Chile the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. It borders Peru to the north, Bolivia to the northeast, Argentina to the east, the Drake Passage in the far south. Chilean territory includes the Pacific islands of Juan Fernández, Salas y Gómez and Easter Island in Oceania. Chile claims about 1,250,000 square kilometres of Antarctica, although all claims are suspended under the Antarctic Treaty; the arid Atacama Desert in northern Chile contains great mineral wealth, principally copper. The small central area dominates in terms of population and agricultural resources, is the cultural and political center from which Chile expanded in the late 19th century when it incorporated its northern and southern regions. Southern Chile is rich in forests and grazing lands, features a string of volcanoes and lakes; the southern coast is a labyrinth of fjords, canals, twisting peninsulas, islands.
Spain conquered and colonized the region in the mid-16th century, replacing Inca rule in the north and centre, but failing to conquer the independent Mapuche who inhabited what is now south-central Chile. After declaring its independence from Spain in 1818, Chile emerged in the 1830s as a stable authoritarian republic. In the 19th century, Chile saw significant economic and territorial growth, ending Mapuche resistance in the 1880s and gaining its current northern territory in the War of the Pacific after defeating Peru and Bolivia. In the 1960s and 1970s, the country experienced severe left-right political polarization and turmoil; this development culminated with the 1973 Chilean coup d'état that overthrew Salvador Allende's democratically elected left-wing government and instituted a 16-year-long right-wing military dictatorship that left more than 3,000 people dead or missing. The regime, headed by Augusto Pinochet, ended in 1990 after it lost a referendum in 1988 and was succeeded by a center-left coalition which ruled through four presidencies until 2010.
The modern sovereign state of Chile is among South America's most economically and stable and prosperous nations, with a high-income economy and high living standards. It leads Latin American nations in rankings of human development, income per capita, state of peace, economic freedom, low perception of corruption, it ranks high regionally in sustainability of the state, democratic development. Chile is a member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, joining in 2010, it has the lowest homicide rate in the Americas after Canada. Chile is a founding member of the United Nations, the Union of South American Nations and the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States. There are various theories about the origin of the word Chile. According to 17th-century Spanish chronicler Diego de Rosales, the Incas called the valley of the Aconcagua "Chili" by corruption of the name of a Picunche tribal chief called Tili, who ruled the area at the time of the Incan conquest in the 15th century.
Another theory points to the similarity of the valley of the Aconcagua with that of the Casma Valley in Peru, where there was a town and valley named Chili. Other theories say Chile may derive its name from a Native American word meaning either "ends of the earth" or "sea gulls". Another origin attributed to chilli is the onomatopoeic cheele-cheele—the Mapuche imitation of the warble of a bird locally known as trile; the Spanish conquistadors heard about this name from the Incas, the few survivors of Diego de Almagro's first Spanish expedition south from Peru in 1535–36 called themselves the "men of Chilli". Almagro is credited with the universalization of the name Chile, after naming the Mapocho valley as such; the older spelling "Chili" was in use in English until at least 1900 before switching to "Chile". Stone tool evidence indicates humans sporadically frequented the Monte Verde valley area as long as 18,500 years ago. About 10,000 years ago, migrating indigenous Peoples settled in fertile valleys and coastal areas of what is present-day Chile.
Settlement sites from early human habitation include Monte Verde, Cueva del Milodón and the Pali-Aike Crater's lava tube. The Incas extended their empire into what is now northern Chile, but the Mapuche resisted many attempts by the Inca Empire to subjugate them, despite their lack of state organization, they fought against his army. The result of the bloody three-day confrontation known as the Battle of the Maule was that the Inca conquest of the territories of Chile ended at the Maule river. In 1520, while attempting to circumnavigate the globe, Ferdinand Magellan discovered the southern passage now named after him thus becoming the first European to set foot on what is now Chile; the next Europeans to reach Chile were Diego de Almagro and his band of Spanish conquistadors, who came from Peru in 1535 seeking gold. The Spanish encountered various cultures that supported themselves principally through slash-and-burn agriculture and hunting; the conquest of Chile began in earnest in 1540 and was carried out by Pedro de Valdivia, one of Francisco Pizarro's lieutenants, who founded the city of Santiago on 12 February 1541.
