Idi Amin Dada Oumee (. He served as the President of Uganda from 1971 to 1979. Amin was born either in Kampala to a Kakwa father and Lugbara mother. In 1946, he joined the King's African Rifles of the British Colonial Army as a cook, he rose to the rank of lieutenant, taking part in British actions against Somali rebels in the Shifta War and the Mau Mau rebels in Kenya. Uganda gained independence from the United Kingdom in 1962, Amin remained in the armed forces, rising to the position of major and being appointed Commander of the Army in 1965, he became aware that Ugandan President Milton Obote was planning to arrest him for misappropriating army funds, so he launched a military coup in 1971 and declared himself President. During his years in power, Amin shifted from being a pro-western ruler enjoying considerable support from Israel to being backed by Libya's Muammar Gaddafi, Zaire's Mobutu Sese Seko, the Soviet Union, East Germany. In 1975, Amin became the chairman of the Organisation of African Unity, a Pan-Africanist group designed to promote solidarity among African states.
Uganda was a member of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights from 1977 to 1979. The UK broke diplomatic relations with Uganda in 1977, Amin declared that he had defeated the British and added "CBE" to his title for "Conqueror of the British Empire". Radio Uganda announced his entire title: "His Excellency President for Life, Field Marshal Alhaji Dr. Idi Amin Dada, VC, DSO, MC, CBE"; as Amin's rule progressed into the late 1970s, there was increased unrest against his persecution of certain ethnic groups and political dissidents, along with Uganda's poor international standing due to Amin's support for the terrorist hijackers in Operation Entebbe. He attempted to annex Tanzania's Kagera Region in 1978, so Tanzanian president Julius Nyerere had his troops invade Uganda. Amin went into exile, first in Libya and in Saudi Arabia, where he lived until his death on 16 August 2003. Amin's rule was characterized by rampant human rights abuses, political repression, ethnic persecution, extrajudicial killings, nepotism and gross economic mismanagement.
International observers and human rights groups estimate that between 100,000 and 500,000 people were killed under his regime. Amin did not write an autobiography, he did not authorize an official written account of his life. There are discrepancies regarding where he was born. Most biographical sources claim that he was born in either Koboko or Kampala around 1925. Other unconfirmed sources state Amin's year of birth from as early as 1923 to as late as 1928. Amin's son Hussein has stated that his father was born in Kampala in 1928. According to Fred Guweddeko, a researcher at Makerere University, Amin was the son of Andreas Nyabire. Nyabire, a member of the Kakwa ethnic group, converted from Roman Catholicism to Islam in 1910 and changed his name to Amin Dada, he named his first-born son after himself. Abandoned by his father at a young age, Idi Amin grew up with his mother's family in a rural farming town in north-western Uganda. Guweddeko states that Amin's mother was Assa Aatte, an ethnic Lugbara and a traditional herbalist who treated members of Buganda royalty, among others.
Amin joined an Islamic school in Bombo in 1941. After a few years, he left school with only a fourth-grade English-language education, did odd jobs before being recruited to the army by a British colonial army officer. Amin joined the King's African Rifles of the British Colonial Army in 1946 as an assistant cook. In life, he falsely claimed he was forced to join the armies during World War II and that he served in the Burma Campaign, he was transferred to Kenya for infantry service as a private in 1947, served in the 21st KAR infantry battalion in Gilgil, Kenya until 1949. That year, his unit was deployed to northern Kenya to fight against Somali rebels in the Shifta War. In 1952, his brigade was deployed against the Mau Mau rebels in Kenya, he was promoted to corporal the same year to sergeant in 1953. In 1959, Amin was made Afande, the highest rank possible for a black African in the colonial British Army of that time. Amin returned to Uganda the same year and, in 1961, he was promoted to lieutenant, becoming one of the first two Ugandans to become commissioned officers.
