John Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury
Sir John Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury, 1st Earl of Waterford, 7th Baron Talbot, KG, known as "Old Talbot", was an English nobleman and a noted military commander during the Hundred Years' War. He was the most renowned in England and most feared in France of the English captains in the last stages of the conflict. Known as a tough and quarrelsome man, Talbot distinguished himself militarily in a time of decline for the English. Called the "English Achilles" and the "Terror of the French", he is lavishly praised in the plays of Shakespeare; the manner of his death, leading a charge against artillery, has come to symbolize the passing of the age of chivalry. He held the subsidiary titles of 10th Baron Strange of Blackmere and 6th Baron Furnivall jure uxoris, he was descended from Richard Talbot, a tenant in 1086 of Walter Giffard at Woburn and Battlesden in Bedfordshire. The Talbot family were vassals of the Giffards in Normandy. Hugh Talbot Richard's son, made a grant to Beaubec Abbey, confirmed by his son Richard Talbot in 1153.
This Richard is listed in 1166 as holding three fees of the Honour of Giffard in Buckinghamshire. He held a fee at Linton in Herefordshire, for which his son Gilbert Talbot obtained a fresh charter in 1190. Gilbert's grandson Gilbert married Gwenlynn Mechyll and sole heiress of the Welsh Prince Rhys Mechyll, whose armorials the Talbots thenceforth assumed in lieu of their own former arms, their son Sir Richard Talbot, who signed the Barons' Letter of 1301, held the manor of Eccleswall in Herefordshire in right of his wife Sarah, sister of William de Beauchamp, 9th Earl of Warwick. In 1331 Richard's son Gilbert Talbot was summoned to Parliament, considered evidence of his baronial status – see Baron Talbot. Gilbert's son Richard married Elizabeth Comyn. John Talbot was born in about 1384 or more around 1387 as second son of Richard Talbot of Goodrich Castle by Ankaret and sole heiress of the 4th Baron Strange of Blackmere, his birthplace was Black Mere Castle near Whitchurch, now a scheduled monument listed as Blakemere Moat, site of the demolished fortified manor house.
His younger brother Richard became Archbishop of Dublin and Lord Chancellor of Ireland: he was one of the most influential Irish statesmen of his time, his brother's most loyal supporter during his troubled years in Ireland. John had an elder brother, heir to their parents' baronies of Talbot and Strange, his father died in 1396 when Talbot was just nine years old, so it was Ankaret's second husband, Thomas Neville, Lord Furnivall, who became the major influence in his early life. The marriage gave the opportunity of a title for her second son, as Neville had no sons, with the title Baron Furnivall going through his eldest daughter Maud, who would become John's first wife, their marriage resulted in John styling himself as 6th Baron Furnivall. Talbot was married before 12 March 1407 to Maud Neville, 6th Baroness Furnivall and heiress of his stepfather Thomas Neville, 5th Baron Furnivall, the son of John Neville, 3rd Baron Neville de Raby, he was summoned to Parliament in her right from 1409.
The couple are thought to have had six children: John Talbot, 2nd Earl of Shrewsbury Thomas Talbot Katherine Talbot married Sir Nicholas Eyton, Sheriff of Shropshire 1440 & 1449. Sir Christopher Talbot Lady Joan Talbot, married James Berkeley, 1st Baron Berkeley. Ann Bottreaux married John Bottreaux, of Abbot's SalfordIn 1421 by the death of his niece he acquired the Baronies of Talbot and Strange, his first wife, Maud died on 31 May 1422. It has been suggested that she died as an indirect result of giving birth to her daughter Joan, although there is a lack of evidence about Joan's life before her marriage to Lord Berkeley. There is a theory that she was Talbot's daughter-in-law through marriage to Sir Christopher Talbot. On 6 September 1425, he married Lady Margaret Beauchamp, eldest daughter of Richard de Beauchamp, 13th Earl of Warwick and Elizabeth de Berkeley in the chapel at Warwick Castle, they had five children: John Talbot, 1st Viscount Lisle Sir Louis Talbot of Penyard Sir Humphrey Talbot, marshal of Calais.
