USS Portsmouth (1843)
The second USS Portsmouth was a wooden sloop-of-war in the United States Navy in service during the mid-to-late 19th century. She was designed by Josiah Barker on the lines of a French-built privateer and she was described as an improvement over the USS Saratoga built in the same shipyard a year earlier. The Portsmouth was launched on 23 October 1843 and commissioned on 10 November 1844, the Portsmouth had an important role during the Mexican-American War, seizing the port of Yerba Buena from Mexico. She had set sail on 25 January 1845 from Norfolk, Virginia, en route, she made stops in Rio de Janeiro, Callao, the Sandwich Islands, and Acapulco. Upon arriving off the Departamento de Las Californias coast, with Lieutenant Benjamin F. B. S. renamed Portsmouth Square, the site is located in modern Chinatown. The Portsmouth remained in San Francisco Bay until November 1846, when she was sent to San Diego, during 1847, she was assigned to blockade Mexicos west coast. Her duty completed by early 1848, she got underway for the back to the U. S.
east coast on the morning of 3 January. Returning to Boston in May 1848 she departed again on 29 August, there until 1 February 1849 she patrolled with Royal Navy ships to suppress the slave trade. Between September 1849 and May 1851 she again cruised off the West African coast, six months Portsmouth left Boston for duty in the Pacific. On 5 April 1855 she returned to the east coast for overhaul at Norfolk, under Commander Andrew H. Foote she reached Batavia 94 days later, whence she sailed to China. There she participated in the engagement with the Barrier Forts of Canton on 16–22 November 1856, ordered home in January 1858, she returned to Portsmouth, New Hampshire, and remained there until sailing for Africa again for a three-year tour, 1859–61. Following the onset of the Civil War, Portsmouth home-ported and refitted between September and December 1861, sailed for the Gulf of Mexico and duty with the Gulf Blockading Squadron, by the end of February 1862 she had captured two blockade runners off Texas.
In April she participated in operations against Forts Jackson and St. Philip, in 1875 she conducted a cruise off the west coast of Latin America and on 14 July 1878 was decommissioned as a cruiser and assigned as a training ship for boys. On 25 July 1876 at Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Boatswains Mate Alexander Parker attempted to rescue a shipmate from drowning, in 1878 Portsmouth returned to the east coast, arriving at Washington, D. C. on 16 February. In March she sailed to France, returning in December to resume training duties on 17 January 1895, first with naval apprentices, with the New Jersey Naval Militia. It was during this time Fred J. Buenzle had served aboard the Portsmouth, as noted in Bluejacket, An Autobiography, a part of the Classics Of Naval Literature series. Three of her crewman earned the Medal of Honor during this period for jumping overboard to rescue fellow sailors, Boatswains Mate Francis Moore on 23 January 1882, courtney and Boatswains Mate Thomas Cramen on 7 February 1882.
Portsmouth was loaned to the Public Health Service, Quarantine Station and she was struck from the Navy List on 17 April 1915 and subsequently sold
War of 1812
Historians in the United States and Canada see it as a war in its own right, but the British often see it as a minor theatre of the Napoleonic Wars. By the wars end in early 1815, the key issues had been resolved, the view was shared in much of New England and for that reason the war was widely referred to there as Mr. Madison’s War. As a result, the primary British war goal was to defend their North American colonies, the war was fought in three theatres. Second and naval battles were fought on the U. S. –Canadian frontier, large-scale battles were fought in the Southern United States and Gulf Coast. With the majority of its land and naval forces tied down in Europe fighting the Napoleonic Wars, early victories over poorly-led U. S. armies demonstrated that the conquest of the Canadas would prove more difficult than anticipated. Despite this, the U. S. was able to inflict serious defeats on Britains Native American allies, both governments were eager for a return to normality and peace negotiations began in Ghent in August 1814.