Although the Spanish did not find the extensive gold and silver they sought, they recognize
The Falkland Islands is an archipelago in the South Atlantic Ocean on the Patagonian Shelf. The principal islands are about 300 miles east of South America's southern Patagonian coast, about 752 miles from the northern tip of the Antarctic Peninsula, at a latitude of about 52°S; the archipelago, with an area of 4,700 square miles, comprises East Falkland, West Falkland and 776 smaller islands. As a British overseas territory, the Falklands have internal self-governance, the United Kingdom takes responsibility for their defence and foreign affairs; the Falkland Islands' capital is Stanley on East Falkland. Controversy exists over the Falklands' discovery and subsequent colonisation by Europeans. At various times, the islands have had French, British and Argentine settlements. Britain reasserted its rule in 1833. In April 1982, Argentine forces temporarily occupied the islands. British administration was restored two months at the end of the Falklands War. Most Falklanders favour the archipelago remaining a UK overseas territory, but its sovereignty status is part of an ongoing dispute between Argentina and the United Kingdom.
The population consists of native-born Falkland Islanders, the majority of British descent. Other ethnicities include French and Scandinavian. Immigration from the United Kingdom, the South Atlantic island of Saint Helena, Chile has reversed a population decline; the predominant language is English. Under the British Nationality Act 1983, Falkland Islanders are British citizens; the islands lie on the boundary of the subantarctic oceanic and tundra climate zones, both major islands have mountain ranges reaching 2,300 feet. They are home to large bird populations, although many no longer breed on the main islands because of competition from introduced species. Major economic activities include fishing and sheep farming, with an emphasis on high-quality wool exports. Oil exploration, licensed by the Falkland Islands Government, remains controversial as a result of maritime disputes with Argentina; the name "Falkland Islands" comes from Falkland Sound, the strait that separates the two main islands.
The name "Falkland" was applied to the channel by John Strong, captain of an English expedition which landed on the islands in 1690. Strong named the strait in honour of Anthony Cary, 5th Viscount of Falkland, the Treasurer of the Navy who sponsored his journey; the Viscount's title originates from the town of Falkland, Scotland—the town's name comes from a Gaelic term referring to an "enclosure", but it could less plausibly be from the Anglo-Saxon term "folkland". The name "Falklands" was not applied to the islands until 1765, when British captain John Byron of the Royal Navy, claimed them for King George III as "Falkland's Islands"; the term "Falklands" is a standard abbreviation used to refer to the islands. The Spanish name for the archipelago, Islas Malvinas, derives from the French Îles Malouines—the name given to the islands by French explorer Louis-Antoine de Bougainville in 1764. Bougainville, who founded the islands' first settlement, named the area after the port of Saint-Malo; the port, located in the Brittany region of western France, was in turn named after St. Malo, the Christian evangelist who founded the city.
At the twentieth session of the United Nations General Assembly, the Fourth Committee determined that, in all languages other than Spanish, all UN documentation would designate the territory as Falkland Islands. In Spanish, the territory was designated as Islas Malvinas; the nomenclature used by the United Nations for statistical processing purposes is Falkland Islands. Although Fuegians from Patagonia may have visited the Falkland Islands in prehistoric times, the islands were uninhabited when Europeans first discovered them. Claims of discovery date back to the 16th century, but no consensus exists on whether early explorers discovered the Falklands or other islands in the South Atlantic; the first recorded landing on the islands is attributed to English captain John Strong, who, en route to Peru's and Chile's littoral in 1690, discovered the Falkland Sound and noted the islands' water and game. The Falklands remained uninhabited until the 1764 establishment of Port Louis on East Falkland by French captain Louis Antoine de Bougainville, the 1766 foundation of Port Egmont on Saunders Island by British captain John MacBride.
