John Moses Browning was an American firearms designer who developed many varieties of military and civilian firearms and gun mechanisms – many of which are still in use around the world. He made his first firearm at age 13 in his father's gun shop, was awarded the first of his 128 firearm patents on October 7, 1879, at the age of 24, he is regarded as one of the most successful firearms designers of the 19th and 20th centuries, pioneered the development of modern automatic and semi-automatic firearms. Browning influenced nearly all categories of firearms design, he invented, or made significant improvements to, single-shot, lever-action, pump-action rifles and shotguns. Arguably, his most significant contributions were in the area of autoloading firearms, he developed the first reliable and compact autoloading pistols by inventing the telescoping bolt integrating the bolt and barrel shroud into what is known as the pistol slide. Browning's telescoping bolt design is now found on nearly every modern semi-automatic pistol, as well as several modern automatic weapons.
He developed the first gas-operated firearm, the Colt–Browning Model 1895 machine gun – a system that surpassed mechanical recoil operation to become the standard for most high-power self-loading firearm designs worldwide. He made significant contributions to automatic cannon development. Browning's most successful designs include the M1911 pistol, the water-cooled M1917, the air-cooled M1919, heavy M2 machine guns, the Browning Automatic Rifle, the Browning Auto-5 – the first semi-automatic shotgun; some of these arms are still manufactured with only minor changes in detail and cosmetics to those assembled by Browning or his licensees. His guns are some of the most copied firearms in the world, his father, Jonathan Browning—who was among the thousands of pioneers of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints who made a mass exodus from Nauvoo, Illinois to Utah—established a gunsmith shop in Ogden in 1852. As was common in the Latter-day Saint community at the time, Jonathan Browning was a polygamist, having taken three wives.
He fathered 22 children, including John Moses Browning, raised two stepdaughters with his wife Elizabeth Caroline Clark. John Moses worked in his father's Ogden shop from the age of seven, where he was taught basic engineering and manufacturing principles, encouraged to experiment with new concepts. There he developed his first rifle, a single-shot falling block action design in 1878, in partnership with his younger brother, co-founded John Moses and Matthew Sandefur Browning Company renamed Browning Arms Company, began to produce this and other non-military firearms. By 1882, the company employed John and Matthew's half-brothers Jonathan, William (1862-1919], George. Like his father, Browning was a member of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, served a two-year mission in Georgia beginning on March 28, 1887, he married Rachel Theresa Child on April 10, 1879 in Ogden, Weber County, Utah Territory, the couple had 10 children, two of whom died in infancy. Production examples of the Model 1885 Single Shot Rifle caught the attention of the Winchester Repeating Arms Company, who dispatched a representative to evaluate the competition.
Winchester moved production to their Connecticut factory. From 1883, Browning worked in partnership with Winchester and designed a series of rifles and shotguns, most notably the lever action Winchester Model 1887 and the Model 1897 pump shotgun, the falling-block single-shot Model 1885, the lever-action Model 1886, Model 1892, Model 1894, Model 1895 rifles as well as the long recoil operated semi-automatic Remington Model 8 rifle, many of which are still in production today in some form. Winchester manufactured several popular small arms designed by John M. Browning. For decades in the late 19th century-early 20th century, Browning designs and Winchester firearms were synonymous and the collaboration was successful; this came to an end when Browning proposed a new long recoil operated semi-automatic shotgun design, a prototype finished in 1898, to Winchester management, which became the Browning Auto-5 shotgun. As was the custom of the time, Browning's earlier designs had been licensed to Winchester for a single fee payment.