Married Mary, daughter and co-heiress of John Champernoun, no issue. Died at Saint Catherine's Monastery. Lady Eleanor Talbot married to Sir Thomas Butler and mistress to King Edward IV. Lady Elizabeth Talbot, she married 4th Duke of Norfolk. Talbot is known to have had Henry, he may have served in France with his father as it is known that a bastard son of the Earl of Shrewsbury was captured by the Dauphin Louis on 14 August 1443. From 1404 to 1413 he served with his elder brother Gilbert in the Welsh revolt or the rebellion of Owain Glyndŵr. For five years from February 1414 he was Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, where he did some fighting, he had a dispute with James Butler, 4th Earl of Ormond and Reginald Grey, 3rd Baron Grey de Ruthyn over the inheritance for the honour of Wexford which he held. Complaints were made against him both for harsh government in Ireland and for violence in Herefordshire, where he was a friend of the Lollard Sir John Oldcastle, for land disputes with retainers of the Earl of Arundel.
The dispute with
In heraldry, cadency is any systematic way to distinguish arms displayed by members of the nuclear family of the holder of a coat of arms, when those family members have not been granted arms in their own right. Cadency is necessary in heraldic systems in which a given design may be owned by only one person at any time the head of the senior line of a particular family; as arms may be used by sons or wives'by courtesy' whilst their father or husband is still living, some form of differencing may be required so as not to usurp those arms, known as the undifferenced or "plain coat". Arms were only heritable by males and therefore cadency marks have no relevance to daughters, except in the modern era in Canadian and Irish heraldry; these differences are formed by adding to the arms small and inconspicuous marks called brisures, similar to charges but smaller. They are in-chief in the case of the label. Brisures are exempt from the rule of tincture. One of the best examples of usage from the medieval period is shown on the seven Beauchamp cadets in the stained-glass windows of St Mary's Church, Warwick.
It was recognised that there was a need to difference the arms of the head of the family from those of cadets. This need was recognised in Europe during the 14th century. Presently, differencing arms for those entitled to is rarely done in Continental Europe, it is only in Scotland. In heraldry's early period, uniqueness of arms was obtained by a wide variety of ways, including: changing tincture adding a label or bordure adding, removing, or replacing an ordinary. Varying the lines of partition of an ordinary the use of brisures or marks of differenceSee Armorial of Capetians and Armorial of Plantagenet for an illustration of the variety. Systematic cadency schemes developed in England and Scotland, but while in England they are voluntary, in Scotland they are enforced through the statutorily required process of matriculation in the Public Register; the English system of cadency allows nuclear family members to use the arms of the head of that family'by courtesy'. This involves mark of difference to the original coat of arms.
The brisure identifies the bearer's family relationship to the actual bearer of the arms, although there is some debate over how the system should be followed, the accepted system is shown below: †also known as an octofoil Daughters have no special brisures, use their father's arms on a lozenge, together with any marks of cadency their father may use. This is. On marriage, they impale their father's arms to the sinister with those of their husband to the dexter, unless the woman happens to be a heraldic heiress, into which case her father's arms are borne on an inescutcheon on her husband's arms. In England, arms are the property of their owner from birth – subject to the use of the appropriate mark of cadency. In other words, it is not necessary to wait for the death of the previous generation before arms are inherited; the eldest son of an eldest son uses a label of five points. Other grandchildren combine the brisure of their father with the relevant brisure of their own, which would in a short number of generations lead to confusion and complexity.
However, in practice cadency marks are not much used in England and when they are, it is rare to see more than one or, at most, two of them on a coat of arms. At times arms with a cadency mark may be used on a hereditary basis: for instance, the arms of the Earls Russell are those of the Duke of Bedford differenced by a mullet, as the 1st Earl was the third son of the 6th Duke. Although textbooks on heraldry always agree on the English system of cadency set out above, most heraldic examples ignore cadency marks altogether. Oswald Barron, in an influential article on Heraldry in the 1911 edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica, noted: Now and again we see a second son obeying the book-rules and putting a crescent in his shield or a third son displaying a molet, but long before our own times the practice was disregarded, the most remote kinsman of a gentle house displayed the "whole coat" of the head of his family. Nor have cadency marks been insisted upon by the College of Arms. For example, the College of Arms website, far from insisting on any doctrine of "One man one coat" suggested by some academic writers, says: … The arms of a man pass to all his legitimate children, irrespective of their order of birth.