Whether or not the settlements were aware of each other's existence is debated by historians. In 1766, France surrendered its claim on the Falklands to Spain, which renamed the French colony Puerto Soledad the following year. Problems began when Spain discovered and captured Port Egmont in 1770. War was narrowly avoided by its restitution to Britain in 1771. Both the British and Spanish settlements coexisted in the archipelago until 1774, when Britain's new economic and strategic considerations led it to voluntarily withdraw from the islands, leaving a plaque claiming the Falklands for King George III. Spain's Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata became the only governmental presence in the territory. West Falkland was left abandoned, Puerto Soledad became a prison camp. Amid the British invasions of the Río de la Plata during the Napoleonic Wars in Europe, the islands' governor evacuated the archipelago in 1806. Thereafter, the archipelago was visited only
East Indies Station
The Commander-in-Chief, East Indies was a Royal Navy admiral and the formation subordinate to him from 1865 to 1958. In official documents, the term East Indies Station was used. In 1941 the ships of the China Squadron and East Indies Squadron and were merged to form the Eastern Fleet under the control of the Commander-in-Chief, Eastern Fleet; the China Station ceased as a separate command. The East Indies Station and its shore establishments continued until disbandment in 1958; the East Indies Station was established as a Royal Navy command in 1744. From 1831–1865, the East Indies and the China Station were a single command known as the East Indies and China Station; the East Indies Station, established in 1865, covered the Indian Ocean and included the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea. These responsibilities did not imply territorial claims but rather that the navy would protect British trading interests. From 1913 the station was renamed the Egypt and East Indies Station until 1918; the East Indies Station had bases at Colombo, Bombay and Aden.
In response to increased Japanese threats, the separate East Indies Station was merged with the China Station in December 1941, to form the Eastern Fleet. In early May 1941, the Commander-in-Chief directed forces to support the pursuit of Pinguin, the German raider that sank after the Action of 8 May 1941 against HMS Cornwall. On 7 December 1941, cruisers on the station included the heavy cruisers Cornwall and Exeter. Assigned to the station was 814 Naval Air Squadron at China Bay, which unit was at that time equipped with Fairey Swordfish torpedo bombers; the last flagship of the station, in 1957-58, was HMS Gambia. In 1958 the station was replaced by the Arabian Seas and Persian Gulf Station. Prior to 1862 flag officers were appointed to coloured squadrons command flags shown below. See: Royal Navy ranks and uniforms of the 18th and 19th centuriesPost holders included: Note: for the period 1832–1865. Post holders included: Note:The post was sometimes styled as Senior Naval Officer and Commander-in-Chief, East Indies Station.
Included: Note: Under East Indies Station when the Eastern Fleet its established Rear-Admiral Palliser becomes COS to C-in-C, Eastern Fleet. Established by the Royal Navy as East Coast of Africa Station was administered by the Flag Officer, East Africa and a sub-command of the East Indies Station later Eastern Fleet from 1862 to 1962. Within the Eastern Fleet command from April 1942 to September 1943 transferred back under East Indies Station The Royal Indian Navy was the naval force of British India and the Dominion of India from 1 May 1830 – 26 January 1950, it came under the East Indies Station at the outbreak of World War Two on 3 September 1939 until December 1941 transfers to Eastern Fleet command. The Red Sea Station was one of the geographical divisions into which the Royal Navy divided its worldwide responsibilities for most of its existence was a sub-command of the East Indies Station. Base afloat:HMS HMS Egret Notes: On 21 October 1941 the title is changed to Flag Officer, Red Sea and his command but now reporting to the Commander-in-Chief, Mediterranean Fleet until 17 May 1942.
On 18 May 1942 the title is changed again to Flag Officer, Commanding Red Sea and Canal Area and transferred again to the Eastern Fleet. The Persian Gulf Station was located at Basidu, Qishm Island in Persia later Juffair, Bahrain, it included a naval base and naval forces known as the Persian Gulf Patrol the Persian Gulf Squadron called he Persian Gulf Division it was a sub-command of the East Indies Station until 1958 when it merged with the Red Sea Station to create the Arabian Seas and Persian Gulf Station of the new Middle East Command. Various units that served in this command included: List of fleets and major commands of the Royal Navy List of Eastern Fleet ships The British Pacific and East Indies Fleets
Puerto Deseado called Port Desire, is a city of about 15,000 inhabitants and a fishing port in Patagonia in Santa Cruz Province of Argentina, on the estuary of the Deseado River. It was named Port Desire by the privateer Thomas Cavendish in 1586 after the name of his ship, became known by the Spanish translation of the name. Today, the straggly town has a couple of pleasant squares, a former railway station and two museums, one with a collection of indigenous artifacts and one at the seafront with relics from the sloop of war Swift which sank in 1770, recovered after its wreck was discovered in the port in 1982; the coast boasts spectacular scenery and colonies of marine wildlife close to the town. The harbour, nearly 32 km long, was discovered in 1520 by the Spanish expedition commanded by Magellan. Other Spanish expeditions followed, including Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa. On 17 December 1586 the privateer Thomas Cavendish sailed into the estuary on his flagship the Desire of 120 tons, accompanied by the Hugh Gallant of 40 tons and the Content of 60 tons.