He was assigned to quell the cattle rustling between Kenya's Turkana nomads. In 1962, following Uganda's independence from the United Kingdom, Amin was promoted to captain and in 1963, to major, he was appointed Deputy Commander of the Army in 1964 and, the following year, to Commander of the Army. In 1970, he was promoted to commander of all the armed forces. Amin was an athlete during his time in both the Ugandan army. At 193 cm tall and powerfully built, he was the Ugandan light heavyweight boxing champion from 1951 to 1960, as well as a swimmer. Amin was a formidable rugby forward, although one officer said of him: "Idi Amin is a splendid type and a good player, but bone from the neck up, needs things explained in words of one letter". In the 1950s, he played for Nile RFC. There is a repeated urban myth that he was selected as a replacement by the East Africa rugby union team for their 1955 match against the British Lions. Amin, does not appear in the team photograph or on the official team list.
Following conversations with a colleague in the British Army, Amin became a keen fan of Hayes Football Club – an affection that remained for the rest of his life. In 1965, Prime Minister Milton Obote and Amin were implicated in a deal to smuggle ivor
Edwin Corley Moses is an American former track and field athlete who won gold medals in the 400 m hurdles at the 1976 and 1984 Olympics. Between 1977 and 1987, Moses won 107 consecutive finals and set the world record in the event four times. In addition to his running, Moses was an innovative reformer in the areas of Olympic eligibility and drug testing. In 2000, he was elected the first Chairman of the Laureus World Sports Academy, an international service organization of world-class athletes. Moses was born in Ohio. Having accepted an academic scholarship to Morehouse College in Atlanta, Georgia, he majored in physics and industrial engineering, while competing for the school track team. Morehouse did not have its own track, so he used public high school facilities around the city to train and run. Moses competed in the 120-yard hurdles and 440-yard dash. Before March 1976, he ran only one 400 m hurdles race, but once he began focusing on the event he made remarkable progress. With his height of 6'2", Moses' trademark technique was to take a consistent 13 steps between each of the hurdles, pulling away in the second half of the race as his rivals took 15 strides or changed their stride pattern.
That year, he qualified for the U. S. team for the 1976 Summer Olympics in Montreal. In his first international meet, Moses won the gold medal ahead of teammate Mike Shine while setting a world record of 47.63 seconds in the process. After breaking his own world record the following year at the Drake Stadium with a time of 47.45 seconds, Moses lost to West Germany's Harald Schmid on August 26, 1977 in Berlin. Beginning the next week, Moses beat Schmid by 15 metres in Düsseldorf, he did not lose another race for nine years, nine months and nine days. Moses qualified for the 1980 U. S. Olympic team but was unable to compete due to the 1980 Summer Olympics boycott, he did however receive one of 461 Congressional Gold Medals created for the spurned athletes. In the 1984 Olympics held in Los Angeles, Moses was selected to recite the Olympic Oath, but forgot the text during his presentation, he went on to win his second Olympic gold medal. By the time American Danny Harris beat Moses in Madrid on June 4, 1987, Moses had won 122 consecutive races, set the world record two more times, won three World Cup titles, a World Championship gold, as well as his two Olympic gold medals.
After the loss to Harris, he went on to win 10 more races in a row, collecting his second world gold in Rome in August of the same year. Moses finished third in the final 400m hurdles race of his career at the 1988 Summer Olympics in Seoul. In 1979 Moses took a leave of absence from his job with General Dynamics to devote himself to running full-time. In the next two years, he was instrumental in reforming Olympic eligibility rules. At his urging, an Athletes Trust Fund program was established to allow athletes to benefit from government- or supplied stipends, direct payments, commercial endorsement money without jeopardizing their Olympic eligibility. Moses presented the plan to Juan Antonio Samaranch, President of the International Olympic Committee, the concept was ratified in 1981; this fund is the basis of many Olympic athlete subsistence and corporate support programs, including the United States Olympic Committee's Direct Athlete Assistance Programs. Despite the U. S. led boycott that kept him from competing at the summer games in Moscow, Moses was the 1980 Track & Field News Athlete of the Year.