This brought an Era of Good Feelings in which partisan animosity nearly vanished in the face of strengthened American nationalism, the war was a major turning point in the development of the U. S. military, with militia being increasingly replaced by a more professional force. The U. S. acquired permanent ownership of Spains Mobile District, the government of Canada declared a three-year commemoration of the War of 1812 in 2012, intended to offer historical lessons and celebrate 200 years of peace across the border. At the conclusion of the commemorations in 2014, a new national War of 1812 Monument was unveiled in Ottawa. The war is remembered in Britain primarily as a footnote in the much larger Napoleonic Wars occurring in Europe, historians have long debated the relative weight of the multiple reasons underlying the origins of the War of 1812. This section summarizes several contributing factors which resulted in the declaration of war by the United States, as Risjord notes, a powerful motivation for the Americans was the desire to uphold national honour in the face of what they considered to be British insults such as the Chesapeake–Leopard Affair.
The approaching conflict was about violations of American rights, but it was vindication of American identity. Americans at the time and historians since often called it the United States Second War of Independence, in 1807, Britain introduced a series of trade restrictions via a series of Orders in Council to impede neutral trade with France, with which Britain was at war. The United States contested these restrictions as illegal under international law, the American merchant marine had come close to doubling between 1802 and 1810, making it by far the largest neutral fleet. Britain was the largest trading partner, receiving 80% of U. S. cotton, the British public and press were resentful of the growing mercantile and commercial competition. The United States view was that Britains restrictions violated its right to trade with others, during the Napoleonic Wars, the Royal Navy expanded to 176 ships of the line and 600 ships overall, requiring 140,000 sailors to man. The United States believed that British deserters had a right to become U. S.
citizens and this meant that in addition to recovering naval deserters, it considered any United States citizens who were born British liable for impressment. Aggravating the situation was the reluctance of the United States to issue formal naturalization papers and it was estimated by the Admiralty that there were 11,000 naturalized sailors on United States ships in 1805
Yerba Buena, California
Yerba Buena was the original name of the Spanish settlement that became San Francisco, California. The settlement was arranged in the Spanish style around a plaza that remains as the present day Portsmouth Square, the name of the town was taken from the yerba buena plant, native to the pueblo site. Franciscan missionary Pedro Font, accompanying the Juan Bautista de Anza expedition of 1775-76, the plants common name, yerba buena, the same in English and Spanish, is an alternate form of the Spanish hierba buena. The Spanish Portolá expedition, led by Don Gaspar de Portolá arrived overland from Mexico on November 2,1769 and it was the first documented European visit by land to the San Francisco Bay Area, claiming it for Spain as part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. A second group of soldiers, this accompanied by settlers, arrived in June 1776. One of De Anzas officers, José Joaquín Moraga, was given the task of building a Spanish mission, Mission San Francisco de Asís and a military fort, the Presidio of San Francisco.
Moraga chose a location halfway between the two sites to build housing for the workers, which became known as Yerba Buena. A supply ship arrived about two months and the settlers began building, in 1804 Las Californias province was split into Alta California province and Baja California province, both still within the Spanish Viceroyalty of New Spain. Upon independence from Spain in 1821, the territory of Alta California became part of Mexico, over the years the area between the port facilities at Yerba Buena Cove and the housing area of Yerba Buena filled in. The old plaza is todays Portsmouth Square, in 1835, Englishman William A. Richardson erected a homestead near the boat anchorage of Yerba Buena Cove. Together with Alcalde Francisco de Haro, he laid out a plan for the expanded settlement. In early 1841 James Douglas of the Hudsons Bay Company, operating on the Pacific coast from Fort Vancouver, a large building on the waters edge was purchased. The HBC post had several purposes and it operated as a wholesale store, selling goods exported from Fort Vancouver such as salmon and British manufactures in exchange for hides and tallow.
