John I de Balliol
John de Balliol was a leading figure of Scottish and Anglo-Norman life of his time. Balliol College, in Oxford, is named after him and it is believed that he was educated at Durham School in the city of Durham. In 1223, Lord John married Dervorguilla of Galloway, the daughter of Alan, Lord of Galloway, by the mid-thirteenth century, he and his wife had become very wealthy, principally as a result of inheritances from Dervorguillas family. This wealth allowed Balliol to play a prominent public role, and, on Henry IIIs instruction, he served as joint protector of the king of Scots. He was one of Henry IIIs leading counsellors between 1258 and 1265. and was appointed Sheriff of Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire from 1261 to 1262 and he was captured at the Battle of Lewes in 1264 but escaped and rejoined King Henry. In 1265 Thomas de Musgrave owed him a debt of 123 marks, about 1266 Baldwin Wake owed him a debt of 100 marks and more. Following a dispute with the Bishop of Durham, he agreed to provide funds for scholars studying at Oxford, support for a house of students began in around 1263, further endowments after his death, supervised by Dervorguilla, resulted in the establishment of Balliol College.
John and Dervorguilla had issue, Sir Hugh de Balliol, who died without issue before 10 April 1271 and he married Agnes de Valence, daughter of William de Valence, 1st Earl of Pembroke. Alan de Balliol, who died before 10 April 1271 without issue, Sir Alexander de Balliol, who died without issue before 13 November 1278. King John I of Scotland, successful competitor for the Crown in 1292, ada de Balliol, who married in 1266, William Lindsay, of Lambarton, and had a daughter, Christian de Lindsay. Margaret de Balliol, who may have married Thomas de Moulton, mary de Balliol, who married John II Comyn, Lord of Badenoch, and had a son, John The Red Comyn, Lord of Badenoch. Maud de Balliol, married to Bryan FitzAlan, Lord FitzAlan and they were parents to Agnes FitzAlan, who married Sir Gilbert Stapleton, Knt. of Bedale. Gilbert is better known for his participation in the assassination of Piers Gaveston, the Complete Peerage, edited by Vicary Gibbs and H. A. Everingham, Kimball G. ed. Magna Carta Ancestry, A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families, stell, G. P.
Balliol, John de. The first edition of text is available as an article on Wikisource, Leslie, ed. Baliol. Founders of Balliol College and their Families, history of the Baliol Family in Scotland
Mary, Queen of Scots
Mary, Queen of Scots, known as Mary Stuart or Mary I of Scotland, reigned over Scotland from 14 December 1542 to 24 July 1567. Mary, the surviving legitimate child of James V of Scotland, was six days old when her father died. She spent most of her childhood in France while Scotland was ruled by regents and he ascended the French throne as King Francis II in 1559, and Mary briefly became queen consort of France, until his death in December 1560. Widowed, Mary returned to Scotland, arriving in Leith on 19 August 1561, four years later, she married her first cousin, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, but their union was unhappy. In February 1567, his residence was destroyed by an explosion, James Hepburn, 4th Earl of Bothwell, was generally believed to have orchestrated Darnleys death, but he was acquitted of the charge in April 1567, and the following month he married Mary. Following an uprising against the couple, Mary was imprisoned in Loch Leven Castle, on 24 July 1567, she was forced to abdicate in favour of James VI, her one-year-old son by Darnley.
After an unsuccessful attempt to regain the throne, she fled southwards seeking the protection of her first cousin once removed, perceiving her as a threat, Elizabeth had her confined in various castles and manor houses in the interior of England. After eighteen and a half years in custody, Mary was found guilty of plotting to assassinate Elizabeth in 1586 and was beheaded the following year. Mary was born on 7 or 8 December 1542 at Linlithgow Palace, Scotland, to King James V and his French second wife and she was said to have been born prematurely and was the only legitimate child of James to survive him. She was the great-niece of King Henry VIII of England, as her paternal grandmother, Margaret Tudor, was Henry VIIIs sister. A popular legend, first recorded by John Knox, states that James, hearing on his deathbed that his wife had given birth to a daughter, ruefully exclaimed, It cam wi a lass and it will gang wi a lass. His House of Stewart had gained the throne of Scotland by the marriage of Marjorie Bruce, daughter of Robert the Bruce, to Walter Stewart, the crown had come to his family through a woman, and would be lost from his family through a woman.