A year he became the first recipient of USA Track & Field's Jesse Owens Award as outstanding U. S. track and field performer for 1981. He received the AAU's James E. Sullivan Award as outstanding amateur athlete in the United States in 1983, he was being named as ABC's Wide World of Sports Athlete of the Year in 1984. Moses shared the Sports Illustrated Sportsman of the Year with American gymnast Mary Lou Retton in 1984, the same year he took the Athlete's Oath for the 1984 Summer Olympics. In 1984 his hometown of Dayton renamed Miami Boulevard West and Sunrise Avenue "Edwin C. Moses Boulevard". In 1999, Moses ranked #47 on ESPN's SportCentury 50 Greatest Athletes; as a sports administrator, Moses participated in the development of a number of anti-drug policies and helped the track and field community develop one of sports' most stringent random in-competition drug testing systems. In December 1988 he designed and created amateur sports' first random out-of-competition drug testing program. After his retirement from track, Moses competed in a 1990 World Cup bobsled race at Winterberg, Germany.
He and long-time US Olympian Brian Shimer won the two-man bronze medal. In 1994 Moses received an MBA from Pepperdine University and was inducted into the National Track and Field Hall of Fame. Since election in 2000, Moses has been chairman of the Laureus World Sports Academy, which seeks "to promote and increase participation in sport at every level, to promote the use of sport as a tool for social change around the world." Several dozen Olympic and world champion athletes, through the Laureus Sports for Good Foundation, work to assist disadvantaged youths around the world. In 2008, Moses presented the Dayton Literary Peace Prize's Lifetime Achievement Award to Martin Luther King, Jr. biographer Taylor Branch. In May 2009, the University of Massachusetts Boston awarded Moses an honorary doctorate for his efforts to maintain the integrity of Olympic sports and for his use of sports as a tool for positive social change. Moses is a vegetarian and advocate for peace. Moses has one son, born on August 29, 1995, in southern California.
He married Michelle Moses in February 2007. "Edwin Moses: An Era Un
Athletics at the 1900 Summer Olympics – Men's 400 metres
The men's 400 metres was a track & field athletics event at the 1900 Summer Olympics in Paris. It was held on July 14, July 15, 1900; the races were held on a track of 500 metres in circumference. 15 athletes from six nations competed. These were the standing world and Olympic records prior to the 1900 Summer Olympics. Unofficial 440 yards Maxie Long set a new Olympic record in the first round with 50.4 seconds. In the final he improved his own record. In the first round, there were three heats, they were held on July 14. The top two runners in each advanced to the final. First round, heat 1 This heat, featuring four American runners, resulted in an easy win for Long and the top three spots for the United States team. First round, heat 2 Again, an American won the heat easily. Schulz took second place to qualify for the final. First round, heat 3 The United States runners again took all three of the top spots in this heat. Boardman and Moloney withdrew because the final was held on a Sunday. Long and Holland did start and Long led the entire way to win by five yards, with Schultz 20 yards behind the Americans.
International Olympic Committee. De Wael, Herman. Herman's Full Olympians: "Athletics 1900". Accessed 18 March 2006. Available electronically at. Mallon, Bill; the 1900 Olympic Games, Results for All Competitors in All Events, with Commentary. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company, Inc. Publishers. ISBN 0-7864-0378-0
Kampala is the capital and largest city of Uganda. The city is divided into five boroughs that oversee local planning: Kampala Central Division, Kawempe Division, Makindye Division, Nakawa Division, Rubaga Division. Surrounding Kampala is the growing Wakiso District, whose population more than doubled between 2002 and 2014 and as of 2014 Wakiso was reported to stand at over 2 million. Kampala was named the 13th fastest growing city on the planet, with an annual population growth rate of 4.03 percent, by City Mayors. Kampala has been ranked the best city to live in East Africa ahead of Nairobi and Kigali by Mercer, a global development consulting agency based in New York City. Before the arrival of the British colonists, the Kabaka of Buganda had chosen the zone that would become Kampala as a hunting reserve; the area, composed of rolling hills with grassy wetlands in the valleys, was home to several species of antelope impala. When the British arrived, they called it "Hills of the Impala"; the language of the Baganda, adopted many English words because of their interactions with the British.