Despite the mercantile potential of the HBC store in Yerba Buena, the HBC store in Yerba Buena was sold in 1846, two years before the California Gold Rush transformed Yerba Buena into the major city on the North American west coast. On July 7,1846, US Navy Commodore John D. Henry Bulls Watson was placed in command of the garrison there. On July 31,1846, Yerba Buena doubled in population when about 240 Mormon migrants from the East coast arrived on the ship Brooklyn, in August 1846, Lt. Washington Allon Bartlett was named alcalde of Yerba Buena. On January 30,1847, Lt. Bartletts proclamation changing the name Yerba Buena to San Francisco took effect. The city and the rest of Alta California officially became a United States military territory in 1848 by the terms of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, California was admitted for statehood to the United States on September 9,1850
Santa Barbara, California
Santa Barbara is the county seat of Santa Barbara County in the U. S. state of California. Situated on a section of coastline, the longest such section on the West Coast of the United States. Santa Barbaras climate is described as Mediterranean, and the city has been promoted as the American Riviera. The population of the county in 2010 was 423,895. In 2004, the sector accounted for fully 35% of local employment. Education in particular is well represented, with four institutions of learning on the south coast. The Santa Barbara Airport serves the city, as does Amtrak, U. S. Highway 101 connects the Santa Barbara area with Los Angeles to the southeast and San Francisco to the northwest. Behind the city, in and beyond the Santa Ynez Mountains, is the Los Padres National Forest, Channel Islands National Park and Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary are located approximately 20 miles offshore. Evidence of human habitation of the area begins at least 13,000 years ago, an estimated 8,000 to 10,000 Chumash lived on the south coast of Santa Barbara County at the time of the first European explorations.
Five Chumash villages flourished in the area, portuguese explorer João Cabrilho, sailing for the Kingdom of Spain, sailed through what is now called the Santa Barbara Channel in 1542, anchoring briefly in the area. In 1602, Spanish maritime explorer Sebastián Vizcaíno gave the name Santa Barbara to the channel, a land expedition led by Gaspar de Portolà visited in 1769, and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespi, who accompanied the expedition, named a large native town Laguna de la Concepcion. Cabrillos earlier name, however, is the one that has survived, the first permanent European residents were Spanish missionaries and soldiers under Felipe de Neve, who came in 1782 to build the Presidio. They were sent both to fortify the region against expansion by other such as England and Russia. Many of the Spaniards brought their families with them, and those formed the nucleus of the small town – at first just a cluster of adobes – that surrounded the Presidio, the Santa Barbara Mission was established on the Feast of Saint Barbara, December 4,1786.
It was the tenth of the California Missions to be founded by the Spanish Franciscans and it was dedicated by Padre Fermín Lasuén, who succeeded Padre Junipero Serra as the second president and founder of the California Franciscan Mission Chain. The Mission fathers began the work of converting the native Chumash to Christianity. The Chumash laborers built a connection between the creek and the Santa Barbara Mission water system through the use of a dam. During the following decades, many of the natives died of such as smallpox
New International Encyclopedia
The New International Encyclopedia was an American encyclopedia first published in 1902 by Dodd and Company. It descended from the International Cyclopaedia and was updated in 1906,1914 and 1926, the New International Encyclopedia was the successor of the International Cyclopaedia. Initially, the International Cyclopaedia was largely a reprint of Aldens Library of Universal Knowledge, the local Cyclopaedia was much improved by editors Harry Thurston Peck and Selim Peabody. The title was changed to New International Encyclopedia in 1902, with editors Harry Thurston Peck, Daniel Coit Gilman, in 1906 the New International Encyclopedia was expanded from 17 volumes to 20. The 2nd edition appeared in 1914 in 24 volumes, set up from new type and it was very strong in biography. The 1926 material was printed in Cambridge, Massachusetts, by The University Press, boston Bookbinding Company of Cambridge produced the covers. Thirteen books enclosing twenty-three volumes comprise the encyclopedia, which includes a supplement after Volume 23, each book contains about 1600 pages.
A great deal of material is recorded in the New International Encyclopedia. An early description of Adolf Hitler and his activities from 1920 to 1924 is in the supplement to the 1926 edition, many of the names used to describe the scientific identities of plants and animals are now obsolete. Numerous colorful maps which display the nations, colonies, the maps are valuable for their depictions of national and colonial borders in Europe and Africa at the time of World War I. Drawings and photographs are plentiful, more than 500 men, and some women and composed the information contained in the New International Encyclopedia. Editors of the First Edition Daniel Coit Gilman, LL. D, President of Johns Hopkins University, President of Carnegie Institution. Frank Moore Colby, M. A. formerly Professor in New York University, editors of the Second Edition Frank Moore Colby, M. A. Talcott Williams, LL. D. Director of the School of Journalism, Columbia University, media related to New International Encyclopedia at Wikimedia Commons 1914 second ed
Oak Hill Cemetery (Washington, D.C.)