This legendary statement came true much later—not through Mary, but through her descendant Queen Anne, Mary was baptised at the nearby Church of St Michael shortly after she was born. As Mary was an infant when she inherited the throne, Scotland was ruled by regents until she became an adult. From the outset, there were two claims to the Regency, one from Catholic Cardinal Beaton, and the other from the Protestant Earl of Arran, Beatons claim was based on a version of the late kings will that his opponents dismissed as a forgery. Arran, with the support of his friends and relations, became the regent until 1554 when Marys mother managed to remove and succeed him. King Henry VIII of England took the opportunity of the regency to propose marriage between Mary and his own son, Prince Edward, hoping for a union of Scotland and England. The treaty provided that the two countries would remain separate and that if the couple should fail to have children the temporary union would dissolve
The son of a deceased elder brother inherits before a living younger brother by right of substitution for the deceased heir. In the absence of any children, brothers succeed, among siblings, sons inherit before daughters. The principle has applied in history to inheritance of property as well as inherited titles and offices, most notably monarchies. Variations on primogeniture modify the right of the son to the entirety of a familys inheritance or, in the West since World War II. Most monarchies in Europe have eliminated male preference in succession, Denmark, Netherlands, Sweden, equal, or lineal primogeniture is a form of primogeniture in which gender does not matter for inheritance. This form of primogeniture was not practiced by any modern monarchy before 1980, according to Poumarede, the Basques of the Kingdom of Navarre transmitted title and property to the firstborn, whatever the gender. This inheritance practice was adhered to by the nobility and free families alike in the early. The Navarrese monarchy, was inherited by dynasties from outside of Navarre which followed different succession laws, eventually only the Basque lower nobility and free families of the Basque country and other regions continued to follow this practice, which persisted as late as the 19th century.
The most notable of these are the Egyptian cases of Hatshepsut and Thutmose III, as well as the Ptolemaic Dynastys kings, Zapateros proposal was supported by the leader of the main opposition party, the conservative Partido Popular, making its passage likely. However, Zapateros administration ended before any amendment was drafted, Felipe succeeded to the throne as Felipe VI, upon his fathers abdication in 2014, by which time he had two daughters. Felipe VI has no son that would, absent the constitutional change, in July 2006, the Nepalese government proposed adopting absolute primogeniture, but the monarchy was abolished in 2008 before the change could be put into effect. In 2011, the governments of the 16 Commonwealth realms who share the person as their respective monarch announced the Perth Agreement. This was implemented when the legislation came into effect on 26 March 2015. In Japan, debates have occurred over whether to adopt absolute primogeniture, the birth of Prince Hisahito, a son of Prince Akishino has sidelined the debate.
In 2006, King Juan Carlos I of Spain issued a decree reforming the succession to noble titles from male-preference primogeniture to absolute primogeniture. The order of succession for all noble dignities is determined in accordance with the title of concession and, if there is none, with that traditionally applied in these cases. Men and women have a right of succession to grandeeship and to titles of nobility in Spain. Male-preference primogeniture accords succession to the throne to a member of a dynasty if she has no living brothers
Edward I of England
Edward I, known as Edward Longshanks and the Hammer of the Scots, was King of England from 1272 to 1307. He spent much of his reign reforming royal administration and common law, through an extensive legal inquiry, Edward investigated the tenure of various feudal liberties, while the law was reformed through a series of statutes regulating criminal and property law. Increasingly, Edwards attention was drawn towards military affairs, the first son of Henry III, Edward was involved early in the political intrigues of his fathers reign, which included an outright rebellion by the English barons. In 1259, he sided with a baronial reform movement. After reconciliation with his father, however, he remained throughout the subsequent armed conflict. After the Battle of Lewes, Edward was hostage to the rebellious barons, Montfort was defeated at the Battle of Evesham in 1265, and within two years the rebellion was extinguished. With England pacified, Edward joined the Ninth Crusade to the Holy Land, the crusade accomplished little, and Edward was on his way home in 1272 when he was informed that his father had died.
