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John By

Lieutenant-Colonel John By was an English military engineer, best remembered for supervising the construction of the Rideau Canal and founding Bytown in the process, which would become the Canadian capital, Ottawa. By was born in Lambeth, the second of three sons of George By, of the London Customs House, Mary Bryan. By studied at the Royal Military Academy, he entered Officer Training in the army. He was commissioned in the Royal Artillery on 1 August 1799 but transferred to the Royal Engineers on 20 December the same year. In 1802 he was posted to Canada for the first time, where he worked on the fortification of Quebec City and on improving the navigability of the Saint Lawrence River. During the Napoleonic wars he returned to Europe, where he served in Spain under the Duke of Wellington from 1811 until 1815. With the end of the war By retired from the military, but in 1826 in view of his engineering experience in Canada, he was recalled and returned to Canada to supervise the construction of the Rideau Canal.

Since the canal was to begin in the wild and sparsely populated Ottawa River valley, his first task was the construction of a town to house the men who were to work on the canal, associated services. The resulting settlement, called Bytown in his honour, was renamed after the river; the canal was completed in six years, was acclaimed as an engineering triumph. The huge cost overruns, became a political scandal for the Board of Ordnance. Colonel By was recalled to London to face accusations that he had made a number of unauthorised expenditures; the charges were spurious and a parliamentary committee exonerated him. By petitioned Wellington and other military leaders to review his case, but the damage was done and he never received a formal commendation for his work on the canal, he died in 1836, is buried in the village of Frant in Sussex. By was married three times, first to Elizabeth Baines in 1801, who died in 1814, he remarried in 1818 to Esther March with whom he had two daughters: Harriet Martha By and Esther By Ashburnham.

By was survived by 2 brothers: The family is buried at St Albans Church in Frant. George By – died in 1840 without children Henry By – b. approx. 1789 and died in 1852 and predeceased by his son in 1847 John By's name lives on in a number of contexts: The Byward Market area of Ottawa's Lower Town His statue, executed by Joseph-Émile Brunet and unveiled in 1971, stands in nearby Major's Hill Park Ottawa's Colonel By Secondary School The scenic parkway of Colonel By Drive, which follows the first stretch of the canal 8 km through the city from Rideau street in Lower Town to the falls at Hogs Back The engineering building, Col. By Hall, was unveiled in September 2005 at the University of Ottawa: "Colonel By Hall 161 Louis Pasteur – Colonel By Hall, home to the Faculty of Engineering, is named in honour of Lieutenant-Colonel John By of the Royal Engineers, who led the construction of the Rideau Canal. Completed in 1832, the Rideau Canal was a remarkable engineering endeavour at the time, connecting a series of lakes and rivers to provide a secure supply route from Lake Ontario to Bytown, which became the city of Ottawa 150 years ago.

September 2005"In 1979, to commemorate the bicentenary of his birth, Canada Post issued a stamp bearing his image In Ottawa, Colonel By Day is the name given to the Ontario August civic holiday Colonel By Lake is an artificial lake on the Rideau Canal A sundial behind the present-day site of East Block on Parliament Hill and overlooking the set of locks was used on that site by the Royal Sappers and Miners under Lt Colonel John By, RE in 1826–27 and was restored in 1919. During the construction of the Rideau Canal, Barracks Hill was the site of the military barracks and military hospital. A historical plaque located on the grounds of Colonel By Secondary School states, "Colonel John By was born and educated in England and first came to Canada in 1802; as a member of the Royal Engineers, he worked on the first small locks on the St. Lawrence River as well as the fortifications of Quebec, he returned to England in 1811 and fought in the Peninsular War, but came back to Canada in 1826 to spend five summers heading the construction of the Rideau Canal, the 200 km long waterway, which now connects Ottawa and Kingston.

