click links in text for more info

John Ashcroft

John David Ashcroft is an American lawyer and former politician who served as the 79th U. S. Attorney General, in the George W. Bush Administration, he founded The Ashcroft Group, a Washington D. C. lobbying firm. Ashcroft served as Attorney General of Missouri, as the 50th Governor of Missouri, having been elected for two consecutive terms in succession, he served as a U. S. Senator from Missouri, he was mentored by John Danforth. He has written several books about ethics. Since 2011 he sits on the board of directors for the private military company Academi, has been a member of the Federalist Society, is a professor at the Regent University School of Law, a conservative Christian institution affiliated with televangelist Pat Robertson, his son, Jay Ashcroft, is a politician, serving as Secretary of State of Missouri since January, 2017. Ashcroft was born in Chicago, the son of Grace P. and James Robert Ashcroft. The family lived in Springfield, where his father was a minister in an Assemblies of God congregation, served as president of Evangel University, jointly as President of Central Bible College.

His mother was a homemaker. Ashcroft went to local schools in Springfield, he attended Yale University, where he was a member of the St. Elmo Society, graduating in 1964, he received a Juris Doctor degree from the University of Chicago School of Law. After law school, Ashcroft taught Business Law and worked as an administrator at Southwest Missouri State University. During the Vietnam War, he was not drafted because he received six student draft deferments and one occupational deferment because of his teaching work. In 1972, Ashcroft ran for a Congressional seat in southwest Missouri in the Republican primary election, narrowly losing to Gene Taylor. After the primary, Missouri Governor Kit Bond appointed Ashcroft to the office of State Auditor, which Bond had vacated when he became governor. In 1974, Ashcroft was narrowly defeated for election to that post by Jackson County County Executive George W. Lehr, he had argued that Ashcroft, not an accountant, was not qualified to be the State Auditor.

Missouri Attorney General John Danforth, in his second term, hired Ashcroft as an Assistant State Attorney General. During his service, Ashcroft shared an office with Clarence Thomas, a future U. S. Supreme Court Supreme Court Justice. In 1976, Danforth was elected to the U. S. Senate, Ashcroft was elected to replace him as State Attorney General, he was sworn in on December 27, 1976. In 1980, Ashcroft was re-elected with 64.5 percent of the vote, winning 96 of Missouri's 114 counties. In 1983, Ashcroft wrote the leading amicus curiae brief in the U. S. Supreme Court Case Sony Corp. of America v. Universal City Studios, Inc. supporting the use of video cassette recorders for time shifting of television programs. Ashcroft was elected governor in 1984 and re-elected in 1988, becoming the first Republican in Missouri history elected to two consecutive terms. In 1984, his opponent was the Democratic Lt. Governor Ken Rothman; the campaign was so negative on both sides that a reporter described the contest as "two alley cats over truth in advertising".

In his campaign ads, Ashcroft showed the contrast between his rural-base and the supporters of his urban-based opponent from St. Louis. Democrats did not close ranks on primary night; the defeated candidate Mel Carnahan endorsed Rothman. In the end, Ashcroft won 57 percent of the vote and carried 106 counties—then the largest Republican gubernatorial victory in Missouri history. In 1988, Ashcroft won by a larger margin over his Democratic opponent, Betty Cooper Hearnes, the wife of the former governor Warren Hearnes. Ashcroft received 64 percent of the vote in the general election—the largest landslide for governor in Missouri history since the U. S. Civil War. During his second term, Ashcroft served as chairman of the National Governors Association; as governor, Ashcroft helped enact tougher standards and sentencing for gun crimes, increased funding for local law enforcement, tougher standards and punishment for people bringing guns into schools. While Ashcroft was in office: The number of full-time law enforcement officers in Missouri increased 3,825 from 1985 to 1992.

Capacity at Missouri prisons increased by 72% from 9,071 in 1985 to 15,630 in 1993. Missouri was above average in the length of time criminals had to serve for all sentences according to Gail Hughes, deputy director for the state Corrections Department, citing the 1991 yearbook published by the Criminal Justice Institute; the national average for time served for all crimes was 23.7 months, while in Missouri the average length of a sentence was 28.9 months. According to the U. S. Department of Justice, prison time in Missouri as a percentage of the time sentenced to jail was 73% in 1993 and increased to 86% in 1997; the number of juveniles arrested for committing a crime increased by 16.3% between 1985 and 1992. Though Ashcroft opposed the legislation as governor, the Missouri legislature enacted its first hate crimes legislation; the legislature enacted the Missouri Victim's Bill of Rights, which allows crime victims to be informed of and present at criminal proceedings, the right to restitution, the right to protection from the defendant and the right to be informed of the escape or release of a defendant.