Oak Hill Cemetery is a historic 22-acre cemetery located in the Georgetown neighborhood of Washington, D. C. in the United States. It was founded in 1848 and completed in 1853, and is an example of a garden cemetery. Oak Hill has two structures which are listed on the National Register of Historic Places, the Oak Hill Cemetery Chapel and the Van Ness Mausoleum. Oak Hill began in 1848 as part of the rural cemetery movement, directly inspired by the success of Mount Auburn Cemetery and he organized the Cemetery Company to oversee Oak Hill, it was incorporated by act of Congress on March 3,1849. Oak Hills chapel was built in 1849 by noted architect James Renwick and his one story rectangular chapel measures 23 by 41 feet and sits on the cemeterys highest ridge. It is built of granite, in Gothic Revival style. By 1851, landscape designer Captain George F. de la Roche finished laying out the winding paths, when initial construction was completed in 1853, Corcoran had spent over $55,000 on the cemeterys landscaping and architecture.
Barry, Brevet Brigadier General in the Union Army and Representative from Mississippi Alice Birney, acting Secretary of War under President Andrew Johnson Theodore Timby, inventor of the revolving turret first introduced on the Civil War ship USS Monitor, and many other inventions. His portrait of Ulysses S. Grant hangs in the White House, with brother Julius had photographic studio in Washington DC. National Register of Historic Places Travel Itinerary
Algiers is the capital and largest city of Algeria. In 2011, the population was estimated to be around 3,500,000. An estimate puts the population of the metropolitan city to be around 5,000,000. Algiers is located on the Mediterranean Sea and in the portion of Algeria. The casbah and the two form a triangle. A Phoenician commercial outpost called Ikosim which developed into a small Roman town called Icosium existed on what is now the quarter of the city. The rue de la Marine follows the lines of what used to be a Roman street, Roman cemeteries existed near Bab-el-Oued and Bab Azoun. The city was given Latin rights by Emperor Vespasian, the bishops of Icosium are mentioned as late as the 5th century. The present-day city was founded in 944 by Bologhine ibn Ziri and he had earlier built his own house and a Sanhaja center at Ashir, just south of Algiers. Although his Zirid dynasty was overthrown by Roger II of Sicily in 1148, the city was wrested from the Hammadids by the Almohads in 1159, and in the 13th century came under the dominion of the Ziyanid sultans of Tlemcen.
Nominally part of the sultanate of Tlemcen, Algiers had a measure of independence under amirs of its own due to Oran being the chief seaport of the Ziyanids. As early as 1302 the islet of Peñón in front of Algiers harbour had been occupied by Spaniards, thereafter, a considerable amount of trade began to flow between Algiers and Spain. However, Algiers continued to be of little importance until after the expulsion of the Moors from Spain. In 1510, following their occupation of Oran and other towns on the coast of Africa, in 1516, the amir of Algiers, Selim b. Teumi, invited the corsair brothers Aruj and Hayreddin Barbarossa to expel the Spaniards, Aruj came to Algiers, ordered the assassination of Selim, and seized the town and ousted the Spanish in the Capture of Algiers. Hayreddin, succeeding Aruj after the latter was killed in battle against the Spaniards in the Fall of Tlemcen, was the founder of the pashaluk, Algiers from this time became the chief seat of the Barbary pirates. Formally part of the Ottoman Empire but essentially free from Ottoman control, starting in the 16th century Algiers turned to piracy, repeated attempts were made by various nations to subdue the pirates that disturbed shipping in the western Mediterranean and engaged in slave raids as far north as Iceland.