This formidable task included the building of about 50 dams and 47 locks, without the aid of modern equipment. But the amazing feat was never recognized in Colonel By's own lifetime, he died three years after its completion, never imagining that many thousands of Canadians would admire and value his achievement in the centuries to come. Colonel By's attributes of courage and diligence inspire us to emulate him, in the hopes that we too may somehow serve our country in a way which will benefit future generations."A plaque was erected by the Ontario Archaeological and Historic Sites Board at Jones Falls Lockstation commemorating Lieutenant Colonel John By, Royal Engineers, the superintending engineer in charge of the construction of the Rideau Canal. The plaque notes that the 123-mile long Rideau Canal, built as a military route and incorporating 47 locks, 16 lakes, two rivers, a 350-foot-long, 60-foot-high dam at Jones Falls, was completed in 1832. A plaque erected by the Province of Ontario sits in the stairwell of Lambeth Town Hall, in Brixton, England, commemorating By's Lambeth origins.

Media related to John By at Wikimedia Commons Biography at the Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online Biography from the Dictionary of National Biography

Roy Rogers Restaurants

Roy Rogers Franchise Company, LLC is a chain of fast food restaurants located in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern United States. The chain originated as the rebranding of the RoBee's House of Beef chain of Fort Wayne, Indiana acquired by the Marriott Corporation in February 1968. However, Marriott first used the Roy Rogers Roast Beef name on conversions of the company's Junior Hot Shoppes in the Washington D. C. area in April 1968 the existing RoBee's stores. An aggressive nationwide franchising campaign was launched. At its peak, the chain included over 600 locations; the Chain has 48 locations. The Roy Rogers chain was sold in 1990 to Imasco the parent company of Hardee's, experienced severe decline as many locations were converted to Hardee's stores. In 2002, the trademark was purchased by Plamondon Companies; as of August 2019, Roy Rogers has 48 locations. Roy Rogers' menu consists of hamburgers, roast beef sandwiches, fried chicken, nine side items, beverages. Many locations serve breakfast.

In 1967 the Azar's Big Boy restaurant franchise started RoBee's House of Beef restaurants in Ft. Wayne, Indiana; the Marriott Corp. which had acquired Bob's Big Boy and the Big Boy trademark in 1967, acquired RoBee's in February 1968 with plans to expand nationwide. RoBee's franchises would first be offered to Big Boy franchisees to coincide with their existing Big Boy territory. At the time there were 13 RoBee's restaurants in six states. During the acquisition, in January 1968, the competing roast beef chain Arby's sued RoBee's for trademark infringement and unfair competition; because "RoBee's" sounded too much like "Arby's" the settlement required a new brand name and Marriott wanted something recognizable. Big Boy founder Bob Wian sitting on Marriott's board of directors, was friends with Roy Rogers' agent and suggested that the company approach Rogers about the use of his name. Interested in associating with a chain restaurant, Rogers was in similar discussions with another company when Marriott called.

Nonetheless, he accepted Marriott's offer: Rogers would receive a licensing fee for use of his name and be paid for personal appearances at the restaurants. The restaurants would be called "Roy Rogers Roast Beef Sandwich" restaurants, despite Arby's complaints, it retained RoBee's building design and covered wagon logo design. Several major Big Boy franchisees accepted Marriott's offer and became Roy Rogers regional franchisees, including Abdow's, Frisch's, Elias Brothers, Marc's, Shoney's which together covered much of the Northeastern and Southern US. Pittsburgh franchisee Eat'n Park rejected the offer and took public offense at paying fees to Rogers. In the Pittsburgh area and elsewhere, other regional franchisees were sought who would subfranchise to smaller operators, by January 1969 Marriott claimed regional franchises for every state but Alaska. Roy Rogers' restaurants opened in Canada, franchised to that nation's Big Boy franchisee, JB's of Canada. Marriott divided the United States into 33 franchise regions and required regional franchisees open a set number of restaurants in a four-year period.