Making a slow return, he reached England in 1274 and was crowned at Westminster on 19 August, after suppressing a minor rebellion in Wales in 1276–77, Edward responded to a second rebellion in 1282–83 with a full-scale war of conquest. After a successful campaign, Edward subjected Wales to English rule, built a series of castles and towns in the countryside, his efforts were directed towards Scotland. Initially invited to arbitrate a dispute, Edward claimed feudal suzerainty over the kingdom. In the war followed, the Scots persevered, even though the English seemed victorious at several points. At the same there were problems at home. In the mid-1290s, extensive military campaigns required high levels of taxation and these crises were initially averted, but issues remained unsettled. When the King died in 1307, he left to his son, Edward II, Edward I was a tall man for his era, hence the nickname Longshanks. He was temperamental, and this, along with his height, made him an intimidating man, nevertheless, he held the respect of his subjects for the way he embodied the medieval ideal of kingship, as a soldier, an administrator and a man of faith.
The Edict remained in effect for the rest of the Middle Ages, Edward was born at the Palace of Westminster on the night of 17–18 June 1239, to King Henry III and Eleanor of Provence. Among his childhood friends was his cousin Henry of Almain, son of King Henrys brother Richard of Cornwall, Henry of Almain would remain a close companion of the prince, both through the civil war that followed, and during the crusade. Edward was in the care of Hugh Giffard – father of the future Chancellor Godfrey Giffard – until Bartholomew Pecche took over at Giffards death in 1246, there were concerns about Edwards health as a child, and he fell ill in 1246,1247, and 1251
Wars of Scottish Independence
The Wars of Scottish Independence were a series of military campaigns fought between the Kingdom of Scotland and the Kingdom of England in the late 13th and early 14th centuries. The First War began with the English invasion of Scotland in 1296, the Second War began with the English-supported invasion by Edward Balliol and the Disinherited in 1332, and ended in 1357 with the signing of the Treaty of Berwick. The wars were part of a crisis for Scotland and the period became one of the most defining times in its history. At the end of wars, Scotland retained its status as an independent state. The wars were important for reasons, such as the emergence of the longbow as a key weapon in medieval warfare. King Alexander III of Scotland died in 1286, leaving his three-year-old granddaughter Margaret as his heir. In 1290, the Guardians of Scotland signed the Treaty of Birgham agreeing to the marriage of the Maid of Norway and Edward of Caernarvon, the son of Edward I, who was Margarets great-uncle.
However, travelling to her new kingdom, died shortly after landing on the Orkney Islands around 26 September 1290, with her death, there were 13 rivals for succession. The two leading competitors for the Scottish crown were Robert Bruce, 5th Lord of Annandale and John Balliol, Edward agreed to meet the guardians at Norham in 1291. Before the process got underway Edward insisted that he be recognised as Lord Paramount of Scotland, when they refused, he gave the claimants three weeks to agree to his terms, knowing that by his armies would have arrived and the Scots would have no choice. Edwards ploy worked, and the claimants to the crown were forced to acknowledge Edward as their Lord Paramount and accept his arbitration. Their decision was influenced in part by the fact that most of the claimants had large estates in England and, however, many involved were churchmen such as Bishop Wishart for whom such mitigation cannot be claimed. Two days later, in Upsettlington, the Guardians of the Realm, all Scots were required to pay homage to Edward I, either in person or at one of the designated centres by 27 July 1291.
There were thirteen meetings from May to August 1291 at Berwick, on 3 August, Edward asked Balliol and Bruce to choose 40 arbiters each, while he chose 24, to decide the case. On 12 August, he signed a writ that required the collection of all documents that concern the competitors rights or his own title to the superiority of Scotland. Balliol was named king by a majority on 17 November 1292, on 26 December, at Newcastle upon Tyne, King John swore homage to Edward I for the Kingdom of Scotland. Edward soon made it clear that he regarded the country as a vassal state, undermined by members of the Bruce faction, struggled to resist, and the Scots resented Edwards demands. In 1294, Edward summoned John Balliol to appear before him, on his return to Scotland, John held a meeting with his council and after a few days of heated debate, plans were made to defy the orders of Edward I
Robert the Bruce
Robert I, popularly known as Robert the Bruce, was King of Scots from 1306 until his death in 1329. Robert was one of the most famous warriors of his generation and he fought successfully during his reign to regain Scotlands place as an independent country and is today revered in Scotland as a national hero. As Earl of Carrick, Robert the Bruce supported his familys claim to the Scottish throne, after submitting to Edward I in 1302 and returning to the kings peace, Robert inherited his familys claim to the Scottish throne upon his fathers death. In February 1306, Robert the Bruce killed Comyn following an argument, Bruce moved quickly to seize the throne and was crowned king of Scots on 25 March 1306. Bruce defeated his other Scots enemies, destroying their strongholds and devastating their lands, despite Bannockburn and the capture of the final English stronghold at Berwick in 1318, Edward II refused to renounce his claim to the overlordship of Scotland. In 1320, the Scottish nobility submitted the Declaration of Arbroath to Pope John XXII, declaring Robert as their rightful monarch and asserting Scotlands status as an independent kingdom.
