Surrey is a subdivision of the English region of South East England in the United Kingdom. A historic and ceremonial county, Surrey is one of the home counties; the county borders Kent to the east, East Sussex and West Sussex to the south, Hampshire to the west, Berkshire to the northwest, Greater London to the northeast. Inhabited by about 1.2 million people, Surrey is the twelfth most populous English county, both the third most populous home county and the third most populous county in the South East. Guildford is considered to be the county town; however despite the town's designation, Surrey County Council has never been based there, being instead seated throughout its history in London. Since the borders of Surrey were altered in 1965 by the London Government Act 1963 which created Greater London, none of these places are now in Surrey, marking an example of a de facto capital, located outside of its administrative area. Surrey is divided into eleven districts: Elmbridge and Ewell, Mole Valley and Banstead, Spelthorne, Surrey Heath, Tandridge and Woking.
Services such as roads, mineral extraction licensing, strategic waste and recycling infrastructure, birth and death registration, social and children's services are administered by Surrey County Council. The London boroughs of Lambeth, Southwark and small parts of Lewisham and Bromley were in Surrey until 1889. Since the 1965 reform the bordering boroughs of the capital have been those taken from it in 1965 plus Bromley and Hounslow; the form of Surrey which remains since 1965 is a wealthy county due to economic, aesthetic and logistical factors. It has the highest GDP per capita of any English county, some of the highest property values outside Inner London and the highest cost of living in the UK outside of the capital. Surrey has the highest proportion of woodland in England, having been rural since it was shorn in 1965 of the urbanised swathes of South London which had hitherto been part of the county, it has large protected green spaces. It has four racecourses in horse racing, the most of any Home County and as at 2013 contained 141 golf courses including international competition venue Wentworth.
Surrey has proximity to London and to Heathrow and Gatwick airports, along with access to major arterial road routes including the M25, M3 and M23 and frequent rail services into Central London. Surrey is divided in two by the chalk ridge of the North Downs; the ridge is pierced by the rivers Wey and Mole, tributaries of the Thames, which formed the northern border of the county before modern redrawing of county boundaries, which has left part of its north bank within the county. To the north of the Downs the land is flat, forming part of the basin of the Thames; the geology of this area is dominated by London Clay in the east, Bagshot Sands in the west and alluvial deposits along the rivers. To the south of the Downs in the western part of the county are the sandstone Surrey Hills, while further east is the plain of the Low Weald, rising in the extreme southeast to the edge of the hills of the High Weald; the Downs and the area to the south form part of a concentric pattern of geological deposits which extends across southern Kent and most of Sussex, predominantly composed of Wealden Clay, Lower Greensand and the chalk of the Downs.
Much of Surrey is in the Metropolitan Green Belt. It contains valued reserves of mature woodland. Among its many notable beauty spots are Box Hill, Leith Hill, Frensham Ponds, Newlands Corner and Puttenham & Crooksbury Commons. Surrey is the most wooded county in England, with 22.4% coverage compared to a national average of 11.8% and as such is one of the few counties not to recommend new woodlands in the subordinate planning authorities' plans. Box Hill has the oldest untouched area of natural woodland in one of the oldest in Europe. Surrey contains England's principal concentration of lowland heath, on sandy soils in the west of the county. Agriculture not being intensive, there are many commons and access lands, together with an extensive network of footpaths and bridleways including the North Downs Way, a scenic long-distance path. Accordingly, Surrey provides many rural and semi-rural leisure activities, with a large horse population in modern terms; the highest elevation in Surrey is Leith Hill near Dorking.
It is 294 m above sea level and is the second highest point in southeastern England after Walbury Hill in West Berkshire, 297 m. Surrey has a population of 1.1 million people. Its largest town is Guildford, with a population of 77,057, they are followed by Ewell with 39,994 people and Camberley with 30,155. Towns of between 25,000 and 30,000 inhabitants are Ashford, Farnham and Redhill. Guildford is the historic county town, although the county administration was moved to Newington in 1791 and to Kingston upon Thames in 1893; the county counc
Eton College is an English 13–18 independent boarding school and sixth form for boys in the parish of Eton, near Windsor in Berkshire. It was founded in 1440 by King Henry VI as The King's College of Our Lady of Eton besides Wyndsor, as a sister institution to King's College, making it the 18th-oldest Headmasters' and Headmistresses' Conference school. Eton is one of the original nine public schools as defined by the Public Schools Act 1868; the others are Harrow, Rugby, Westminster, Merchant Taylors' and St Paul's. Following the public school tradition, Eton is a full boarding school, which means pupils live at the school seven days a week, it is one of only five such remaining single-sex boys' public schools in the United Kingdom; the remainder have since become co-educational: Rugby, Charterhouse and Shrewsbury and Merchant Taylors', now a day school. Eton has educated 19 British prime ministers and generations of the aristocracy and has been referred to as "the chief nurse of England's statesmen".