Cadency marks may be used to identify the arms of brothers, in a system said to have been invented by John Writhe, Garter, in about 1500. Small symbols are painted on the shield in a contrasting tincture at the top. ... It does not say. In correspondence published in the Heraldry Society's newsletter, Garter King of Arms Peter Gwynn-Jones rejected a suggestion that cadency marks should be enforced, he said: I have never favoured the system of cadency unless there is a need to mark out distinct branches of a particular family. To use cadency marks for each and every generation is something of a nonsense as it results in a pile of indecipherable marks set one above the other. I therefore adhere to the view that they should
Charles, Duke of Orléans
Charles of Orléans was Duke of Orléans from 1407, following the murder of his father, Louis I, Duke of Orléans, on the orders of John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy. He was Duke of Valois, Count of Beaumont-sur-Oise and of Blois, Lord of Coucy, the inheritor of Asti in Italy via his mother Valentina Visconti, daughter of Gian Galeazzo Visconti, Duke of Milan, he is now remembered as an accomplished medieval poet owing to the more than five hundred extant poems he produced, written in both French and English, during his 25 years spent as a prisoner of war and after his return to France. Charles was born in Paris. Acceding to the duchy at the age of thirteen after his father had been assassinated, he was expected to carry on his father's leadership against the Burgundians, a French faction which supported the Duke of Burgundy; the latter was never punished for his role in Louis' assassination, Charles had to watch as his grief-stricken mother Valentina Visconti succumbed to illness not long afterwards.
At her deathbed and the other boys of the family were made to swear the traditional oath of vengeance for their father's murder. During the early years of his reign as duke, the orphaned Charles was influenced by the guidance of his father-in-law, Bernard VII, Count of Armagnac, for which reason Charles' faction came to be known as the Armagnacs. After war with the Kingdom of England was renewed in 1415, Charles was one of the many French noblemen at the Battle of Agincourt on 25 October 1415, he was discovered unwounded but trapped under a pile of corpses, incapacitated by the weight of his own armour. He was taken prisoner by the English, spent the next twenty-four years being moved from one castle to another in England, including the Tower of London, Pontefract Castle – the castle where England's young King Richard II, cousin once removed of the incumbent English King Henry V, had been imprisoned and died 15 years earlier at the age of 33; the conditions of his confinement were not strict.
However, he was not offered release in exchange for a ransom, since the English King Henry V had left instructions forbidding any release: Charles was the natural head of the Armagnac faction and in the line of succession to the French throne, was therefore deemed too important to be returned to circulation. After his capture, his entire library was moved by Yolande of Aragon to Saumur, to prevent it from falling into enemy hands It was during these twenty-four years that Charles would write most of his poetry, including melancholy works which seem to be commenting on the captivity itself, such as En la forêt de longue attente, he is credited with writing the first Valentine's Day poem. The majority of his output consists of two books, one in French and the other in English, in the ballade and rondeau fixed forms. Though once controversial, it is now abundantly clear that Charles wrote the English poems which he left behind when he was released in 1440, his acceptance in the English canon has been slow.
A. E. B. Coldiron has argued that the problem relates to his "approach to the erotic, his use of puns and rhetorical devices, his formal complexity and experimentation, his stance or voice: all these place him well outside the fifteenth-century literary milieu in which he found himself in England."One of his poems Is she not passing fair?, translated by Louisa Stuart Costello, was set to music by Edward Elgar. Claude Debussy set three of his poems to music in his Trois Chansons de Charles d'Orléans, L.92, for unaccompanied mixed choir. Freed in 1440 by the efforts of his former enemies, Philip the Good and Isabella of Portugal, the Duke and Duchess of Burgundy, he set foot on French soil again after 25 years, by now a middle aged man at 46 and "speaking better English than French," according to the English chronicler Raphael Holinshed. Philip the Good had made it a condition that the murder of Charles' father Louis of Orleans by Philip's own father, John the Fearless, would not be avenged.
Charles agreed to this condition prior to his release. Meeting the Duchess of Burgundy after disembarking, the gallant Charles said: "M'Lady, I make myself your prisoner." At the celebration of his third marriage, with Marie of Cleves, he was created a Knight of the Golden Fleece. His subsequent return to Orléans was marked by a splendid celebration organised by the citizens, he made an unsuccessful attempt to press his claims to Asti in Italy, before settling down as a celebrated patron of the arts. He died at Amboise in his 71st year. Charles married three times, his first wife Isabella of Valois, whom he married in Compiègne in 1406, died in childbirth. Their daughter, Joan married John II of Alençon in 1424 in Blois. Afterwards, he married Bonne of Armagnac, the daughter of Bernard VII, Count of Armagnac, in 1410. Bonne died; the couple had no issue. On his return to France in 1440, Charles married Marie of Cleves in Saint-Omer and had three children: Marie of Orléans. Married Jean of Foix in 1476.