With this new product, Browning introduced in his negotiations a continuous royalty fee based upon unit sales, rather than a single front-end fee payment. If the new shotgun became successful, Browning stood to make more fee income over the prior license fee arrangements. Winchester management was displeased with the bold change in their relationship, rejected Browning's offer. Remington Arms was approached, however the president of Remington died of a heart attack as Browning waited to offer them the gun; this forced Browning to look overseas to produce the shotgun. However. Having successfully negotiated firearm licenses with Fabrique Nationale de Herstal of Belgium, Browning took the new shotgun design to FN; the Browning Auto-5 was continuously manufactured as a popular shotgun throughout the 20th century. In response, Winchester shifted reliance away from John Browning designs when it adopted a shotgun design of Thomas Crossley
A scrunchie is a fabric covered elastic hair tie used to fasten medium to long hair types. Large, elaborate styles and diminutive, unassuming forms are available in many different colors and designs. Although scrunchies are most used in hair, they can be worn around the wrist or ankle as an accessory to enhance an outfit; the Scrunchie was patented in 1987 by Rommy Revson. She created the first prototype of the Scrunchie because she wanted a gentler version of the metal hair ties used in the 1980s. Revson named; the name Scrunchie was a natural evolution. After patenting the Scrunchie, Revson spent most of her time in legal disputes, both with manufacturers and her own lawyers. Scrunchies were popular in the 1980s and 1990s, including larger, more elaborate versions. Scrunchies regained popularity in the mid 2010s. Revson's Scrunchies were popular in the 1980s and 1990s. Scrunchies became popular in the 80s because they were a less damaging alternative for pulling big hair up. Scrunchies came in many different colors and patterns, so they matched the colorful and over-the-top aesthetic of the 1980s.
Well-known celebrities such as Janet Jackson, Paula Abdul, Demi Moore, Sarah Jessica Parker were all seen wearing them. Debbie Gibson in particular wore them. Scrunchies were featured in popular movies like Heathers, being passed from one Heather to another based on popularity shifts; the popularity of scrunchies continued into the 1990s as well. This time, scrunchies made an appearance in shows such as Friends, Full House, Seinfeld. However, scrunchie popularity was not limited to celebrities and television; the early 2000s marked a downfall in the popularity of scrunchies. Carrie Bradshaw in an episode of Sex and the City mocked the fashion; this comment represented the decline in popularity of the scrunchie during this time period. The scrunchie became a faux pas in the sense. Many people believed. After its downfall, the scrunchie still made a comeback. In the late 2010s it was seen all in the hair and on the wrists of celebrities. Famous women such as Hailey Bieber, Bella Hadid, Gigi Hadid, Selena Gomez have all been seen wearing them again.
Famous singer Lizzo generated news when she wore a $100 scruchie with jewels on it backstage at MTV's Video Music Awards. It was featured in the popular Netflix original movie To All the Boys I've Loved Before as a symbol of power struggle between main character Lara Jean and her former BFF and the character Eleven on Stranger Things was seen wearing them in the third season of the show in 2019. Scrunchies are an integral part of the VSCO girl aesthetic, a specific trend from the app VSCO, discussed on another app called TikTok; the re-surge in popularity is attributed to the rise in nostalgic culture at the end of the 2010s. Another reason cited for its rise in popularity in the late 2010s is an increased emphasis on hair health, the scrunchie is gentler on curly, coarse, or kinkier hair than normal hair ties. There are over five hundred different designs of scrunchies since its invention. There are many different stores that sell them. In the US every major store sold some sort of scrunchie in 2019.
The Scünci brand offers a range of textures, including velvet and fur, as well as various designs such as neon and metallic. There are different variations of the scrunchie. There is a scrunchie bow, a normal scrunchie with a small and short or large and long bow on one side of it. There are different patterns, such as leopard print, tie-dye, dotted. There are scrunchies with prints of animals or pictures of flowers on them. Overall, there are hundreds of different designs of scrunchies; the size of scrunchies varies, ranging from as small as a normal hair tie to the over-sized scrunchie, as big as the back of the head. Instructions for making a scrunchie
The Charles Baker House is a historic house at 107 Adams Street in Waltham, Massachusetts. Built about 1880, it is one of the city's best examples of Stick style architecture, a good example of worker housing built for employees of the Waltham Watch Company, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1989. The Charles Baker House is located one block east of the former Waltham Watch Company factory, at the northwest corner of Adams and Cherry Streets, it is a 2-1/2 story wood frame structure with clapboarded exterior. A gable end faces Adams Street, two bays wide, with a projecting single-story bay window in the left bay, its roof eave with small wooden brackets; the main roof has brackets at the corners, Stick style woodwork in not just the main gable, but in the gables of smaller roof dormers and the projecting side gables. Single-story porches with spindled valances flank the Adams Street facade. Most windows are tab feet below the sill; the land on which the house stands was sold by the Waltham Watch Company in 1868 to Charles Baker.
A house of different configuration is recorded as standing here in 1874. It is a rare example of a worker's boarding house built for employees of the Waltham Watch Company. Charles Baker was a company employee of unknown position, lived here until about 1912, he owned a second house nearby as a rental property. National Register of Historic Places listings in Waltham, Massachusetts