The Baganda translated "Hill of the Impala" as Akasozi ke'Empala – "Kasozi" meaning "hill", "ke" meaning "of", "empala" the plural of "impala". In Luganda, the words "ka'mpala" mean "that it is of the impala", in reference to a hill, the single word "Kampala" was adopted as the name for the city that grew out of the Kabaka's hills"; the city grew as the capital of the Buganda kingdom, from which several buildings survive, including the Kasubi Tombs, the Lubiri Palace, the Buganda Parliament and the Buganda Court of Justice. In 1890, British colonial administrator Capt. Frederick Lugard constructed a forum along Mengo Hill within the city, which allowed for the British to occupy much of the territory controlled by the Baganda, including Kampala. In 1894, the British government established a protectorate within this territory, in 1896, the protectorate expanded to cover the Ankole, Toro Kingdom, Bunyoro kingdoms as well. In 1905, the British government formally declared the entire territory to be a British colony.
From that time until the independence of the country in 1962, the capital was relocated to Entebbe, although the city continued to be the primary economic and manufacturing location for Uganda. In 1922, the Makerere Technical Institute, now known as Makerere University, started as the first collegiate institution both within Kampala, within the British colonies on the east coast of Africa. Following the 1962 independence, Kabaka Edward Mutesa a Buganda king, became the became the first executive President of Uganda but over thrown by Milton Obote, the prime minister and became president of Uganda, held the position until 1971, when former sergeant Idi Amin deposed his government in a military coup. Idi Amin proceeded to expel all Indian residents living within Kampala, attacked the Jewish population living within the city. In 1978, he invaded the neighboring country of Tanzania, in turn, the government there started the Uganda–Tanzania War, which caused severe damage to the buildings of Kampala.
The city has since been rebuilt with new construction of hotels, shopping malls, educational institutions, hospitals and the improvement of war torn buildings and infrastructure. Traditionally, Kampala was known to be a city of seven hills, but over time it has been proven to have a lot more. Kampala has a tropical rainforest climate under the Köppen-Geiger climate classification system. A facet of Kampala's weather is. While the city does not have a true dry season month, it experiences heavier precipitation from August to December and from February to June. However, it's between February and June that Kampala sees heavier rainfall per month, with April seeing the heaviest amount of precipitation at an average of around 169 millimetres of rain. Kampala has been mentioned as a lightning-strike capital of the world; the main campus of Makerere University is in the Makerere Hill area of the city. Kampala hosts the headquarters of the East African Development Bank on Nakasero Hill and the Uganda Local Governments Association on Entebbe Road.
Kampala was built on seven hills, but as its size has increased, it has expanded to more hills than seven. The original seven hills are: The first hill in historical importance is Old Kampala Hill on which Fort Lugard the first seat of the British colonialists in Uganda; the second is Mengo Hill, the Kibuga(capital of Buganda kindgom at the start of British colonial rule The third is Kibuli Hill, home to Muslim faction of the Buganda religious wars of the 1888-1892 and current site of the Kibuli Mosque. The fourth is Namirembe Hill, home to the Anglican faction of the above mentioned Buganda religious wars and site of Namirembe Anglican Cathedral; the fifth is Lubaga Hill, home to the White Fathers Catholic faction of the above mentioned Buganda religious wars.and site of the Rubaga Catholic Cathedral. The sixth is Nsambya Hill site of the former Cathedral of St Peter's Nsambya and allocated to the British Catholic Mill Hill Mission during the signing of the Uganda Agreement; the seventh is Nakasero Hill on whose summit is Fort Nakasero a British military installation built after relocating from Fort Lugard in Old Kampala the hill was the site of European Hospital.