Louis XII of France Anne of Orléans, Abbess of Fontevrault and Poitiers. Kingdom of France – Duchy of Orléans: Grand Master and Knight of the Order of the Porcupine Duchy of Burgundy: Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece Charles appears as "Duke of Orléans" in William Shakespeare's Henry V. In the 2012 television adaptation The Hollow Crown, Charles is played by French actor Stanley Weber and is inaccurately po
Dax is a commune in Nouvelle-Aquitaine in southwestern France, sub-prefecture of the Landes department. It is known as a spa, it is a market town, former bishopric and busy local centre for the Chalosse area. It was first established by the Romans, its reputation is supposed to date from a visit by Julia, the daughter of the first Emperor Octavian Augustus, its Roman name was Civitas Aquensium. In the Middle Ages, it was administered by viscounts until 1177. With the acquisition of Aquitaine by Henry II Plantagenet King of England, Dax remained under English rule until 1451, when it was conquered by French troops before the end of the Hundred Years' War, it withstood a Spanish siege in 1521-1522. Roman archaeological crypt, including the foundations of a Roman temple from the second century AD.97 Remains of the Gallic-Roman walls Cathedral of Notre-Dame Ste-Marie97 Church of Saint-Vincent-de-Xaintes.97 Fontaine Chaude.97 Logroño, Spain Maurice Boyau, ace of the First World War who spent most of his life in Dax Jean-Charles de Borda, mathematician Vincent de Paul, theologian born in a village near Dax Victor Denain and politician Roger Ducos, politician born in Dax Patrick Edlinger, rock climber Brigitte Lovisa Fouché, painter Laurent Fressinet, chess player Raphaël Ibañez, rugby player Christophe Lamaison, rugby player Émile Magne, art historian and literary critic Diocese of Dax Guiraude de Dax US Dax, a French rugby union club based in Dax.
Dacquoise INSEE statistics Official website Dax Cathedral Dax Cathedral
Battle of Baugé
The Battle of Baugé, fought between the English and a Franco-Scots army on 22 March 1421 at Baugé, east of Angers, was a major defeat for the English in the Hundred Years' War. The English army was led by the king's brother Thomas of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Clarence, while the Franco-Scots were led by both John Stewart, 2nd Earl of Buchan, Gilbert de Lafayette, the Marshal of France. English strength was 4,000 men, although only 1,500 deployed, against Scots. Henry V, with the intention of resuming the war, sailed from England to France with a force of about 10,500, he pursued a successful military campaign, including the decisive victory at the Battle of Agincourt, regained from the French crown much of England's held lands in France. The Scots had been in an alliance with France since 1295. In 1419 the situation in France was desperate. Normandy was lost to the Paris to the Burgundians. France was in a state of an ongoing civil war between the Royalist faction and the supporters of the dukes of Burgundy.
In these deteriorating circumstances, the Dauphin appealed to the Scots for help. A Scottish army was assembled under the leadership of John, Earl of Buchan and Archibald, Earl of Wigtown and from late 1419 to 1421 the Scottish army became the mainstay of the Dauphin’s defence of the lower Loire valley; when Henry returned to England in 1421, he left his heir presumptive, Duke of Clarence, in charge of the remaining army. Following the King's instructions, Clarence led 4000 men in raids through the Maine; this chevauchée met with little resistance, by Good Friday, 21 March 1421, the English army had made camp near the little town of Vieil-Baugé. The Franco-Scots army of about 5000 arrived in the Vieil-Baugé area to block the English army's progress, it was commanded by the new Marshal of France, the Sieur de Lafayette. On Easter Saturday, one of these foraging groups captured a Scots man-at-arms, able to provide the Duke of Clarence with intelligence, on the 5000 strong Scottish army. Clarence was keen to engage the enemy.
A two-day delay was deemed as out of the question. According to the chronicles of Walter Bower both commanders agreed to a short truce for Easter. There are several accounts of the Battle of Baugé, it seems that Clarence did not realise how big the Franco-Scottish army was as he decided to rely on the element of surprise and attack immediately. He discounted the advice of his lieutenants, the Earl of Huntingdon and Gilbert Umfraville, to consolidate his own force and position. Clarence with only about 1500 men-at-arms available, no archers, charged the Franco-Scottish lines; the Scots rallied hastily, battle was joined at a bridge which Clarence attempted to cross. A hundred Scottish archers, under Sir Robert Stewart of Ralston, reinforced by the retinue of Hugh Kennedy, held the bridge and prevented passage long enough for the Earl of Buchan to rally the rest of his army; when Clarence forced his way across, he was confronted with the main body of the Franco-Scottish army. In the ensuing melée, John Carmichael of Douglasdale broke his lance unhorsing the Duke of Clarence.