Eton charges up to £12,910 per term, with three terms per academic year, in 2017/18. Eton was noted as being the sixth most expensive HMC boarding school in the UK in 2013/14, however the school admits some boys with modest parental income: in 2011 it was reported that around 250 boys received "significant" financial help from the school, with the figure rising to 263 pupils in 2014, receiving the equivalent of around 60% of school fee assistance, whilst a further 63 received their education free of charge. Eton has announced plans to increase the figure to around 320 pupils, with 70 educated free of charge, with the intention that the number of pupils receiving financial assistance from the school continues to increase. Eton College was founded by King Henry VI as a charity school to provide free education to 70 poor boys who would go on to King's College, founded by the same King in 1441. Henry took Winchester College as his model, visiting on many occasions, borrowing its statutes and removing its headmaster and some of the scholars to start his new school.
When Henry VI founded the school, he granted it a large number of endowments, including much valuable land. The group of feoffees appointed by the king to receive forfeited lands of the Alien Priories for the endowment of Eton were as follows: Archbishop Chichele Bishop Stafford Bishop Lowe Bishop Ayscough William de la Pole, 1st Marquess of Suffolk John Somerset, Chancellor of the Exchequer and the king's doctor Thomas Beckington, Archdeacon of Buckingham, the king's secretary and Keeper of the Privy Seal Richard Andrew, first Warden of All Souls College, Oxford the king's secretary Adam Moleyns, Clerk of the Council John Hampton of Kniver, Staffordshire, an Esquire of the Body James Fiennes, another member of the Royal Household William Tresham, another member of the Royal HouseholdIt was intended to have formidable buildings and several religious relics including a part of the True Cross and the Crown of Thorns, he persuaded the Pope, Eugene IV, to grant him a privilege unparalleled anywhere in England: the right to grant indulgences to penitents on the Feast of the Assumption.
The college came into possession of one of England's Apocalypse manuscripts. However, when Henry was deposed by King Edward IV in 1461, the new King annulled all grants to the school and removed most of its assets and treasures to St George's Chapel, Windsor, on the other side of the River Thames. Legend has it that Jane Shore, intervened on the school's behalf, she was able to save a good part of the school, although the royal bequest and the number of staff were much reduced. Construction of the chapel intended to be over twice as long, with 18, or 17, bays was stopped when Henry VI was deposed. Only the Quire of the intended building was completed. Eton's first Headmaster, William Waynflete, founder of Magdalen College and Head Master of Winchester College, built the ante-chapel that completed the chapel; the important wall paintings in the chapel and the brick north range of the present School Yard date from the 1480s. As the school suffered reduced income while still under construction, the completion and further development of the school has since depended to some extent on wealthy benefactors.
Building resumed when Roger Lupton was Provost, around 1517. His name is borne by the big gatehouse in the west range of the cloisters, fronting School Yard the most famous image of the school; this range includes the important interiors of the Parlour, Election Hall, Election Chamber, where most of the 18th century "leaving portraits" are kept. "After Lupton's time nothing important was built until about 1670, when Provost Allestree gave a range to close the west side of School Yard between Lower School and Chapel". This was remodelled and completed in 1694 by Matthew Bankes, Master Carpenter of the Royal Works; the last important addition to the central college buildings was the College Library, in the south range of the cloister, 1725–29, by Thomas Rowland. It has a important collection of books and manuscripts. In the 19th century, the architect John Shaw Jr became surveyor to Eton, he designed New Buildings, Provost Francis Hodgson's addition to provide better accommodation for collegers, who until had lived in Long Chamber, a long f
Bishop of Chester
The Bishop of Chester is the Ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of Chester in the Province of York. The diocese expands across most of the historic county boundaries of Cheshire, including the Wirral Peninsula and has its see in the City of Chester where the seat is located at the Cathedral Church of Christ and the Blessed Virgin Mary, the Benedictine Abbey of Saint Werburgh, being elevated to cathedral status in 1541; the Bishop's residence is Chester. Cheshire has held a bishopric since 1072 when the seat was at the collegiate church of Saint John the Baptist until 1102; the present diocese was formed in 1541 under King Henry VIII. The current incumbent is Peter Forster, the 40th Bishop of Chester, whose election was confirmed in late 1996, who signs Peter Cestr. At present the Bishop is permitted to sit in the House of Lords as one of the Lords Spiritual. Chester at various periods in its history had a bishop and a cathedral, though till the early sixteenth century only intermittently.