In 1324, the Pope recognised Robert I as king of an independent Scotland, and in 1326, Robert I died in June 1329. His body is buried in Dunfermline Abbey, while his heart was interred in Melrose Abbey. Robert de Brus, 1st Lord of Annandale, the first of the Bruce, or de Brus, line arrived in Scotland with David I in 1124 and was given the lands of Annandale in Dumfries and Galloway. His mother was by all accounts a formidable woman who, legend would have it, from his mother, he inherited the Earldom of Carrick, and through his father, a royal lineage that would give him a claim to the Scottish throne. The Bruces held estates in Aberdeenshire, County Antrim, County Durham, Middlesex. Although Robert the Bruces date of birth is known, his place of birth is less certain, although it is most likely to have been Turnberry Castle in Ayrshire, very little is known of his youth. Annandale was thoroughly feudalised and the form of Northern Middle English that would develop into the Scots language was spoken throughout the region.
Robert the Bruce would most probably have become trilingual at an early age and he would have been schooled to speak and possibly write in the Anglo-Norman language of his Scots-Norman peers and his fathers family. He would have both the Gaelic language of his Carrick birthplace and his mothers family, and the early Scots language. As the heir to an estate and a pious layman, Robert would have been given working knowledge of Latin. This would have afforded Robert and his brothers access to education in the law, scripture, saints Lives, philosophy and chivalric instruction. That Robert took personal pleasure in such learning and leisure is suggested in a number of ways, as king, Robert certainly commissioned verse to commemorate Bannockburn and his subjects military deeds
Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain. It shares a border with England to the south, and is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east. In addition to the mainland, the country is made up of more than 790 islands, including the Northern Isles, the Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707. By inheritance in 1603, James VI, King of Scots, became King of England and King of Ireland, Scotland subsequently entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain. The union created a new Parliament of Great Britain, which succeeded both the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England. Within Scotland, the monarchy of the United Kingdom has continued to use a variety of styles, the legal system within Scotland has remained separate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland, Scotland constitutes a distinct jurisdiction in both public and private law.
Glasgow, Scotlands largest city, was one of the worlds leading industrial cities. Other major urban areas are Aberdeen and Dundee, Scottish waters consist of a large sector of the North Atlantic and the North Sea, containing the largest oil reserves in the European Union. This has given Aberdeen, the third-largest city in Scotland, the title of Europes oil capital, following a referendum in 1997, a Scottish Parliament was re-established, in the form of a devolved unicameral legislature comprising 129 members, having authority over many areas of domestic policy. Scotland is represented in the UK Parliament by 59 MPs and in the European Parliament by 6 MEPs, Scotland is a member nation of the British–Irish Council, and the British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly. Scotland comes from Scoti, the Latin name for the Gaels, the Late Latin word Scotia was initially used to refer to Ireland. By the 11th century at the latest, Scotia was being used to refer to Scotland north of the River Forth, alongside Albania or Albany, the use of the words Scots and Scotland to encompass all of what is now Scotland became common in the Late Middle Ages.