The United States fought two wars over Algiers attacks on shipping, among the notable people held for ransom was the future Spanish novelist Miguel de Cervantes, who was captive in Algiers almost five years, and who wrote two plays set in Algiers of the period
Regional Municipality of York
The Regional Municipality of York, called York Region, is a regional municipality in Southern Ontario, between Lake Simcoe and Toronto. It replaced the former York County in 1971, and is part of the Greater Toronto Area, the regional government is headquartered in Newmarket. The 2011 census population was 1,032,524, surpassing the mark of one million. At the Canada 2011 Census,53,989 residents inhabited rural areas in the municipality,67,551 resided in urban areas. Its growth rate of 15. 7% from 2006 to 2011 was the sixth highest amongst all census divisions in Canada, and the Government of Ontario expects its population to surpass 1.5 million residents by 2031. At a meeting in Richmond Hill on 6 May 1970, officials representing the municipalities of York County approved plans for the creation of a government entity to replace York County. The plan had been presented in 1969 by Darcy McKeough, the Ontario Minister of Municipal Affairs, the Regional Municipality of York was created by Act of the Legislative Assembly of Ontario in 1970, which took effect on January 1,1971.
The eastern boundary of the new town of Markham was defined to be at Yonge Street, the townships of Georgina, North Gwillimbury, and Sutton were merged into the township of Georgina, and the East Gwillimbury neighbourhood of East Gwillimbury Heights was merged into Newmarket. The boundary between Aurora and Newmarket was defined to be St. Johns Sideroad, and Newmarkets northern boundary was defined to be Green Lane. The growth centres were each restricted to grow to a population of 25,000 by 2000. The municipal realignment merged 40% of East Gwillimburys population into Newmarket, the council of East Gwillimbury voted to amalgamate with Newmarket, but Newmarket council opposed the amalgamation. In the plan presented by McKeough, the councils of the towns of Newmarket, the internal municipal realignments resulted in some politicians residing in a new municipality from that which they represented at the time of realignment. York Region covers 1,762 square kilometres from Lake Simcoe in the north to the city of Toronto in the south and its eastern border is shared with Durham Region, to the west is Peel Region, and Simcoe County is to the northwest.
A detailed map of the region showing its major roads, York Regions landscape includes farmlands and kettle lakes, the Oak Ridges Moraine and over 2,070 hectares of regional forest, in addition to the built-up areas of its municipalities. York Region is situated on a continental climate with warm summers. The region is governed by a known as York Regional Council. Wayne Emmerson, a mayor of Whitchurch-Stouffville, was elected to this office in December,2014. In October 2008, the York Regional Municipality was named one of Greater Torontos Top Employers by Mediacorp Canada Inc, the economy of York Region is diverse
Joseph Warren Revere (general)
Joseph Warren Revere was a career United States Navy and Army officer. Joseph Warren Revere was born 17 May 1812 and was a grandson of Paul Revere and his parents were Dr. John Revere and Lydia LeBaron Goodwin. He was named after General Joseph Warren, the famous doctor, in 1828 at age sixteen Revere joined the United States Navy. His tours of duty took him to Europe, the Pacific, Revere traveled the globe and eventually reached the rank of lieutenant. Revere served in the Second Seminole War but saw little action and he fought in the Mexican-American War and was commended for his bravery in battle. He was the one who pulled down the Bear Flag and raised the American Flag over Sonoma for the first time and he resigned from the navy in 1850 after almost twenty years of service, and settled down first in California and in Morristown, New Jersey. Revere joined the Mexican Army with the rank of Colonel and he was ordered to reorganize the Mexican Artillery Corps and was honored by the Spanish and Mexican Governments.
For his rescuing of 13 Spanish citizens Queen Isabella II knighted Revere in the Order of Isabella the Catholic in 1851, in 1852 Revere retired and moved to Morristown, New Jersey. The home that he built there, The Willows at Fosterfields, the years 1857 and 58 found Revere touring Europe with his friend, Phil Kearny. He was awarded a British medal for Service in the Indian Mutiny Campaign of 1857-58 and he was present at the Battle of Sulferino during the Italian Campaigns of 1858-59. When the Civil War started in 1861 Revere tried to join the Union Navy but was informed there were no officer slots available for him. Having been appointed as head of the New Jersey Militia during the governorship of Rodman Price, Revere was appointed Colonel of the 7th New Jersey Volunteer Infantry and led it into in the Peninsula Campaign and the Seven Days Battle. Revere fought at the Second Battle of Bull Run where he was commended for his bravery, in October 1862 Joseph Revere was promoted to Brigadier General of U. S.