There are several versions of how Clarence met his death, according to Bower, the Scottish knight Sir John Swinton wounded the prince in his face, but it was Alexander Buchanan, credited with killing the Duke with his mace and holding the dead Duke's coronet aloft on his lance in triumph. Another version stated that a Highland Scot, Alexander Macausland of Lennox, was responsible for Clarence's demise, whereas a French chronicler Georges Chastellain has the Duke killed by a Frenchman. On in the day in the evening, decisive action was taken by Salisbury, having succeeded in rounding up the English archers, used a contingency of them to rescue what was left of the English force and retrieve some of the bodies of the fallen, including that of Clarence. However, the Scots allowed the remains of the English army, led by Salisbury, to escape and so missed an opportunity to remove the English from France; the battle did secure the reputation of the Scottish army in France. No more were the Scots dismissed as "wine drinkers and mutton eaters" by their French allies.
On hearing of the Scottish victory, Pope Martin V passed comment by reiterating a common medieval saying, that "Verily, the Scots are well-known as an antidote to the English." The Dauphin was able to exploit the victory at Baugé, by announcing his intention to invade English-held Normandy. He made the count of Longueville and lord of Dun-le-roi. Sir John Stewart of Darnley received the lands of Concressault; the Earl of Buchan was made Constable of France. In 1422 the Dauphin created the "hundred men-at-arms of the King's bodyguard", known as the "Hundred Lances of France", to supplement the 24 archers of the Garde Ecossaise; the Hundred Lances became the company known as the Gendarmerie of France, who distinguished themselves at Fontenoy in 1745. John Carmichael was elected bishop of Orléans in 1426, was one of the 6 bishops to attend the coronation of the Dauphin
Henry VI of England
Henry VI was King of England from 1422 to 1461 and again from 1470 to 1471, disputed King of France from 1422 to 1453. The only child of Henry V, he succeeded to the English throne at the age of nine months upon his father's death, succeeded to the French throne on the death of his maternal grandfather Charles VI shortly afterwards. Henry inherited the long-running Hundred Years' War, in which his uncle Charles VII contested his claim to the French throne, he is the only English monarch to have been crowned King of France, in 1431. His early reign, when several people were ruling for him, saw the pinnacle of English power in France, but subsequent military and economic problems had endangered the English cause by the time Henry was declared fit to rule in 1437, he found his realm in a difficult position, faced with setbacks in France and divisions among the nobility at home. Unlike his father, Henry is described as timid, passive, well-intentioned, averse to warfare and violence, his ineffective reign saw the gradual loss of the English lands in France.
In the hope of achieving peace, in 1445 Henry married Charles VII's niece, the ambitious and strong-willed Margaret of Anjou. The peace policy failed, leading to the murder of one of Henry's key advisers, the war recommenced, with France taking the upper hand; as the situation in France worsened, there was a related increase in political instability in England. With Henry unfit to rule, power was exercised by quarrelsome nobles, while factions and favourites encouraged the rise of disorder in the country. Regional magnates and soldiers returning from France formed and maintained increasing numbers of private armed retainers, with which they fought one another, terrorised their neighbors, paralysed the courts, dominated the government. Queen Margaret did not remain unpartisan, took advantage of the situation to make herself an effective power behind the throne. Amidst military disasters in France and a collapse of law and order in England, the queen and her clique came under criticism, coming from Henry VI's popular cousin Richard of the House of York, of misconduct of the war in France and misrule of the country.
Starting in 1453, Henry began suffering a series of mental breakdowns, tensions mounted between Margaret and Richard of York over control of the incapacitated king's government, over the question of succession to the throne. Civil war broke out in 1455, leading to a long period of dynastic conflict known as the Wars of the Roses. Henry was deposed on 29 March 1461 after a crushing defeat at the Battle of Towton by Richard's son, who took the throne as Edward IV. Despite Margaret continuing to lead a resistance to Edward, he was captured by Edward's forces in 1465 and imprisoned in the Tower of London. Henry was restored to the throne in 1470, but Edward retook power in 1471, killing Henry's only son and heir in battle and imprisoning Henry once again. Having "lost his wits, his two kingdoms, his only son", Henry died in the Tower during the night of 21 May killed on the orders of Edward. Miracles were attributed to Henry after his death, he was informally regarded as a saint and martyr until the 16th century.