He named the harbour Port Desire after his ship, the point of land at the harbour mouth is still known as Punta Cavendish. They met only a few Native Americans. After ten days Cavendish took his ships on their way, returned to England in 1588. In 1591 Cavendish set out on another expedition with five ships, himself sailing as admiral on the Leicester Galleon, while the Desire was commanded by captain John Davis, they suffered problems in the winter at the Strait of Magellan so turned north, on 20 May 1592 the Desire and the Black Pinnace lost touch with other ships and went into Port Desire to wait for Cavendish. He did not turn up, so in August they sailed to the nearby Penguin Island south, but were caught by a storm and, forced to run before the wind, came on unknown islands, making the first probable sighting of the Falkland Islands. In 1670 John Narborough visited Port Desire and claimed the territory for the British Empire, but no substantial attempt was made to assert the British claim against the Spanish claim to the region.
Captain John Byron went on from there to claim British possession of the Falklands in the 1760s, when the Spanish attacked there in 1770 one of the ships forced to flee was the sloop of war Swift which returned to Port Desire, but was shipwrecked on a concealed rock. Antonio de Biedma founded the Nueva Colonia in 1780 in the area near present-day Puerto Deseado shut down by Viceroy Vertíz. In 1790 a fort was established at Puerto Deseado by the Real Compañía Marítima of Charles IV of Spain, which served as a base for whaling until its abandonment in 1806; the area's most famous visitor came on the Voyage of the Beagle commanded by captain Robert FitzRoy, which brought the young naturalist Charles Darwin on 23 December 1833 for the first of several visits while HMS Beagle carried out its hydrographic survey. The town was serviced by the freightrailwayline running form Las Heras via Pico Truncado to Puerto Deseado up until 1976. According to Railwaygazette, this line will be modernized shortly for reopening end of 2015 or the beginning of 2016.
The town is connected to the national roadsystem via a 120 km long nearly straight secondary road. Under the Köppen climate classification, Puerto Deseado has a cold semi-arid climate with mild, warm summers and cold winters. Most of the tourism industry is based on touring the estuary to see the diverse fauna, such as the Commerson's dolphin and Rockhopper penguins. Puerto Deseado's economy is based on the fishing industry. There are several fish-processing plants by its coasts on "Avenida Costanera" and a high percentage of the population works on jobs related to industrial fishing such as stevedores, crane operators, fish cleaners and the like; the movie "Gone Fishing" by Carlos Sorín is set entirely in Puerto Deseado. Puerto Deseado is the main setting of the novels The Sunken Secret and The Arrow Collector by ]; the Sunken Secret is based on the true story of the wreck and recovery of HMS Swift a British sloop of war that sank off the town's coast. ARA Puerto Deseado oceanographic ship Official website Municipal information: Municipal Affairs Federal Institute, Municipal Affairs Secretariat, Ministry of Interior, Argentina.
Map of Puerto Deseado
HMS Dolphin (1751)
HMS Dolphin was a 24-gun sixth-rate frigate of the Royal Navy. Launched in 1751, she was used as a survey ship from 1764 and made two circumnavigations of the world under the successive commands of John Byron and Samuel Wallis, she was the first ship to circumnavigate the world twice. She remained in service until she was paid off in September 1776, she was broken up in early 1777. Built to the 1745 Establishment, Dolphin was ordered from the private yard of Earlsman Sparrow in Rotherhithe. Following Sparrow's bankruptcy in 1748, the order was moved to Woolwich Dockyard. In order to reduce the incidence of shipworm, Dolphin's hull was copper-sheathed ahead of her first voyage of circumnavigation in 1764. Not long after her commissioning, the hostilities of the Seven Years' War had escalated and spread to Europe, in May 1756 Britain declared war on France of the Ancien Régime. Dolphin was pressed into service throughout the conflict, was present at the Battle of Minorca in 1756 when a fleet under Admiral John Byng failed to relieve Port Mahon, Britain's main base in the Western Mediterranean.