In 1994 Ashcroft was elected to the U. S. Senate fro

Raymond Smallman

Raymond Edward Smallman was a British metallurgist and academic known for his research into alloys and the causes of metal fatigue. Smallman was a significant figure at the University of Birmingham, serving as its vice-principal between 1987 and 1992 and helping to establish its reputation as a leading modern research university. Smallman was born in Wolverhampton, West Midlands, the third of five children of a working-class couple. Smallman spent much of his childhood near Cannock, working at his father's fish and chips shop while his father served with the Royal Air Force during World War II. Between 1939 and 1947, Smallman attended a grammar school in Rugeley, Staffordshire, on a scholarship, he obtained a first-class honours degree in metallurgy at the University of Birmingham, supervised by Alan Cottrell. Smallman completed his PhD on the structure of cold worked metals, again under Cottrell's supervision, in 1953. After completing his doctorate, Smallman went to work as a metallurgical researcher at the Atomic Energy Research Establishment in Harwell, Oxfordshire.

At AERE, Smallman and his colleagues were among the first to study the structure of metals using electron microscopy, discovering unknown microstructures and defects including dislocation "loops". In 1958, in collaboration with scientists from Cambridge's Cavendish Laboratory, Smallman published a groundbreaking paper on these dislocations, which provided key evidence for an emerging theory of metal fatigue with important implications for metallurgy and engineering. Thereafter, Smallman returned to the University of Birmingham as a lecturer in physical metallurgy, oversaw the development of a successful metallurgical research team. In 1964, he was appointed Chair of Birmingham's Department of Physical Metallurgy, becoming the Head of the Department of Metallurgy and Materials in 1980. In 1985, Smallman oversaw the founding of an independent, research-focused Faculty of Engineering at Birmingham, subsequently became the new faculty's Dean. ISmallman was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1986, was elected a Fellow of the Royal Academy of Engineering in 1991.

In 1987, Smallman became the Vice-Principal of the university, a position he held until 1992. As Vice-Principal, he implemented numerous university-wide administrative and academic reforms, helped to strengthen the university's links to industry and commerce. Smallman's reforms were credited with helping to raise Birmingham's national and international profile as a major research university. In his years, Smallman was a visiting lecturer at numerous universities and scientific societies worldwide. 1969: awarded Beilby Medal and Prize from the Royal Society of Chemistry 1992: appointed a Commander of the Order of the British Empire. Smallman married Doreen Faulkner in September 1952, they remained married for the rest of Smallman's life.

Griffiths Mxenge

Griffiths Mlungisi Mxenge was born in KwaRayi, a rural settlement outside of King Williams Town, Eastern Cape. He was a civil rights lawyer, a member of the African National Congress and a South African anti-apartheid activist. Griffiths Mlungisi Mxenge was the eldest son of Hannah Nowise Mxenge, his parents were farmers in KwaRayi. He began his high schooling at Forbes Grant Secondary school in Ginsberg but matriculated from Newell High school in Port Elizabeth in 1956. In 1959, he received a bachelor's degree from Fort Hare University majoring in Roman Dutch Law and English, he joined the African National Congress Youth League. The Defiance Campaign and the Congress of the People in Kliptown contributed to his political consciousness He enrolled for an LLB degree at the University of Natal but in 1962, the same year he married Victoria Mxenge. In 1966, his studies were interrupted. In 1967, he was imprisoned for two years on Robben Island under the Suppression of Communism Act for furthering the aims of the ANC.