Before the Norman conquest the title Bishop of Chester is found in documents applied to prelates who would be more described as Bishop of Mercia or Bishop of Lichfield. After the Council of London in 1075 had decreed the transfer of all episcopal sees to cities, Bishop of Lichfield, removed his seat from Lichfield to Chester, became known as Bishop of Chester. There he chose as his cathedral collegiate church of Saint John the Baptist, an arrangement which continued until 1102; the next bishop, transferred the see to Coventry on account of the rich monastery there, though he retained the episcopal palace at Chester. The Diocese of Coventry and Lichfield was of enormous extent, it was found convenient to have something analogous to a cathedral at Chester though the cathedral itself was elsewhere, but the chief ecclesiastical foundation in Chester was the Benedictine monastery of St Werburgh, the great church of which became the Cathedral Church of Christ and the Blessed Virgin Mary. The site had been occupied during the Christian period of the Roman occupation by a church dedicated to Ss.
Peter and Paul, rededicated to St Werburgh and St Oswald during the Saxon period. The church was served by a small chapter of secular canons until 1093, when Hugh, Earl of Chester, converted it into a great Benedictine monastery, with the co-operation of St Anselm Prior of Bec, who sent Richard, one of his monks, to be the first abbot. A new Norman church was built by his successors; this monastery, though suffering loss of property both by the depredations of the Welsh and the inroads of the sea, in the thirteenth and fifteenth centuries the monks transformed their Norman church into a gothic building. The last of the abbots of Chester was John, or Thomas, who resigned his abbey, valued at £1,003 5s. 11d. per annum, to the king at the time of the Dissolution of the Monasteries. In 1541 Henry VIII, without papal sanction, created six new episcopal sees, one of, Chester; the archdeaconry of Chester, from the Diocese of Coventry and Lichfield, that of Richmond, from York, were combined to form the new see, it was laid down that the abbey church, now the cathedral, was to be served by a dean and six prebends, the former abbot becoming the first dean.
At first the diocese was annexed to the Province of Canterbury, but by another Act of Parliament it was soon transferred to that of York. The first bishop was the Provincial of the Carmelites, John Bird, a doctor of divinity who had attracted the king's attention by his sermons preached against the pope's supremacy. Having been rewarded by appointment as Bishop of Bangor, he was now translated to Chester. On the accession of Mary he was deprived as being a married man, died as Vicar of Dunmow in 1556. Despite the origins of the diocese, it was recognised by the Roman See for the space of Queen Mary's reign. George Cotes, Master of Balliol and Fellow of Magdalen College and lecturer in theology, was appointed bishop by the Roman See. In 1556 he was succeeded by Cuthbert Scott, an able theologian and Vice-Chancellor of Cambridge University. On the accession of Elizabeth I he was one of the four Roman Catholic bishops chosen to defend Roman Catholic doctrine at the conference at Westminster, after this he was sent to the Tower and was deprived in 1559.
Being released on bail, he contrived to escape to the Continent. He died at Louvain, on 9 October 1564; the present diocese covers most of the traditional county of Cheshire, including the Wirral Peninsula and has its see in the City of Chester where the seat is located at the Cathedral Church of Christ and the Blessed Virgin Mary, the Benedictine Abbey of Saint Werburgh, being elevated to cathedral status in 1541. List of bishops of Chester after the foundation of the modern diocese of Chester in 1541. Earlier the midland diocese had for a time had its see at Chester, for which see List of the Bishops of the Diocese of Lichfield and its precursor offices. Notes Bibliography Crockford's Clerical Directory – Listings
King's College, Cambridge
King's College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge in Cambridge, England. Formally The King's College of Our Lady and Saint Nicholas in Cambridge, the college lies beside the River Cam and faces out onto King's Parade in the centre of the city. King's was founded in 1441 by Henry VI. However, the King's plans for the college were disrupted by the Wars of the Roses and resultant scarcity of funds, his eventual deposition. Little progress was made on the project until in 1508 Henry VII began to take an interest in the college, most as a political move to legitimise his new position; the building of the college's chapel, begun in 1446, was finished in 1544 during the reign of Henry VIII. King's College Chapel, Cambridge is regarded as one of the greatest examples of late Gothic English architecture, it has the world's largest fan vault, the chapel's stained-glass windows and wooden chancel screen are considered some of the finest from their era. The building is seen as emblematic of Cambridge.