Regional franchisees would pay Marriott a 2% royalty, subfranchisees pay the regional franchisee 3%, who would keep the additional 1%. A restaurant required a $35,000 cash investment upfront, including $7,500 paid to Marriott. Additionally, the cost of the building and equipment, with seating for 42 persons, cost about $100,000 in 1968, excluding the cost of land. Marriott charged an interest rate of 12 % on land and 17 % for the building; the prototype restaurant seated 40 to 45 persons with additional outdoor seating on an optional patio in front of the building, but actual restaurants varied, one franchisee's dining area accommodating 75 persons. The first Roy Rogers restaurant opened in April 1968 in the Bailey's Crossroads section of Falls Church, Virginia, on the corner of Leesburg Pike and Carlin Springs Road. Another opened in Bethesda, Maryland; the area was selected because Marriott was headquartered in metropolitan Washington, D. C. the River Road unit located directly across the street.

These first locations were conversions of Jr. Hot Shoppes, Marriott's existing fast food chain. In May 1968, RoBee's units began to open as Roy Rogers. Rogers made a four state tour of namesake restaurants in the Southern U. S. appearing at each location for an hour, shaking hands and handing out signed photographs. Filming for the first television commercials advertising Roy Rogers Restaurants took place in the Apple Valley, California area where Rogers lived with his family. In 1968 and 1969, Rogers and friends, Earl Bascom and Mel Marion, were filmed at various locations including the historic Las Flores Ranch in Summit Valley and the Campbell Ranch in Victorville. Rapid growth began in 1968 and Marriott made optimistic projections. In October 1968, there were 38 units open and 65 under construction, by December, 56 open and 39 under construction. Marriott projected 700 or more Roy Rogers restaurants in four years. By June 1969, 105 units were open with a new projection of 870 in four years. A February 1970 newspaper article reported.

However, growth halted in 1970, when Marriott suspended Roy Rogers franchising, due to financial losses from closings of failing locations. The following year, the Texas–based regional franchise, Ram-Hart Systems, filed for Chapter 11 protection, asking to terminate leases found unprofitable, which were making the entire chain unprofitable. After franchising resumed, only 172 restauran

Michael Saag

Michael S. Saag is a physician and prominent HIV/AIDS researcher at the University of Alabama at Birmingham, he holds the Jim Straley Chair in AIDS Research, is Director of the Division of Infectious Disease and of the William C. Gorgas Center for Geographic Medicine, Director of the Center for AIDS Research, he is the founder of the 1917 Clinic, a comprehensive AIDS treatment and research center at UAB Saag is a frequent lecturer at AIDS conferences around the world and is credited with performing pioneering clinical trials for several antiretroviral drugs now in common use for HIV treatment and for first demonstrating the clinical value of "viral-load testing" in HIV/AIDS treatment. In 2009 Saag was elected chairman of the HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. In 2019 Saag began serving on the Presidential Advisory Council on HIV/AIDS. Saag appeared in the 2001 PBS documentary Evolution describing how HIV can evolve to newer drug-resistant strains in the course of hours.

He is co-author of a 2007 textbook, AIDS Therapy and editor of the Sanford Guide to Antimicrobial Therapy and the Sanford Guide to HIV/AIDS Therapy. On April 14, 2014 Saag released his first book Positive published by Greenleaf Book Group, LLC. Saag was born in Kentucky, he graduated from Ballard High School in 1973 and was a three-year starter at offensive guard and defensive tackle for the Bruins football team. He completed an undergraduate degree in chemistry at Tulane University in 1977, he was president of Zeta Beta Tau fraternity and was a creative film maker while at the university. He graduated from medical school at the University of Louisville and completed his residency in internal medicine and a fellowship in infectious diseases at UAB. Dr. Saag is married to Amy Weil Saag

Reich Central Office for the Combating of Homosexuality and Abortion

The Reich Central Office for the Combating of Homosexuality and Abortion was the central instrument of Nazi Germany for the fight against homosexuality in Nazi Germany and the fight against abortion. The Reichszentrale was created on 10 October 1936 by a special decree of the Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler, its creation was the sign of the revival of persecution of homosexuals during the relative calm after the 1936 Summer Olympics. The primary task of the Reichszentrale was the collection of data about homosexuals; the central archive of data allowed the Reichszentrale to coordinate and begin the persecution and punishment of homosexuals. In order to do this, it had at its disposal special mobile squads, which could carry out executions. By 1940 the section had possessed data of some 41,000 homosexuals, both suspected and convicted. Investigation of the vice within the Party was not encouraged, unless the leadership ordered it for political reasons. From 1936 to 1938 SS official Josef Meisinger was the director of the section at the Gestapo Central Headquarters.