Repeated glaciations, which covered the land mass of modern Scotland. It is believed the first post-glacial groups of hunter-gatherers arrived in Scotland around 12,800 years ago, the groups of settlers began building the first known permanent houses on Scottish soil around 9,500 years ago, and the first villages around 6,000 years ago. The well-preserved village of Skara Brae on the mainland of Orkney dates from this period and it contains the remains of an early Bronze Age ruler laid out on white quartz pebbles and birch bark. It was discovered for the first time that early Bronze Age people placed flowers in their graves, in the winter of 1850, a severe storm hit Scotland, causing widespread damage and over 200 deaths. In the Bay of Skaill, the storm stripped the earth from a large irregular knoll, when the storm cleared, local villagers found the outline of a village, consisting of a number of small houses without roofs. William Watt of Skaill, the laird, began an amateur excavation of the site, but after uncovering four houses
David I of Scotland
David I or Dauíd mac Maíl Choluim was a 12th-century ruler who was Prince of the Cumbrians and King of the Scots. The youngest son of Máel Coluim III and Margaret of Wessex, David spent most of his childhood in Scotland, perhaps after 1100, he became a dependent at the court of King Henry I. There he was influenced by the Norman and Anglo-French culture of the court, when Davids brother Alexander I of Scotland died in 1124, David chose, with the backing of Henry I, to take the Kingdom of Scotland for himself. He was forced to engage in warfare against his rival and nephew, subduing the latter seems to have taken David ten years, a struggle that involved the destruction of Óengus, Mormaer of Moray. Davids victory allowed expansion of control over more distant regions theoretically part of his Kingdom, after the death of his former patron Henry I, David supported the claims of Henrys daughter and his own niece, the former Empress-consort, Matilda, to the throne of England. In the process, he came into conflict with King Stephen and was able to expand his power in northern England, the term Davidian Revolution is used by many scholars to summarise the changes which took place in Scotland during his reign.
The early years of David I are the most obscure of his life, because there is little documented evidence, historians can only guess at most of Davids activities in this period. David was born on an unknown in 1084 in Scotland. He was probably the son of King Máel Coluim mac Donnchada. He was the grandson of the ill-fated King Duncan I, in 1093 King Máel Coluim and Davids brother Edward were killed at the River Aln during an invasion of Northumberland. David and his two brothers Alexander and Edgar, both kings of Scotland, were probably present when their mother died shortly afterwards. According to tradition, the three brothers were in Edinburgh when they were besieged by their uncle, Domnall Bán. It is not certain what happened next, but an insertion in the Chronicle of Melrose states that Domnall forced his three nephews into exile, although he was allied with another of his nephews, Edmund. John of Fordun wrote, centuries later, that an escort into England was arranged for them by their maternal uncle Edgar Ætheling, William Rufus, King of England, opposed Domnalls accession to the northerly kingdom.
He sent the eldest son of Máel Coluim, Davids half-brother Donnchad, Donnchad was killed within the year, and so in 1097 William sent Donnchads half-brother Edgar into Scotland. The latter was successful, and was crowned King by the end of 1097. During the power struggle of 1093–97, David was in England, in 1093, he may have been about nine years old. From 1093 until 1103 Davids presence cannot be accounted for in detail, when William Rufus was killed, his brother Henry Beauclerc seized power and married Davids sister, Matilda
The ceremony can be conducted for the monarchs consort, either simultaneously with the monarch or as a separate event. A ceremony without the placement of a crown on the head is known as an enthronement. Coronations are still observed in the United Kingdom, Tonga, in addition to investing the monarch with symbols of state, Western-style coronations have often traditionally involve anointing with holy oil, or chrism as it is often called. Wherever a ruler is anointed in this way, as in Great Britain and Tonga, some other lands use bathing or cleansing rites, the drinking of a sacred beverage, or other religious practices to achieve a comparable effect. Such acts symbolise the granting of divine favour to the monarch within the relevant spiritual-religious paradigm of the country, in the past, concepts of royalty and deity were often inexorably linked. Rome promulgated the practice of worship, in Medieval Europe. Coronations were once a direct expression of these alleged connections. Thus, coronations have often been discarded altogether or altered to reflect the nature of the states in which they are held.
However, some monarchies still choose to retain an overtly religious dimension to their accession rituals, others have adopted simpler enthronement or inauguration ceremonies, or even no ceremony at all. In non-Christian states, coronation rites evolved from a variety of sources, for instance, influenced the coronation rituals of Thailand and Bhutan, while Hindu elements played a significant role in Nepalese rites. The ceremonies used in modern Egypt, Malaysia and Iran were shaped by Islam, Coronations, in one form or another, have existed since ancient times. Egyptian records show coronation scenes, such as that of Seti I in 1290 BC, judeo-Christian scriptures testify to particular rites associated with the conferring of kingship, the most detailed accounts of which are found in II Kings 11,12 and II Chronicles 23,11. Following the assumption of the diadem by Constantine and Byzantine emperors continued to wear it as the symbol of their authority. Although no specific coronation ceremony was observed at first, one gradually evolved over the following century, the emperor Julian was hoisted upon a shield and crowned with a gold necklace provided by one of his standard-bearers, he wore a jewel-studded diadem.