Volunteers. At the Battle of Fredericksburg he led a brigade but saw little action and he was named to command the Excelsior Brigade. Reveres most personally challenging moment of his Civil War career came after the Battle of Chancellorsville when blame was being assigned for the Union Armys loss, after charging the Confederate line, division commander Maj. Gen. Hiram Berry was mortally wounded and the command developed on Revere. In the chaos of a battle with no front line, Reveres decision to regroup his men. This three-mile march, described by Revere as an effort and not a retreat. Abraham Lincoln overturned the ruling and reinstated Revere but accepted Reveres resignation at the same time
Boston Navy Yard
The Boston Navy Yard, originally called the Charlestown Navy Yard and Boston Naval Shipyard, was one of the oldest shipbuilding facilities in the United States Navy. Enough of the remains in operation to support the USS Constitution. The USS Cassin Young, a World War II-era destroyer serving as a ship, is berthed here. Among people in the area and the National Park Service, it is known as the Charlestown Navy Yard. The South Boston Naval Annex was located along the waterfront in South Boston, the earliest naval shipbuilding activities in Charlestown, began during the American Revolutionary War. The land for the Charlestown Navy Yard was purchased in 1800 and the yard itself established shortly thereafter. The yard built the first U. S. ship of the line, USS Independence, but was primarily a repair and storage facility until the 1890s, by then, it was called the Boston Navy Yard. The ropewalk supplied cordage used in the Navy from the time it opened in 1837 until the Yard closed in 1975, after the Civil War, the Yard was downgraded to an Equipment and Recruit Facility.
In the 1890s, the Navy began expanding and that new life to the Yard. In the first years of the 20th century, a drydock was added. During WWII, it worked to fix British ships damaged by the Germans, on September 27, 1941—Liberty Fleet Day—Boston launched two destroyers, the USS Cowie and the USS Knight. In November 1941, Boston was one of four United States naval shipyards selected to build Captain class frigates as Lend-Lease for the Royal Navy, since the United States was at war when these ships were completed, some were used by the United States Navy as destroyer escorts. In the post war period, the shipyard modified World War II ships for Cold War service through Fleet Rehabilitation and Modernization, the Korean War and Vietnam War did not bring much work to the Yard since it was so far from the fighting. Edwards Battle of Surigao Strait, Battle of Iwo Jima, Battle of Okinawa 1943, USS Richard P. Brown Battle of the Atlantic 1943, USS William C. When ideas were floated for redevelopment of the yard, one idea was to have the yard turned into a construction yard for oil tankers.
Ultimately, these fell through, and the site became part of the Boston National Historical Park. Its mission is, to interpret the art and history of naval shipbuilding, the Charlestown Navy Yard hosts many attractions. The fully commissioned USS Constitution and the museum ship USS Cassin Young are tied up at Pier 1, the Navy Yard hosts the USS Constitution Museum
The Pacific Squadron was part of the United States Navy squadron stationed in the Pacific Ocean in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Throughout the history of the Pacific Squadron, American ships fought against several enemies, over one-half of the United States Navy would be sent to join the Pacific Squadron during the Mexican-American War. During the American Civil War, the squadron was reduced in size when its vessels were reassigned to Atlantic duty, when the Civil War was over, the squadron was reinforced again until being disbanded just after the turn of the 20th century. Established in 1821, this small force confined its activities initially to the Pacific waters off South America, North America and it expanded its scope of operations to include the Western Pacific in 1835, when the East India Squadron joined the force. The squadron was reinforced when war with Mexico began to seem a possibility, sailing from the east coast to the west coast around Cape Horn was a 13,000 miles to 15,000 miles journey that typically took from 130 to 210 days.