With Britain's successful conclusion of the Seven Years' War in 1763, her attentions turned towards consolidating her gains and continuing to expand her trade and influence at the expense of the other competing European powers. The Pacific Ocean was beginning to be opened up by exploratory European vessels, interest had developed in this route as an alternate to reach the East Indies; this interest was compounded by theories put forward which suggested that a large, hitherto-unknown continental landmass must exist at southern latitudes to "counterbalance" the northern hemisphere's landmasses. No longer in a state of war, the Admiralty had more funds and men at her disposal to devote to exploratory ventures. Accordingly, an expedition was soon formed with instructions to investigate and establish a South Atlantic base from which Britain could keep an eye on voyages bound for the Pacific. Another purpose was to explore for unknown lands which could be claimed and exploited by the Crown, to reach the Far East if necessary.
The Dolphin was selected as lead vessel for this voyage, she was to be accompanied by the sloop HMS Tamar. Her captain was Commodore John Byron, a 42-year-old veteran of the sea, younger brother to the profligate William Byron, 5th Baron Byron. Between June 1764 and May 1766 HMS Dolphin completed the circumnavigation of the globe; this was the first such circumnavigation of less than 2 years. During this voyage, in 1765, Byron took possession of the Falkland Islands on behalf of Britain on the grounds of prior discovery, in so doing was nearly the cause of a war between Great Britain and Spain, both countries having armed fleets ready to contest the sovereignty of the barren islands. Byron visited islands of Tuamotus and Nikunau in the Gilbert Islands, putting them on European maps for the first time. Dolphin circumnavigated the world under the command of Samuel Wallis, her master's mate, John Gore, was among a number of the crew from Byron's circumnavigation who crewed with Wallis. The master on this voyage, George Robertson, subsequently wrote a book The discovery of Tahiti.
M. S. Dolphin round the world under the command of Captain Wallis, R. N. in the years 1766, 1767, 1768, written by her master. Dolphin sailed in 1766 in the company of HMS Swallow, under the command of Philip Carteret, who had served on Byron's circumnavigation. Dolphin dropped anchor at the peninsula of Tahiti Iti on 17 June 1767 but left to find a better anchorage. Wallis chose Matavai Bay on 23 June. Although the Spanish had visited the Marquesas Islands in 1595, some 170 years earlier, Wallis took possession of Otaheiti, which he named "King George III Island". Early on a large canoe approached Dolphin and at a signal its occupants launched a storm of stones at the British, who replied with grapeshot. Dolphin's gunnery cut the canoe in two. Wallis sent his carpenters ashore to cut the eighty-some canoes there in half. Friendly relations were established between the British sailors and the locals; the relationships became friendly when the sailors discovered that the women were eager to exchange sex for iron.
This trade became so extensive that the loss of nails started to threaten Dolphin's physical integrity. European and American voyages of scientific exploration Couper, Alistair. From Sailors and Traders: A Maritime History of the Pacific Peoples. University of Hawai'i Press. ISBN 9781441619884. Winfield, Rif. British Warships of the Age of Sail 1714–1792: Design, Construction and Fates. Seaforth. ISBN 9781844157006. Beaglehole, J. C.. The Exploration of the Pacific. Adam & Charles Black, London. OCLC 422331302. "HMS Dolphin". Ships of the World: an Historical Encyclopaedia. Retrieved 15 August 2005. Officer on Board the Said Ship.. A voyage round the world in His Majesty’s Ship the ‘Dolphin’, commanded by the honourable commodore Byron. London: J. Newbery and F. Newbery. Log entry from Bougainville aboard HMS Dolphin, 1768
Sir Joshua Reynolds was an English painter, specialising in portraits. John Russell said, he promoted the "Grand Style" in painting. He was a founder and first president of the Royal Academy of Arts, was knighted by George III in 1769. Reynolds was born in Plympton, Devon, on 16 July 1723 the third son of the Rev. Samuel Reynolds, master of the Plympton Free Grammar School in the town, his father had been a fellow of Balliol College, but did not send any of his sons to the university. One of his sisters was Mary Palmer, seven years his senior, author of Devonshire Dialogue, whose fondness for drawing is said to have had much influence on him when a boy. In 1740 she provided £60, half of the premium paid to Thomas Hudson the portrait-painter, for Joshua's pupilage, nine years advanced money for his expenses in Italy, his other siblings included Elizabeth Johnson. As a boy, he came under the influence of Zachariah Mudge, whose Platonistic philosophy stayed with him all his life. Reynolds made extracts in his commonplace book from Theophrastus, Seneca, Marcus Antonius, William Shakespeare, John Milton, Alexander Pope, John Dryden, Joseph Addison, Richard Steele, Aphra Behn, passages on art theory by Leonardo da Vinci, Charles Alphonse Du Fresnoy, André Félibien.
