John Bell Hood

John Bell Hood was a Confederate general during the American Civil War. Hood had a reputation for aggressiveness that sometimes bordered on recklessness. Arguably one of the best brigade and division commanders in the CSA, Hood became ineffective as he was promoted to lead larger, independent commands late in the war. Hood's education at the United States Military Academy led to a career as a junior officer in both the infantry and cavalry of the antebellum U. S. Army in California and Texas. At the start of the Civil War, he offered his services to his adopted state of Texas, he achieved his reputation for aggressive leadership as a brigade commander in the army of Robert E. Lee during the Seven Days Battles in 1862, after which he was promoted to division command, he led a division under James Longstreet in the campaigns of 1862–63. At the Battle of Gettysburg, he was wounded, rendering his left arm useless for the rest of his life. Transferred with many of Longstreet's troops to the Western Theater, Hood led a massive assault into a gap in the Union line at the Battle of Chickamauga, but was wounded again, requiring the amputation of his right leg.

Hood returned to field service during the Atlanta Campaign of 1864, at the age of 33 was promoted to temporary full general and command of the Army of Tennessee at the outskirts of Atlanta, making him the youngest soldier on either side of the war to be given command of an army. There, he dissipated his army in a series of bold, but unfortunate assaults, was forced to evacuate the besieged city. Leading his men through Alabama and into Tennessee, his army was damaged in a massive frontal assault at the Battle of Franklin and he was decisively defeated at the Battle of Nashville by his former West Point instructor, Maj. Gen. George H. Thomas, after which he was relieved of command. After the war, Hood worked as a cotton broker and in the insurance business, his business was ruined by a yellow fever epidemic in New Orleans during the winter of 1878–79 and he succumbed to the disease himself, dying just days after his wife and oldest child, leaving ten destitute orphans. John Bell Hood was born in Owingsville, the son of John Wills Hood, a doctor, Theodosia French Hood.

He was a cousin of future Confederate general G. W. Smith and the nephew of U. S. Representative Richard French. French obtained an appointment for Hood at the United States Military Academy, despite his father's reluctance to support a military career for his son. Hood graduated in 1853, ranked 44th in a class of 52 that numbered 96, after a near-expulsion in his final year for excessive demerits. At West Point and in Army years, he was known to friends as "Sam", his classmates included James B. McPherson and John M. Schofield; these three men became Union Army generals. The superintendent in 1852–1855 was Col. Robert E. Lee, who would become Hood's commanding general in the Eastern Theater. Notwithstanding his modest record at the Academy, in 1860, Hood was appointed chief instructor of cavalry at West Point, a position he declined, citing his desire to remain with his active field regiment and to retain all of his options in light of the impending war. Hood was commissioned a brevet second lieutenant in the 4th U.

S. Infantry, served at Fort Jones and transferred to the 2nd U. S. Cavalry in Texas, where he was commanded by Col. Albert Sidney Johnston and Lt. Col. Robert E. Lee. While commanding a reconnaissance patrol from Fort Mason on July 20, 1857, Hood sustained the first of many wounds that marked his lifetime in military service— an arrow through his left hand during action against the Comanches at Devil's River, Texas, he was promoted to first lieutenant in August 1858. Hood resigned from the United States Army after the Battle of Fort Sumter and, dissatisfied with the neutrality of his native Kentucky, decided to serve his adopted state of Texas, he joined the Confederate army as a cavalry captain was promoted to major and sent to command Brigadier General John B. Magruder's cavalry in the lower Virginia Peninsula. Hood and his horsemen took part in a "brilliant" July 12 skirmish at Newport News, capturing 12 men of the 7th New York Regiment of Volunteers as well as two deserters from Fort Monroe.

They received high praise from Generals Magruder. By September 30, the Texan was promoted to be colonel of the 4th Texas Infantry Regiment. On February 20, 1862, Hood was assigned to command a new brigade of Texas regiments that would soon become known as the Texas Brigade; the brigade had been formed the previous fall and had been led by ex-US Senator Louis T. Wigfall, but he resigned his command to take a seat in the Confederate Congress. On March 26, Hood was promoted to brigadier general. Leading the Texas Brigade as part of the Army of Northern Virginia in the Peninsula Campaign, he established his reputation as an aggressive commander, eager to lead his troops into battle, the Texans gained a reputation as one of the army's elite combat units. At the Battle of Eltham's Landing, his men were instrumental in nullifying an amphibious landing by a Union division; when commanding general Joseph E. Johnston reflected upon the success Hood's men enjoyed in executing his order "to feel the enemy and fall back," he humorously asked, "What would your Texans have done, sir, if I had ordered them to charge and drive back the enemy?"