The Pacific Squadrons First Sumatran Expedition conflict arose in February 1831, off the coast of Sumatra on February 7, the American merchant vessel Friendship out of Salem was attacked by Malay natives described as warrior pirates. The Americans were hoping to buy pepper from the natives but were attacked by three small vessels. Three men aboard Friendship were killed, one of whom was the First Mate, the surviving sailors escaped to a friendly port nearby with the help of a friendly Malay tribal chief, and obtained the assistance of other American merchantmen to retake the plundered ship. Captain Endecott returned the ship to Salem July 16,1831, president Andrew Jackson received word of the massacre and ordered Commodore John Downes in USS Potomac to punish the natives for their acts of piracy. The men went ashore in launches during which a naval engagement was fought. A few of the boats were armed with a cannon and were ordered to sink three small pirate craft in the port. The launches achieved their goal and proceeded in assisting USS Potomac in shelling five enemy citadels, the five forts were attacked by land as well and all were eventually suppressed.
Hundreds of matchlock armed natives were killed with a loss of only two Americans, after the battle, Downes warned that if any more American merchant ships were attacked, another expedition would be launched in reprisal. The mission was technically a success for six years until 1838 when the Malays attacked and plundered a second American merchantman, in response Commodore Jones in his frigate USS United States and with the sloops USS Dale and USS Cyane sailed for Californias capital, Monterey. They arrived on 19 October 1842 and took control of the city without bloodshed before returning it to the Mexicans on 21 October when Jones discovered that war had not actually been declared. The Pacific Squadron was instrumental in the capture of Alta California in the Mexican–American War of 1846 to 1848. In actual practice, some sailors on each ship were detached from each vessel to supplement the marine force, the Pacific Squadron had orders, in the event of war with Mexico, to seize the ports in Mexican California and elsewhere along the Pacific Coast.
The only other United States force in California was a sixty-two man mapping expedition which had entered California in late 1845 under the command of U. S. Army Brevet Captain John C and they had been dispatched under the auspices of the Corps of Topographical Engineers
Washington Navy Yard
The Washington Navy Yard is the former shipyard and ordnance plant of the United States Navy in Southeast Washington, D. C. It is the oldest shore establishment of the U. S. Navy, the Yard currently serves as a ceremonial and administrative center for the U. S. S. Navy Judge Advocate Generals Corps, Marine Corps Institute, the United States Navy Band, in 1998, the yard was listed as a Superfund site due to environmental contamination. The history of the yard can be divided into its history and cultural. The land was purchased under an Act of Congress on July 23,1799, the Washington Navy Yard was established on October 2,1799, the date the property was transferred to the Navy. It is the oldest shore establishment of the U. S. Navy, the original boundaries that were established in 1800, along 9th and M Street SE, are still marked by a white brick wall that surrounds the Yard on the north and east sides. The next year, two lots were purchased. The north wall of the Yard was built in 1809 along with a guardhouse, after the Burning of Washington in 1814, Tingey recommended that the height of the eastern wall be increased to ten feet because of the fire and subsequent looting.
The southern boundary of the Yard was formed by the Anacostia River, the west side was undeveloped marsh. The land located along the Anacostia was added to by landfill over the years as it became necessary to increase the size of the Yard, the USS Constitution came to the Yard in 1812 to refit and prepare for combat action. For the first thirty years of the century, the Navy Yard was the Districts principal employer of enslaved African Americans. Their numbers rose rapidly and by 1808, the muster lists, the number of enslaved workers gradually declined during the next thirty years. While the total number of enslaved workers declined, free African Americans remained a presence on the shipyard. Sailors of Navy Yard were part of the hastily assembled American army, the Navy Yard sailors, and Marines of nearby Marine Barracks, Washington, D. C. were in the third and last line of defense at Bladensburg. Together, they fought hand to hand with cutlasses and pikes against the British regulars before being overwhelmed, as the British marched into Washington, holding the Yard became impossible.
Tingey, seeing the smoke from the burning Capitol, ordered the Yard burned to prevent its capture by the enemy, both structures are now individually listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Following the War of 1812, the Washington Navy Yard never regained its prominence as a shipbuilding facility, the waters of the Anacostia River were too shallow to accommodate larger vessels, and the Yard was deemed too inaccessible to the open sea. Thus came a shift to what was to be the character of the Yard for more than a century, the Yard possessed one of the earliest steam engines in the United States