The chapel's choir, composed of male students at King's and choristers from the nearby King's College School, is one of the most accomplished and renowned in the world. Every year on Christmas Eve the Festival of Nine Lessons and Carols is broadcast from the chapel to millions of listeners worldwide. On 12 February 1441 King Henry VI issued letters patent founding a college at Cambridge for a rector and twelve poor scholars; this college was to be named upon whose saint day Henry had been born. The first stone of the college's Old Court was laid by the King on Passion Sunday, 2 April 1441, on a site which lies directly north of the modern college and, a garden belonging to Trinity Hall. William Millington, a fellow of Clare College was installed as the rector. Henry directed the publication of the college's first governing statutes in 1443, his original modest plan for the college was abandoned, provision was instead made for a community of seventy fellows and scholars headed by a provost. Henry had belatedly learned of William of Wykeham's 1379 twin foundation of New College and Winchester College, wanted his own achievements to surpass those of Wykeham.
The King had in fact founded Eton College on 11 October 1440, but up until 1443 King's and Eton had been unconnected. However, that year the relationship between the two was remodelled upon Wykeham's successful institutions and the original sizes of the colleges scaled up to surpass Wykeham's. A second royal charter which re-founded the now much larger King's College was issued on 12 July 1443. On 1 September 1444, the Provosts of King's and Eton, the Wardens of Winchester and New College formally signed the Amicabilis Concordia in which they bound their colleges to support one another and financially. Members of King's were to be recruited from Eton; each year, the provost and two fellows travelled to Eton to impartially elect the worthiest boys to fill any vacancies at the college, always maintaining the total number of scholars and fellows at seventy. Membership of King's was a vocation for life. Scholars were eligible for election to the fellowship after three years of probation, irrespective of whether they had achieved a degree or not.
In fact, undergraduates at King's – unlike those from other colleges – did not have to pass university examinations to achieve their BA degree and instead had only to satisfy the college. Every fellow was to study theology, save for two who were to study astronomy, two civil law, four canon law, two medicine. In 1445 a Papal Bull from Eugenius IV exempted college members from parish duties, in 1457 an agreement between the provost and chancellor of the university limited the chancellor's authority and gave the college full jurisdiction over internal matters; the original plans for Old Court were too small to comfortably accommodate the larger college community of the second foundation, so in 1443 Henry began to purchase the land upon which the modern college now sits. The gateway and south range of Old Court had been built, but the rest was completed in a temporary fashion to serve until the new court was ready. However, the new college site would itself be left unfinished and the "temporary" Old Court buildings, arranged to accommodate seventy, served as the permanent residential fabric of the college until the beginning of the 19th century.
Henry's grand design for the new college buildings survives in the 1448 Founder's Will which describes his vision in detail. The new college site was to be centred on a great courtyard, bordered on all sides by adjoining buildings: a chapel to the north. Behind the hall and buttery was to be another courtyard, behind the library a cloistered cemetery including a magnificent bell tower; the first stone of the chapel was laid by the King on St James' Day, 25 July 1446. However, within a decade Henry's engagement in the Wars of the Roses meant that funds began to dry up. By the time of Henry's deposition in 1461, the chapel walls had been raised 60 ft high at the east end but only 8 ft at the west. Work proceeded sporadically until a generation in 1508 when the Founder's nephew Henry VII was prevailed upon to finish the shell o
Evangelical Anglicanism or evangelical Episcopalianism is a tradition or church party within Anglicanism that shares affinity with broader evangelicalism. Evangelical Anglicans share with other evangelicals the attributes of "conversionism, activism and crucicentrism" identified by historian David Bebbington as central to evangelical identity; the emergence of evangelical churchmanship can be traced back to the First Great Awakening in America and the Evangelical Revival in Britain in the 18th century. In the 20th century, prominent figures have included John Stott and J. I. Packer. In contrast to the high-church party, evangelicals emphasize experiential religion of the heart over the importance of liturgical forms; as a result, evangelicals are described as being low church, but these terms are not always interchangeable because low church can describe individuals or groups that are not evangelical. In contrast to Anglo-Catholics, evangelical Anglicans stress the Reformed, Protestant nature of Anglicanism.