It was led by criminologist advisor Erich Jacob. In July 1943, Jacob became director of criminology and he worked beside psychiatrist and neurologist Carl-Heinz Rodenberg, who came on as scientific director. A group of 17 workers was available to both of them; the collection of records, which are believed to be about 100,000, was destroyed in all likelihood in the last days of the war. In a campaign against the Catholic Church, many Catholic priests were arrested on unfounded charges of homosexuality and acts of perversion; these "morality" prosecutions were suspended to show foreigners a good image during the 1936 Olympic Games, but resumed vigorously after Pope Pius XI had denounced Nazism in his 1937 encyclical Mit brennender Sorge. Clergy opposed to the regime, or holding views the Nazis disliked were targeted, with false charges of homosexual conduct hiding the real cause. Many, after they had served a prison sentence, were sent to concentration camps; some did not survive the experience.

Persecution of homosexuals in Nazi Germany and the Holocaust LGBT history in Germany Abortion in Germany Grau, Günter: Homosexualität in der NS-Zeit. Dokumente einer Diskriminierung und Verfolgung, Frankfurt a. M. 2004, ISBN 359-61-59733. Hutter, Jörg: "Die Rolle der Polizei bei der Schwulen- und Lesbenverfolgung im Nationalsozialismus"

Khurda Road–Nayagarh Town Passenger

The Khurda Road - Nayagarh Town Passenger is a passenger train belonging to East Coast Railway zone that runs between Khurda Road Junction railway station and Nayagarh Town, in the Eastern Indian state Odisha. Train no. 58429DN departs from Khurda Road at 19:35 and reaches Nayagarh Town at 21:30 Train no. 58430UP reaches Khurda Road at 07:00 Train no. 58431DN reaches Nayagarh Town at 09:30 Train no. 58432UP departs from Nayagarh Town at 10:00 and reaches Khurda Road at 11:30 The important halts of the train are: Khurda Road Junction Khurda Town, Totapada Begunia Rajsunakhala Bolagarh Road Nayagarh Town This train was hauled by a Visakhapatnam Based WDM 3A from Khurda Road to Nayagarh. Khurda Road - Bolangir rail line Khurda Road Junction railway station Nayagarh Town railway station

Slovakia at the 2015 European Games

Slovakia competed at the 2015 European Games, in Baku, Azerbaijan from 12 to 28 June 2015. Slovakia won 3 silver and 3 bronze medals in Baku. Slovakia won 2 gold medals, but after Azerbaijan's Dzmitry Marshin was suspended for four years after he failed a drug test, Slovakia lost athletics gold medal because this subsequent doping disqualification led to changes in final standings. Austria received overhauled Slovakia. MenWomenMixed Men's (Tomáš Benko, Andrej Bician, Jakub Bottlík, Matúš Bubeník, Tomáš Čelko, Denis Danáč, Slaven Dizdarević, Martin Koch, Martin Kučera, Marcel Lomnický, Jakub Matúš, Matúš Olej, Dušan Páleník, Jozef Pelikán, Lukáš Privalinec, Jozef Repčík, Marek Šefránek, Roman Turčáni, Jozef Urban, Tomáš Veszelka, Juraj Vitko, Ján Volko, Adam Závacký, Ján Zmoray, Pavol Ženčár, Patrik ŽeňúchReserve: Women's Reserve: MenWomen Team Group Play Eighth Finals Men MenWomen Spain has qualified for the following events based on the UCI Nations Rankings Men MenWomen Men IndividualWomen Individual Women MenWomenMixed Slovakia has qualified for the following events Slovakia has qualified the following quota places: MenWomen MenWomen Slovakia has qualified for the following events Group – Pool B Quarter-finals See Water polo at the 2015 European Games Group D Play-off Group B Men's Greco-RomanMen's freestyleWomen's freestyle