Gihon Spring

For the river mentioned in Genesis, see Gihon. The Gihon Spring or Fountain of the Virgin in the Kidron Valley was the main source of water for the Pool of Siloam in the City of David, the original site of Jerusalem. One of the world's major intermittent springs – and a reliable water source that made human settlement possible in ancient Jerusalem – the spring was not only used for drinking water, but initially for irrigation of gardens in the adjacent Kidron Valley which provided a food source for the ancient settlement; the spring rises in a cave 20 feet by 7. Being intermittent, it required the excavation of the Pool of Siloam which stored the large amount of water needed for the town when the spring was not flowing; the spring flows from three to five times daily in winter, twice daily in summer, only once daily in autumn. This peculiarity is accounted for by the supposition that the outlet from the reservoir is by a passage in the form of a siphon; the spring is under the control of the Israeli settler organization Ir David Foundation.

The name Gihon is thought to derive from the Hebrew Giha which means "gushing forth". The name Fountain of the Virgin derives from legend that here Mary washed the swaddling clothes of Jesus. Three main water systems allowed water to be brought from the spring under cover, including natural, masonry-built, rock-cut structures: The Middle Bronze Age Siloam Channel – a straight channel dating from the Middle Bronze Age, cut 20 feet into the ground, covered with slabs; this led from the spring to the oldest, or Upper Pool of Siloam, can be defined as an aqueduct. The Bronze Age Warren's Shaft system – a system of tunnels, dating from later than the Middle Bronze Age channel, leading from the Well Gate at the top of Ophel above Gihon, down to the spring; this passage was for people to collect water from the spring. The actual, natural vertical "Warren's Shaft", paid no role in the water system; the Iron Age Siloam Tunnel – a winding tunnel carved into the rock, leading from the spring to the Pool of Siloam.

Dating from the time of Hezekiah or earlier, it was an aqueduct that replaced the Middle Bronze Age channel. The Siloam inscription was found carved into its wall. In 1997, while a visitor centre was being constructed, the spring was discovered to have been fortified at dates thought to be Middle Bronze Age, when archaeologists unexpectedly uncovered two monumental towers, one protecting the base of Warren's Shaft, the other protecting the spring itself. Since the area around the site still was inhabited, hence could not be excavated, it is unknown whether any further fortifications exist. During an archaeological dig in 2009, a fragment of a monumental stone inscription securely dated to the eighth century BCE was discovered. Although only fragments of Hebrew lettering survive, the fragment proves that the city had monumental public inscriptions and the corresponding large public buildings in the eighth century. A 2017 study by the Weizmann Institute of Science has redated the constructions, reporting that “Scenarios for the construction of the tower during Middle Bronze Age and Iron Age II are considered, based on the new 14C data, yielding a series of dates, the latest of which falls in the terminal phases of the 9th century BCE, alongside previous excavation data.”

Israel Finkelstein has suggested that the tower could still be Bronze Age but restored in the Iron Age adding that “In any event, a late 9th century date should come as no surprise, as there are other indications for the growth of the city at that time – from the Temple Mount to the south, in the direction of the Gihon spring”. GIHON in the Jewish Encyclopedia – a version of the publication written before the site of the spring was rediscovered

List of Monochrome Factor episodes

The episodes of the Japanese anime series Monochrome Factor are directed by Yuu Kou, produced by Genco, animated by A. C. G. T; the anime is an adaptation of Kaili Sorano's manga of the same name, serialized in the manga magazine, Comic Blade Avarus. The story revolves around high school student Akira Nikaido, upon meeting a mysterious man named Shirogane, must become a "shin", or creature of the shadow world, in order to restore balance between the human and shadow worlds; the anime premiered on the Japanese television network TV Tokyo on April 7, 2008. It broadcast a total of twenty-four episodes, with the last of which airing on September 29, 2008. Though the episodes aired on TV Tokyo first, the series aired on other networks such as AT-X and TV Osaka within days of the original broadcast. Shochiku distributed the episodes over a span of eight DVD volumes, with each compilation containing three episodes; the first volume was released on August 8, 2008, the eighth was released on March 13, 2009.

Three pieces of theme music are used for the episodes: one opening theme and two ending themes. The opening theme is "Metamorphose", performed by Asriel and written by Kokomi; the ending themes are "Awake ~my everything~" by Daisuke Ono and Hiroshi Kamiya, "Kakuse ~Dark and Light~" by Junichi Suwabe and Katsuyuki Konishi. Both ending themes are written by Yumi Matsuzawa, the four performing artists are voice actors for the series. Asriel released a single for "Metamorphose" on April 23, 2008; the singles for "Awake ~my everything~" and "Kakuse ~Dark and Light~" were released on May 28 and August 27 of 2008, respectively