Evangelicals have come from both moderate Calvinist as well as Arminian backgrounds. Evangelicals stress the importance of evangelism. Evangelical Anglicans have been fierce critics of ritualism and sacerdotalism. With respect to baptismal regeneration, evangelicals hold baptism to be "part of a process of regeneration, a step before eventual'rebirth'." Evangelical Anglicans hold a Reformed view of baptism understood in light of covenant theology in which baptism seals or pledges the blessings of the New Covenant to the individual Christian. However, regeneration is not simultaneous with baptism. In the case of infant baptism, the sacrament "signifies and seals to them graces which they still need to receive by faith."Evangelicals maintain a Reformed view of Holy Communion, believing that Christ is spiritually present in the Eucharist, rather than corporeally present. According to this view, known as receptionism, the body and blood of Christ are received spiritually by faith. Evangelicalism emerged from the religious revivals of the 18th century.
While previous movements in the Church of England had revolved around issues of church order and authority, evangelicals stressed lifestyle and conduct. Evangelicals emphasized domestic religion family prayer. Evangelical concern for the moral reform of society manifested itself in large scale support for missions, charitable societies for the poor, the formation of the Society for the Suppression of Vice, it was demonstrated by political campaigns in the British Parliament, the most important being the movement to abolish slavery led by William Wilberforce. Wilberforce was a prominent figure in a network of evangelical social reformers nicknamed the Clapham Sect. Charles Simeon was the most influential leader of evangelical Anglicanism, he established a fund that became a major source of evangelical patronage. By the time of his death, the Trust controlled the livings of 42 churches, including Bath Abbey, he helped to found the Church Missionary Society in 1799, meant to be an evangelical alternative to the high-church Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts.
The society sponsored mission work in India and Australia. In 1804, the British and Foreign Bible Society was founded to provide Bibles in different languages to accompany the missionary work. Nineteenth-century evangelicals were fascinated with biblical prophecy as it related to future events, they promoted Christian Zionism, the belief in the restoration of the Jews to Palestine; the London Society for Promotion of Christianity Amongst the Jews was created in 1809. In the 1830s, the 7th Earl of Shaftesbury, a leading evangelical, helped persuade Lord Palmerston, the British Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, to sponsor Jewish settlement. In 1841, Edward Bickersteth published The Restoration of the Jews to Their Own Land and the Final Blessedness of the Earth; the first evangelical bishop, Henry Ryder, was appointed to Gloucester in 1815 by the Earl of Liverpool after initial objections that he was a "religious bishop". The second evangelical bishop, Charles Sumner, Bishop of Winchester, was not appointed until 1826, over ten years later.
His brother John became Bishop of Chester and was elevated to Archbishop of Canterbury in 1848. The number of evangelical bishops grew afterwards during Lord Palmerston's time as Prime Minister since he relied on Shaftesbury's advice when making appointments. In the latter half of the 19th century, the leading evangelical was J. C. Ryle, first Bishop of Liverpool. Ryle helped to found evangelical theological institutions such as Wycliffe Hall at the University of Oxford and Ridley Hall as alternatives to the diocesan-run colleges, which by this time were dominated by the ritualists. Evangelical insistence on the necessity of conversion provoked controversy within the Church of England over the doctrine of baptismal regeneration. Evangelicals rejected this doctrine, a position summarized by the Bishop of Winchester, who wrote, "I must look, notwithstanding his baptism, for the Scriptural evidence of his being a child of God." The controversy came to a head in the late 1840s in. In 1847, Henry Phillpotts, Bishop of Exeter, refused to induct George Cornelius Gorham as vicar of a parish in Devon on the grounds that Gorham did not believe in baptismal regeneration.