Mxenge's first son, was born while he was in detention. In 1969, Mxenge was released from Robben Island and served with a two-year banning order that among other things prohibited him from entering University premises. With the help of the Dean of Law Faculty, the late Professor Tony Matthews, he was still able to complete his LLB and graduate in 1970, his second son, Viwe was born in 1970. In 1971 Mxenge began serving his articles under Rabie Bugwandeen of the Natal Indian Congress, he was issued with a five-year banning order the same year. In 1974, he was admitted as an attorney of the Supreme Court of South Africa; the following year, in 1975, he opened his own legal practice in Durban. His daughter, was born, he represented members of other parties. Notably, he defended Joseph Mduli, a member of the ANC and Umkonto weSizwe, brutally murdered. In an unprecedented move, following Mxenge's efforts and international pressure, four policemen were charged with the murder of Mduli. Mxenge was detained for his involvement in the murder case.

He was an active member of the Release Mandela Committee and served as a member of the Lawyers for Human Rights. Mxenge was a founding member of the South African Democratic Lawyers Association. In 1981, Mxenge was assassinated by the apartheid death squad, led by Dirk Coetzee, in Umlazi township south of Durban, he was abducted before the apartheid death squad stabbed him 45 times, beat him with a hammer and slit his throat. His body was found near a soccer field in Umlazi. Four years after her husband's murder, Victoria Mxenge was shot and hacked to death in front of her children at their Umlazi home in Durban. On 4 November 1996, former Vlakplaas commander, Dirk Coetzee, testified about his involvement in the murder of Griffiths Mxenge, he asked for amnesty from the Truth and Reconciliation Commission. Despite protests from Mxenge's family, Coetzee was granted amnesty. Mxenge and his wife were both awarded the Order of Luthuli in Silver by the South African government, his award recognised his contribution to the field of law and the supreme sacrifice he made in the fight against apartheid in South Africa The Victoria and Griffiths Mxenge memorial lecture is hosted annually at the University of KwaZulu Natal's Howard College.

Dirk Coetzee Death Squad ANC archives


The genus Spizella is a group of American sparrows in the family Passerellidae. These birds are small and slim, with short bills, round heads and long wings, they are found in semi-open areas, outside of the nesting season they forage in small mixed flocks. This genus was placed with the Old World buntings in the family Emberizidae. However, genetic studies revealed that New World sparrows formed a distinct clade and thus it was placed in the resurrected family Passerellidae. Chipping sparrow, Spizella passerina Clay-colored sparrow, Spizella pallida Brewer's sparrow, Spizella breweri Timberline sparrow, Spizella breweri taverneri Field sparrow, Spizella pusilla Worthen's sparrow, Spizella wortheni Black-chinned sparrow, Spizella atrogularisThe American tree sparrow, Spizelloides arborea, was a member of this group, but is now placed in its own monotypic genus Spizelloides

Mount Devol

Mount Devol is the ice-covered mountain rising to 1700 m in Lassus Mountains, northern Alexander Island in Antarctica. It surmounts Nichols Snowfield to the east and Narechen Glacier to the west; the feature is named after the region of Devol in medieval Southwestern Bulgaria. The mountain is located at 69°35′08″S 71°29′15″W, 10.24 km south by east of Mount Wilbye, 8.7 km southwest of Mount Kliment Ohridski in Sofia University Mountains, 8.77 km west of Rachenitsa Nunatak, 2.7 km north by west of Moriseni Peak and 9.5 km east by north of Faulkner Nunatak. British Antarctic Territory. Scale 1:200000 topographic map. DOS 610 – W 69 70. Tolworth, UK, 1971 Antarctic Digital Database. Scale 1:250000 topographic map of Antarctica. Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research. Since 1993 upgraded and updated Bulgarian Antarctic Gazetteer. Antarctic Place-names Commission. Mount Devol. SCAR Composite Gazetteer of Antarctica Mount Devol. Copernix satellite imageThis article includes information from the Antarctic Place-names Commission of Bulgaria, used with permission

2013 FIA WTCC Race of Argentina

The 2013 FIA WTCC Race of Argentina was the eighth round of the 2013 World Touring Car Championship season and the maiden running of the FIA WTCC Race of Argentina. It was held on 4 August 2013 at the Autódromo Termas de Río Hondo in Termas de Río Hondo, Santiago del Estero Province, Argentina. Race one was won by Yvan Muller for RML while race two was won by local driver José María López on his debut weekend in the World Touring Car Championship while driving for Wiechers-Sport. Muller was leading the drivers' championship by 122 points over Michel Nykjær, leading the Yokohama Independents' Trophy; the Honda Civic WTCCs, SEAT León WTCCs and BMW 320 TCs lost all additional ballast when the compensation weights were re-calculated. The Chevrolet Cruzes retained their 40 kg of ballast while the Lada Grantas remained 20 kg below the baseweight. José María López joined Wiechers-Sport for the round. Following heavy damage sustained in the previous round, Tom Boardman and the Special Tuning Racing team elected to skip the Race of Argentina to repair the car before shipping to the United States.