Other features of the city include the Uganda Museum, the Ugandan National Theatre, Nakasero Market, St. Balikuddembe Market. Kampala is known for its nightlife, which includes several casinos, notably Casino Simba in the Garden City shopping centre, Kampala Casino, and
The Commonwealth Games are an international multi-sport event involving athletes from the Commonwealth of Nations. The event was first held in 1930, has taken place every four years since then; the Commonwealth Games were known as the British Empire Games from 1930 to 1950, the British Empire and Commonwealth Games from 1954 to 1966, British Commonwealth Games from 1970 to 1974. It is the world's first multi-sport event which inducted equal number of women’s and men’s medal events and was implemented in the 2018 Commonwealth Games, their creation was inspired by the Inter-Empire Championships, as a part of the Festival of Empire, which were held in London, United Kingdom in 1911. Melville Marks Robinson founded the games as the British Empire Games which were first hosted in Hamilton in 1930. During the 20th and 21st centuries, the evolution of the games movement has resulted in several changes to the Commonwealth Games; some of these adjustments include the creation of the Commonwealth Winter Games for snow and ice sports for the commonwealth athletes, the Commonwealth Paraplegic Games for commonwealth athletes with a disability and the Commonwealth Youth Games for commonwealth athletes aged 14 to 18.
The first edition of the winter games and paraplegic games were held in 1958 and 1962 with their last edition held in 1966 and 1974 and the first youth games were held in 2000. The 1942 and 1946 Commonwealth Games were cancelled because of the Second World War; the Commonwealth Games are overseen by the Commonwealth Games Federation, which controls the sporting programme and selects the host cities. The games movement consists of international sports federations, Commonwealth Games Associations, organising committees for each specific Commonwealth Games. There are several rituals and symbols, such as the Commonwealth Games flag and Queen's Baton, as well as the opening and closing ceremonies. Over 5,000 athletes compete at the Commonwealth Games in more than 15 different sports and more than 250 events; the first and third-place finishers in each event receive Commonwealth Games medals: gold and bronze, respectively. Apart from many Olympic sports, the games include some sports which are played predominantly in Commonwealth countries but which are not part of the Olympic programme, such as lawn bowls and squash.
Although there are 53 members of the Commonwealth of Nations, 71 teams participate in the Commonwealth Games, as a number of dependent territories compete under their own flags. The four Home Nations of the United Kingdom—England, Scotland and Northern Ireland—also send separate teams. Nineteen cities in nine countries have hosted the event. Australia has hosted the Commonwealth Games five times. Two cities have hosted Commonwealth Games more than once: Auckland and Edinburgh. Only six countries have attended every Commonwealth Games: Australia, England, New Zealand and Wales. Australia has been the highest achieving team for twelve games, England for seven, Canada for one; the most recent Commonwealth Games were held in Gold Coast from 4 to 15 April 2018. The next Commonwealth Games are to be held in Birmingham from 27 July to 7 August 2022. A sporting competition bringing together the members of the British Empire was first proposed by John Astley Cooper in 1900, when he wrote an article in The Times suggesting a "Pan-Britannic-Pan-Anglican Contest and Festival every four years as a means of increasing goodwill and good understanding of the British Empire".
John Astley Cooper Committees were formed worldwide and helped Pierre de Coubertin to get his international Olympic Games off the ground. In 1911, the Festival of the Empire was held at The Crystal Palace in London to celebrate the coronation of George V; as part of the Festival of the Empire, an Inter-Empire Championships were held in which teams from Australia, South Africa, the United Kingdom competed in athletics, boxing and swimming events. Canada won the championships and was gifted a silver cup, 2 feet 6 inch high and weighed 340 oz, it was gifted by Lord Lonsdale. However, the 1911 championships were followed by the first world war which happened from 1914 to 1918; the organisers had lost hopes of hosting such sporting events for the empire athletes. Melville Marks Robinson, who went to the 1928 Summer Olympics in Amsterdam to serve as the manager of the Canadian track and field team lobbied for the proposal of organising the first British Empire Games in Hamilton in 1930; the 1930 British Empire Games were the first of what become known as the Commonwealth Games, were held in Hamilton, in the province of Ontario in Canada from 16–23 August 1930.