Gorham appealed the case all the way to the Privy Council, which in 1850 ruled in Gorham's favour. From the 1870s into the early 20t
University College, Durham
University College, informally known as Castle, is a college of the University of Durham in England. Centred on Durham Castle on Palace Green, it was founded in 1832 and is the oldest of Durham's colleges; as a constituent college of Durham University, it is listed as a higher education institution under section 216 of the Education Reform Act 1988. All academic activities, such as research and tutoring, occur at a university level. University College moved into its current location in 1837. Around 150 students are accommodated within Durham Castle. Other college buildings, including converted 18th century houses and purpose-built accommodation from the 1950s, 1970s and 1980s, are within five minutes' walk of the castle; the college has 700 undergraduates and is the most over-subscribed college of the University. In 1987 it admitted women undergraduates for the first time, having had an all-male student body. From January 2012 until March 2019 the Master of the college was political theorist David Held.
University College was formed upon the creation of University of Durham in 1832. It was the first college of the university, is therefore known as the "foundation college", but the university was founded explicitly on the Oxbridge model, the intention was for the university to develop along collegiate lines in the manner of Oxford and Cambridge, as indeed it has. Durham Castle had been the home of the Prince Bishops of Durham, William van Mildert, one of the founders of the university, had intended for the castle to be given to the college. Temporary accommodation for students was provided at the Archdeacon's Inn on Palace Green until University College moved into its permanent home. Castle moved to its current location at Durham Castle in 1837 after van Mildert's successor, Edward Maltby, completed renovations of the building; the castle's keep a ruin, was redeveloped for student accommodation. Since high levels of maintenance have been, still are, necessary to preserve the buildings of the castle.
The university's second college, Hatfield Hall, was formed in 1846 as a response to the high costs of maintaining Castle. These costs arose from the students' expectations of being provided with servants and room furnishings; the university struggled for the rest of the 19th century, held back by a lack of prestige and a distance from the centres of power in the UK. By 1882, Castle contained some 79 undergraduates out of 205 at the university as a whole. Despite the university failing to gain recognition and prestige, a number of other colleges had opened by the end of the nineteenth century. Of these, Bishop Cosin's Hall failed to become financially viable and was absorbed into University College in 1864. Enrolment numbers continued to fluctuate; the inter-war years were transformative for Castle. The college was the smallest in Durham university, with just 34 undergraduates in 1928, was struggling to meet maintenance costs; the Castle, situated on the banks of "The Peninsula", was in danger of collapsing into the River Wear and many of its internal structures were weak.
The combination of high costs and low undergraduate numbers meant that the college was threatened with closure or merger with Hatfield. Castle was saved through charitable donations. A visit in the 1920s from Edward, Prince of Wales, helped increase the profile of the cause. In the 1920s, the castle's foundations were secured through reinforcement with concrete. Following these and other extensive building refurbishments of the 1920s and 1930s the college was now able to expand. One of its most successful periods followed during the Second World War when personnel of the Durham University Air Squadron were posted in the castle, doing short courses before joining the Royal Air Force; those from the college who died during World War II were commemorated by the redevelopment of the Norman Gallery area of the Castle in the 1950s. This period saw the launch of Castellum, an annual journal of the Castle Society, created to keep former students in touch with college life. In order to continue this expansion, the college purchased Lumley Castle in 1946 to house students, by 1948 seventy five students were housed there.
This section of the college developed a spirit of its own and is still remembered today through activities such as the Lumley Run. During the 1950s and 1960s the college expanded through developments at Owengate and Bailey Court, both around Palace Green. In the 1970s, the college's lease of Lumley Castle ended. Moatside Court was instead developed, meant that all the college's students were now housed within five minutes of the main castle. During this period there was rapid change in the size and structure of the college, which expanded to over 300 undergraduates by 1979. Female students were admitted to the college for the first time in 1987. Since this time the college has become mixed, with undergraduate numbers expanding to nearly seven hundred. Expansion caused a strain on college numbers, in 2004 the college was unable to provide accommodation for all of its fresher students for the first time in its history. Following the foundation of Josephine Butler, Durham's first new college to be opened since 1972, pressure from the university to take on additional students has lessened, undergraduate numbers have been intentionally reduced in recent years.
Construction of Durham Castle began in 1072, which makes it the oldest building in use at any University in the world. The castle retains much of its original design and structure, is part of a UNESCO World Heritage Site with Durham Cathedral; the castle's northern wing contai
Christchurch is the largest city in the South Island of New Zealand and the seat of the Canterbury Region. The Christchurch urban area lies on the South Island's east coast, just north of Banks Peninsula, it is home to 404,500 residents, making it New Zealand's third-most populous city behind Auckland and Wellington. The Avon River flows with an urban park located along its banks. Archaeological evidence has indicated that the Christchurch area was first settled by humans in about 1250. Christchurch became a city by Royal Charter on 31 July 1856, making it the oldest established city in New Zealand; the Canterbury Association, which settled the Canterbury Plains, named the city after Christ Church, Oxford. The new settlement was laid out in a grid pattern centred on Cathedral Square. Agriculture is the historic mainstay of Christchurch's economy; the early presence of the University of Canterbury and the heritage of the city's academic institutions in association with local businesses has fostered a number of technology-based industries.