Later emperors were crowned and acclaimed in a manner, until the momentous decision was taken to permit the Patriarch of Constantinople to physically place the crown on the emperors head. Historians debate when exactly this first took place, but the precedent was established by the reign of Leo II. This ritual included recitation of prayers by the Byzantine prelate over the crown, after this event, according to the Catholic Encyclopedia, the ecclesiastical element in the coronation ceremonial rapidly develop. This was usually performed three times, following this, the king was given a spear, and a diadem wrought of silk or linen was bound around his forehead as a token of regal authority
Scone is a village in Perth and Kinross, Scotland. Hence the modern village of Scone, and the village of Old Scone. Both sites lie in the province of Gowrie, as well as the old county of Perthshire. Old Scone was the capital of the Kingdom of Alba. In the Middle Ages it was an important royal centre, used as a royal residence, around the royal site grew the town of Perth and the Abbey of Scone. Scotland itself was called or shown on maps as the Kingdom of Scone. A comparison would be that Ireland was often called the Kingdom of Tara, like Scone, Scone was therefore the closest thing the Kingdom of Scotland had in its earliest years to a capital. In either 1163 or 1164 King Malcolm IV described Scone Abbey as in principali sede regni nostri, in the principal seat of our kingdom. By this point, the rule of the King of the Scots was not confined to the Kingdom of Scotland, the king ruled in Lothian and the Honour of Huntingdon, and spent much of his time in these localities too. Moreover, the king was itinerant and had little permanent bureaucracy, but in the medieval sense Scone can in many ways be called the capital of Scotland and was often referred to as the Royal City of Scone.
Many comparisons can be drawn between the City of Westminster and the City of Scone, both were medieval epicenters of Royal power. Both were located beside crossing points of major rivers - the highways of the medieval period -, the origins of a settlement of any kind at Scone are unknown, although thought to be early medieval. The origins could be pre-Roman as there is evidence of a well-established and sophisticated Iron Age people flourishing in this part of Scotland. Direct evidence however is lacking and so Scones story is thought to begin in the wake of the Roman exit from Scottish history, Scone at this point played a crucial role in the formation and governance of the ancient Kingdom of Alba and Kingdom of Scotland. In the 12th century, various foreign influences prompted the Scottish kings to transform Scone into a more convincing royal center, many historians have argued that the monastery or Priory was founded specifically in 1114 by Alexander I of Scotland. There is growing evidence that there had been an early Christian cult called the Culdees based at Scone dating from at least the 9th century, the Culdees were eventually merged with the Augustinian canons who arrived from Nostell Priory in Yorkshire as part of the 1114 re-establishment.
Scone at this time lay on a part of the river Tay. This advantage was at times a disadvantage as the Vikings came across the North Sea to launch their lightening raids
Berwick-upon-Tweed is a town in the county of Northumberland. It is the northernmost town in England and it is located 2 1⁄2 miles south of the Scottish border, at the mouth of the River Tweed on the east coast. It is about 56 miles east-south east of Edinburgh,65 miles north of Newcastle upon Tyne and 345 miles north of London, the United Kingdom Census 2011 recorded Berwicks population as 12,043. A civil parish and town council were created in 2008, Berwick was founded as an Anglo-Saxon settlement during the time of the Kingdom of Northumbria, which was annexed by England in the 10th century. The area was for more than 400 years central to historic border wars between the Kingdoms of England and Scotland, and several times possession of Berwick changed hands between the two kingdoms, the last time it changed hands was when England retook it in 1482. Berwick remains a market town and has some notable architectural features, in particular its medieval town walls, its Elizabethan ramparts. The name Berwick is of Old English origin, and is derived from the term bere-wīc, combining bere, meaning barley, Berwick thus means barley village or barley farm.