Campos Racing's Hugo Valente came to the event with a 10–place grid penalty for race one after ignoring yellow flags in race one in Portugal. Muller led an RML 1–2 in Friday's test session, López was eleventh quickest in his first WTCC session. Muller and teammate Tom Chilton were first and second once again in free practice one, Tiago Monteiro was third for Honda and fourth placed López was the quickest independent driver; the session had been red flagged early on when a technical failure cut off the timing and video systems. Chilton led a Chevrolet 1–2–3 in free practice two ahead of Muller and bamboo-engineering's Alex MacDowall; the session was red flagged when René Münnich got his Münnich Motorsport SEAT stuck in a gravel trap. His teammate Robert Huff stopped on the track three minutes from the end as a result of a suspected turbocharger failure. Münnich Motorsport were forced to change the engine in Huff's car after free practice two, earning the reigning champion a penalty which would see him start at the back of the grid for race one.

Monteiro would be sent to the back of the grid for race one following an engine change. Nykjær led the cars out at the start of Q1, Muller went to the top of the times straight away while MacDowall was the first driver to go off the track. López was running as high as third during the session while for a brief time both Lukoil Lada Sport cars were inside the top twelve before Mikhail Kozlovskiy was bumped down the order by improvements for other drivers, notably James Nash and Marc Basseng. After lengthy repairs, Huff left the pits in time to do one flying lap, only good enough for 14th, putting him out of qualifying. Valente was the only SEAT driver to get through to Q2 when Basseng was displaced by Nash while López was the only BMW driver to do so. A misunderstanding between the ROAL Motorsport pair of Tom Coronel and Darryl O'Young saw the pair eliminated from qualifying in the first session. After a short break, Q2 began and Muller went to the top of the times once again. A group of cars formed up for a final flying lap at the end of the session with both Muller and Chilton improving their times.

Pepe Oriola was the other driver to go off on the final tour. López had caught up with the back of the train of cars, driving around the circuit before going off on a final fast lap but he still finished tenth to secure pole position for race two. After qualifying, Chilton, MacDowall, Tarquini and Oriola were called to the stewards to explain the slow train of cars at the end of Q2 but no further action was taken. Kozlovskiy was lost all his lap times for a breach of parc fermé regulations when a laptop was connected to his car. López was quickest in the warm–up session on Sunday morning, edging out the Chevrolet of MacDowall. Huff was third. Muller was on pole position for the first race, the first attempt at the rolling start was aborted when second placed Chilton failed to drive through the grid boxes; the race was started when the cars came around again, Chilton ran wide at the first corner and lost places to Nykjær and Oriola. On lap five Chilton reclaimed second place ahead of Oriola. Michelisz lost his front splitter following collisions with Nykjær and Nash which caused the three of them to slow down allowing Tarquini to move past the group into fourth place.

López was able to catch up with them having run in a distant 8th place and he picked them off one–by–one to finish 5th. Oriola passed Chilton at the end of the race to split with RML cars, Muller won by a comfortable margin of 4.9 seconds ahead of Oriola. López in fifth was the Yokohama Trophy winner in his first WTCC race while Huff and Monteiro came through from the back of the grid to score points in 8th and 10th respectively. López started on pole position for the second race and maintained his first place at the start, at the end of the first lap he had built up a lead of 1.8 seconds ahead of Monteiro. Nykjær separated the Hondas as Tarquini was running fourth, by the end of the second lap Muller had closed in on the trio fighting for second place. Tarquini tried a move on Nykjær at turn thirteen, he ran wide and Nykjær did trying to defend which allowed Muller and Nash through while Tarquini was now battling with Oriola and Michelisz for 6th place. On lap three Nykjær tried to dive up the inside of Nash at turn seven but the pair collided and allowed Tarquini through while MacDowall and Chilton collided further back.

Monteiro was running second ahead of Muller on lap five and the pair were closing in on López when Muller ran into the back of him in the braking area