Christchurch is one of five'gateway cities' for Antarctic exploration, hosting Antarctic support bases for several nations. The city suffered a series of earthquakes between September 2010 and early 2012, with the most destructive of them occurring at 12.51 p.m. on Tuesday, 22 February 2011, in which 185 people were killed and thousands of buildings across the city collapsed or suffered severe damage. By late 2013, 1,500 buildings in the city had been demolished, leading to an ongoing recovery and rebuilding project; the name of "Christchurch" was agreed on at the first meeting of the Canterbury Association on 27 March 1848. It was suggested by founder John Robert Godley, whose alma mater was Oxford; the Māori name Ōtautahi was adopted in the 1930s. The site was a seasonal dwelling of Ngāi Tahu chief Te Potiki Tautahi, whose main home was Port Levy on Banks Peninsula. Prior to that the Ngāi Tahu referred to the Christchurch area as Karaitiana, a transliteration of the English word Christian. Archaeological evidence found in a cave at Redcliffs in 1876 has indicated that the Christchurch area was first settled by moa-hunting tribes about 1250 CE.
These first inhabitants were thought to have been followed by the Waitaha tribe, who are said to have migrated from the East coast of the North Island in the 16th century. Following tribal warfare, the Waitaha were dispossessed by the Ngāti Māmoe tribe, they were in turn subjugated by the Ngāi Tahu tribe, who remained in control until the arrival of European settlers. Following the purchase of land at Putaringamotu by the Weller brothers, whalers of Otago and Sydney, a party of European settlers led by Herriott and McGillivray established themselves in what is now Christchurch, early in 1840, their abandoned holdings were taken over by the Deans brothers in 1843. The First Four Ships were chartered by the Canterbury Association and brought the first 792 of the Canterbury Pilgrims to Lyttelton Harbour; these sailing vessels were the Randolph, Charlotte Jane, Sir George Seymour, Cressy. The Charlotte Jane was the first to arrive on 16 December 1850; the Canterbury Pilgrims had aspirations of building a city around a cathedral and college, on the model of Christ Church in Oxford.
The name "Christ Church" was decided prior to the ships' arrival, at the Association's first meeting, on 27 March 1848. The exact basis for the name is not known, it has been suggested that it is named in Dorset, England. The last explanation is the one accepted. At the request of the Deans brothers — whose farm was the earliest European settlement in the area — the river was named after the River Avon in Scotland, which rises in the Ayrshire hills near to where their grandfather's farm was located. Captain Joseph Thomas, the Canterbury Association's Chief Surveyor, surveyed the surrounding area. By December 1849 he had commissioned the construction of a road from Port Cooper Lyttelton, to Christchurch via Sumner; however this proved more difficult than expected and road construction was stopped while a steep foot and pack horse track was constructed over the hill between the port and the Heathcote valley, where access to the site of the proposed settlement could be gained. This track became known as the Bridle Path, because the path was so steep that pack horses needed to be led by the bridle.
Goods that were too heavy or bulky to be transported by pack horse over the Bridle Path were shipped by small sailing vessels some eight miles by water around the coast and up the estuary to Ferrymead. New Zealand's first public railway line, the Ferrymead Railway, opened from Ferrymead to Christchurch in 1863. Due to the difficulties in travelling over the Port Hills and the dangers associated with shipping navigating the Sumner bar, a railway tunnel was bored through the Port Hills to Lyttelton, opening in 1867. Christchurch became a city by royal charter on 31 July 1856, the first in New Zealand. Many of the city's Gothic Revival buildings by architect Benjamin Mountfort date from this period. Christchurch was the seat of provincial administration for the Province of Canterbury, abolished in 1876. Christchurch buildings were damaged by earthquakes in 1869, 1881 and 1888. In 1947, New Zealand's worst fire disaster occurred at Ballantyne's Department Store in the inner city, with 41 people killed in a blaze which razed