In the post-Roman period, the area was inhabited by the Brythons of Bryneich, the region became part of the Anglian kingdom of Bernicia. Bernicia united with the kingdom of Deira to form Northumbria, Berwick remained part of the Earldom of Northumbria until control passed to the Scots following the Battle of Carham of 1018. The town itself was founded as an Anglo-Saxon settlement during the time of the Kingdom of Northumbria, between the late 10th and early 11th centuries, the land between the rivers Forth and Tweed came under Scottish control, either through conquest by Scotland or through cession by England. Berwick was made a burgh in the reign of David I. A mint was present in the town by 1153, while under Scottish control, Berwick was referred to as South Berwick in order to differentiate it from the town of North Berwick, East Lothian, near Edinburgh. Berwick had a hospital for the sick and poor which was administered by the Church. Dated at Edinburgh June 8, in the 20th year of his reign, Berwicks strategic position on the Anglo-Scottish border during centuries of war between the two nations and its relatively great wealth led to a succession of raids and takeovers.
William I of Scotland invaded and attempted to capture northern England in 1173-74, after his defeat, Berwick was ceded to Henry II of England. It was back to William by Richard I of England in order to raise funds for his Crusade. Berwick had become a town by the middle of the 13th century. In 1291–92 Berwick was the site of Edward I of Englands arbitration in the contest for the Scottish crown between John Balliol and Robert Bruce, 5th Lord of Annandale, the decision in favour of Balliol was pronounced in the Great Hall of Berwick Castle on 17 November 1292
Galloway is a region in southwestern Scotland comprising the former counties of Wigtownshire and Kirkcudbrightshire. A native or inhabitant of Galloway is called a Gallovidian or a Galwegian, the place name Galloway is derived from the Gaelic i nGall Gaidhealaib. The Gall Gaidheil, literally meaning Stranger-Gaidheil, originally referred to a population of mixed Scandinavian and Gaelic ethnicity that inhabited Galloway in the Middle Ages. Galloway is bounded by sea to the west and south, the Galloway Hills to the north, and the River Nith to the east, the definition has, fluctuated greatly in size over history. A hardy breed of black, hornless cattle named Galloway cattle is native to the region, Galloway comprises that part of Scotland southwards from the Southern Upland watershed and westward from the River Nith. Traditionally it has described as stretching from the braes of Glenapp to the Nith. Generally however the landscape is rugged and much of the soil is shallow, the generally south slope and southern coast make for mild and wet climate, and there is a great deal of good pasture.
The northern part of Galloway is exceedingly rugged and forms the largest remaining wilderness in Britain south of the Highlands and this area is known as the Galloway Hills. Historically Galloway has been famous both for horses and for cattle rearing, and milk and beef production are still major industries. There is substantial timber production and some fisheries, the combination of hills and high rainfall make Galloway ideal for hydroelectric power production, and the Galloway Hydro Power scheme was begun in 1929. Since then, electricity generation has been a significant industry, more recently wind turbines have been installed at a number of locations on the watershed, and a large offshore wind-power plant is planned, increasing Galloways green energy production. The 2nd century geographer Ptolemy produced a map of Britain in his Geography, in which he describes the landmarks, rerigoniums exact position is uncertain except that it was on Loch Ryan, close to modern day Stranraer, it is possible that it is the modern settlement of Dunragit.
The Romans named the inhabitants of Galloway the Novantae, the county is rich in prehistoric monuments and relics, amongst the most notable of which are the Drumtroddan Standing Stones, the Torhousekie Stone Circle, both in Wigtownshire and Cairnholy. There is evidence of one of the earliest pit-fall traps in Europe which was discovered near Glenluce, Galloway probably remained a Brythonic dominated region until the late 7th century when it was taken over by the English kingdom of Bernicia. English dominance was supplanted by Norse-Gaelic peoples between the 9th and the 11th century, if it had not been for Fergus of Galloway who established himself in Galloway, the region would rapidly have been absorbed by Scotland. This did not happen because Fergus, his sons and great-grandson Alan, during a period of Scottish allegiance a Galloway contingent followed David, King of Scots in his invasion of England and led the attack in his defeat at the Battle of the Standard. He had three daughters and an illegitimate son Thomas, the Community of Galloway wanted Thomas as their king.
Alexander III of Scotland supported the daughters and invaded Galloway, the Community of Galloway was defeated, and Galloway divided up between Alans daughters, thus bringing Galloways independent existence to an end