He left a legacy of educational institutions, having founded Eton College, King's College and All Souls College, Oxford. Shakespeare wrote a trilogy of plays about his life, depicting him as weak-willed and influenced by his wife, Margaret. Henry was the only child and heir of King Henry V, he was born on 6 December 1421 at Windsor Castle. He succeeded to the throne as King of England at the age of nine months on 1 September 1422, the day after his father's death. A few weeks on 21 October 1422 in accordance with the Treaty of Troyes of 1420, he became titular King of France upon his grandfather Charles VI's death, his mother, Catherine of Valois, was 20 years old. As Charles VI's daughter, she was viewed with considerable suspicion by English nobles and was prevented from playing a full role in her son's upbringing. On 28 September 1423, the nobles swore loyalty to Henry VI, not yet two years old, they summoned Parliament in the King's name and established a regency council to govern until the King should come of age.
One of Henry V's surviving brothers, Duke of Bedford, was appointed senior regent of the realm and was in charge of the ongoing war in France. During Bedford's absence, the government of England was headed by Henry V's other surviving brother, Duke of Gloucester, appointed Lord Protector and Defender of the Realm, his duties were limited to summoning Parliament. Henry V's half-uncle Henry Beaufort, Bishop of Winchester, had an important place on the Council. After the Duke of Bedford died in 1435, the Duke of Gloucester claimed the Regency himself, but was contested in this by the other members of the Council. From 1428, Henry's tutor was Richard de Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick, whose father had been instrumental in the opposition to Richard II's reign. Henry's half-brothers and Jasper, the sons of his widowed mother and Owen Tudor, were given earldoms. Edmund Tudor was the father of Henry Tudor, who became Henry VII. In reaction to Charles VII's coronation as French King in Reims Cathedral on 17 July 1429, Henry was soon crowned King of England at Westminster Abbey on 6 November 1429, followed by his own coronation as King of France at Notre Dame de Paris on 16 December 1431, at age 10.
He was the only English king to be crow
Garter stall plate
Garter stall plates are small enamelled brass plates located in St George's Chapel displaying the names and arms of the Knights of the Garter. Each knight is allotted a stall in St George's Chapel and the stall plate is affixed to his personal stall, his successor knight in that stall adds his own stall plate and thus a complete series of stall plates survives for the successive occupants of each stall. Many other ancient European Orders of Chivalry use similar stall plates in the home church or other building of their order. Stall plates are important for several reasons: They are works of art in their own right which demonstrate the skills of medieval and metal workers and enamellers, they are an valuable source to students of heraldry as they show contemporary images of ancient arms the provenance and reliability of, second to none. Unlike ancient seals which survive, they show not only the form of the arms but also the tinctures, they contain inscriptions which were used as evidence during legal disputes concerning devolution of peerage titles.
However, as was demonstrated by J. Horace Round, the stall plates from about the mid-16th century were inscribed with titles which were not held by the knight, but were ornate styles baronies which had never existed or were not theirs by right; the question addressed by Round was whether such styles inscribed on a Garter stall plate could form legal evidence in a court of law to prove that the knight had held the title recited on his stall plate. Before the 21st century and the curtailment of a peer's right to a seat in parliament, such issues were of great importance. An example of such a case was that of 1912 concerning the Barony of Furnivall; the appellant proposed in support of her claim that the stall plate of Henry, Duke of Norfolk, KG, nominated to the Order in 1685, was inscribed with the style of "Lord Furnivall". She herself was descended from the Duke. In 1692 Henry, Earl of Suffolk had made a claim to the Barony of Howard de Walden based on the evidence from three Garter stall plates which purported to show that baronies by writ did not pass away with heirs general but were retained by the heir male, if he were an earl, with his earldom.
This is known as the "Doctrine of Attraction", namely. King Henry VIII made a statute of the Order of the Garter relating to stall plates as follows: "It is agreed that every knyght within the yere of his stallation shall cause to be made a scauchon of his armes and hachementis in a plate of metall suche as shall please him and that it shall be sett upon the back of his stall, and the other that shall come after shall have their hachements in like manner. Fellowes, The Knights of the Garter, 1348–1939: With a Complete List of the Stall Plates in St. Georges Chapel, Volume 1 of Historical monographs relating to St. George's Chapel, Windsor Castle, Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 1939