryn Banks, Andrew Counter, Sally Faulkner, Lara Feigel, David James, James Smith, Hannah Sullivan Performing and Visual Arts: Martin John Callanan, Nadia Davids, James Moran, Tim Smith The 2012 subjects were: Classics: Patrick Finglass, Miriam Leonard, Michael Squire, Peter Thonemann, Kostas Vlassopoulos Earth and Atmospheric Sciences: Matt Friedman, Richard Katz, Kirsty Penkman, Laura Robinson, Paul Williams History of Art: Jo Applin, Matthew Potter, Richard Taws, Tamara Trodd, Leon Wainwright Law: Kimberley Brownlee, James Chalmers, Ioannis Lianos, Marc Moore, Anthea Roberts Mathematics and Statistics: Toby Gee, Jonathan Marchini

Conan Osiris

Tiago Emanuel da Silva Miranda, known professionally as Conan Osiris, is a Portuguese singer-songwriter. His stage name is based on the main character from Japanese series Future Boy Conan and the ancient Egyptian god Osiris. Osiris gained national recognition after presenting his song "Telemóveis" at the 2019 Festival da Canção, the national selection show for the Eurovision Song Contest. After its release in online media, the song topped Portuguese trends in Spotify. On 2 March 2019, Osiris won the Festival da Canção, securing the right to represent Portugal in the Eurovision Song Contest 2019 in Tel Aviv, Israel, he was lived in Cacém for a few years while in high school. Today, he lives in Lisbon. In 2010 he finished his degree in graphic design at the Polytechnic Institute of Castelo Branco. In the institute, he met Rúben de Sá Osório, his personal designer and dresser. In 2012 he began working at the one of the stores of the well-known Portuguese sex shop chain, ContraNatura, in Lisbon. In 2018, after the success of his second album "Adoro Bolos" he left his work at ContraNatura to work full time in his musical career.

He is a self-taught singer-songwriter and learnt his craft by trial and error while using the program FL Studio on his computer. He started his musical career in 2008. In 2011 they released their only EP, called "Cathedral" on soundcloud, he used the stage name Conan Osiris for first time on the track "Secluded". He continued his work as a composer for fashion shows with "Evaporate", "Pyres", "Tryptich" and "Selenographia"; these five songs were released in the 2014 EP, called "Silk", along with the songs "Remuneration" and "Amália", the first song where he sang in Portuguese, recorded with a SingStar microphone. In 2016 he released his first album called "Música, Normal", about which he said: " Música normal is any music that can be absorbed by a living being. Normal music is the kind of music suited for whatever you want to do: to laugh, to cry, to dance, to travel, to take a shower…" In 2017 he co-wrote and produced the album "Emocional", the first album by singer Sreya. On the 30th of December 2017 he released.

This last album drew attention to him and he was invited by some Portuguese TV Shows to perform live, where he sang some of the most successful songs from the album such as "Adoro Bolos", "Celulitite", "Borrego" or "100 Paciência". In 2018, he was invited by RTP to compose a song for Festival da Canção 2019, he wrote "Telemóveis" and decided to perform himself, On the 2nd of March, after finishing second on the semi-final, Osiris won the show and represented Portugal in the Eurovision Song Contest 2019. However Osiris failed to qualify to the final, making it the first time since 2015 that Portugal had failed to qualify, he performed at the Portuguese music festival Super Bock Super Rock 2019, at the Stage Somersby on 18 July