Eleven countries sent a total of 400 athletes to the Hamilton Games. The opening and closing ceremonies as well as athletics took place at Civic Stadium; the participant nations were Australia, British Guyana, England, Northern Ireland, New Zealand, South Africa and Wales. The Hamilton Games featured six sports: athletics, lawn bowls, rowing and diving and wrestling and ran at a cost of $97,973. Women competed in only the aquatic events. Canadian triple jumper Gordon Smallacombe won the first gold medal in the history of the Games; the 1934 British Empire Games were the second of what is now known as the Commonwealth Games, held in London, England. The host city was London, with the main venue at Wembley Park, although the track cycling events were in Manchester; the 1934 Games had been awarded to Johannesburg, but were giv
Walter Beardsley Tewksbury, was an American track and field athlete. At the 1900 Summer Olympics, he won five medals, including two golds. Born in Ashley, Tewksbury studied for a dental degree at the University of Pennsylvania, graduating in 1899. Running for the university team, he won the IC4A titles in the 110 and 220 y in 1898 and 1899. After graduating in 1899, he headed for Paris to compete in the Olympic Games. Tewksbury entered in 5 events, but had strong competition, among others from fellow Penn student Alvin Kraenzlein. In the 100 m, Tewksbury equalled the world record in the semi-finals, but placed second in the final to Frank Jarvis; the following day, he took another second place, behind Kraenzlein, in the 60 m, before entering the 400 m hurdles. At the time, this event had never been contested in the United States, but Tewksbury beat the local favourite for the 400 m hurdles title; the event was quite different from present day, as the hurdles were telephone poles laid over the track, the final hurdles was a water barrier.
In the final of the 200 m hurdles, he placed third. The final of the 200 m was held a week later. Tewksbury retired from sports to open a dental practice in Tunkhannock, Pennsylvania in 1913, he died there on April 24, 1968
Harry Livingston Hillman Jr. was an American athlete and winner of three gold medals at the 1904 Summer Olympics. Born in Brooklyn, New York, Hillman was a member of three Olympic teams at the turn of the century, he was a coach at Dartmouth College. Hillman won three gold medals at the 1904 Olympics in St. Louis, taking the flat 400 metres, the 200 metres hurdles and the 400 metres hurdles, he had Olympic record times in all three events, but Hillman tripped one hurdle in the 400 metres, which meant that his time of 53.0 seconds could not be counted as a world record. In addition, the race was run over hurdles that were too low at 76 centimetres instead of the normal 91,4. En route to Greece for the 1906 Summer Olympics, Hillman was one of a half-dozen athletes who were injured by an enormous wave that washed over the deck of the ship, he finished fifth in his only event that year. Hillman won a silver medal in the 400 metres hurdles at the 1908 Summer Olympics, setting a short-lived record in the second round.
He and Charles Bacon of the USA went over the last hurdle but Bacon won the run to the tape to win in a world record 55.0 seconds. Hillman's time in the race was 55.3 seconds. On April 24, 1909, Hillman and Lawson Robertson set a record that has never been equalled, running the 100 yards three-legged race in 11.0 seconds. He won two each in the 200 metres and 400 metres hurdles; the track coach at Dartmouth College from 1910 until his death, Hillman advised hurdlers to swallow raw eggs, which he believed to be "excellent for the wind and stomach." He was on the Olympic track and field coaching staff in 1924, 1928, 1932 Summer Olympics, as well as acting as trainer for the American Davis Cup team in 1935. One of his most famous athletes was Canadian hurdler Earl Thomson, the winner of the gold medal in the 110 metres hurdles at the 1920 Summer Olympics. In 1930 Hillman, along with Thomson and Harold Barron, was involved in the design of a new safer hurdle, with a view to reducing the danger of bad falls and injuries.
Hillman died at New Hampshire. Harry Hillman at the International Olympic Committee Harry Hillman at Olympics at Sports-Reference.com