The work that came to have the most influential impact on Reynolds was Jonathan Richardson's An Essay on the Theory of Painting. Reynolds' annotated copy was lost for nearly two hundred years until it appeared in a Cambridge bookshop, inscribed with the signature ‘J. Reynolds Pictor’, is now in the collection of the Royal Academy of Arts, London. Having shown an early interest in art, Reynolds was apprenticed in 1740 to the fashionable London portrait painter Thomas Hudson, born in Devon. Hudson had a collection of Old Master drawings, including some by Guercino, of which Reynolds made copies. Although apprenticed to Hudson for four years, Reynolds remained with him only until summer 1743. Having left Hudson, Reynolds worked for some time as a portrait-painter in Plymouth Dock, he returned to London before the end of 1744, but following his father's death in late 1745 he shared a house in Plymouth Dock with his sisters. In 1749, Reynolds met Commodore Augustus Keppel, who invited him to join HMS Centurion, of which he had command, on a voyage to the Mediterranean.
While with the ship he visited Lisbon, Cadiz and Minorca. From Minorca he travelled to Livorno in Italy, to Rome, where he spent two years, studying the Old Masters and acquiring a taste for the "Grand Style". Lord Edgcumbe, who had known Reynolds as a boy and introduced him to Keppel, suggested he should study with Pompeo Batoni, the leading painter in Rome, but Reynolds replied that he had nothing to learn from him. While in Rome he suffered a severe cold, which left him deaf, and, as a result, he began to carry a small ear trumpet with which he is pictured. Reynolds travelled homeward overland via Florence, Bologna and Paris, he was accompanied by Giuseppe Marchi aged about 17. Apart from a brief interlude in 1770, Marchi remained in Reynolds' employment as a studio assistant for the rest of the artist's career. Following his arrival in England in October 1752, Reynolds spent three months in Devon, before establishing himself in London, where he remained for the rest of his life, he took rooms in St Martin's Lane, before moving to Great Newport Street, his sister Frances acted as his housekeeper.
He achieved success and was prolific. Lord Edgecumbe recommended the Duke of Devonshire and Duke of Grafton to sit for him, other peers followed, including the Duke of Cumberland, third son of George II, in whose portrait, according to Nicholas Penny "bulk is brilliantly converted into power". In 1760 Reynolds moved into a large house, with space to show his works and accommodate his assistants, on the west side of Leicester Fields. Alongside ambitious full-length portraits, Reynolds painted large numbers of smaller works. In the late 1750s, at the height of the social season, he received five or six sitters a day, each for an hour. By 1761 Reynolds could command a fee of 80 guineas for a full-length portrait; the clothing of Reynolds' sitters was painted by either one of his pupils, his studio assistant Giuseppe Marchi, or the specialist drapery painter Peter Toms. James Northcote, his pupil, wrote of this arrangement that "the imitation of particular stuffs is not the work of genius, but is to be acquired by practice, this was what his pupils could do by care and time more than he himself chose to bestow.
Lay figures were used to model the clothes. Reynolds adapted the poses of his subjects from the works of earlier artists, a practice mocked by Nathaniel Hone in a painting called The Conjuror submitted to the Royal Academy exhibition of 1775, now in the collection of the National Gallery of Ireland, it shows a figure representing, though not resembling, seated in front of a cascade of prints from which Reynolds had borrowed with varying degrees of subtlety. Although not known principally for his landscapes, Reynolds did paint in this genre, he had an excellent vantage from his house, Wick House, on Richmond Hill, painted the view in about 1780. Reynolds was recognized for his portraits of children, he emphasized the innocence and natural grace of children. His 1788 portrait, Age of Innocence, is his best known character study of a c
The American Revolution was a colonial revolt that took place between 1765 and 1783. The American Patriots in the Thirteen Colonies won independence from Great Britain, becoming the United States of America, they defeated the British in the American Revolutionary War in alliance with others. Members of American colonial society argued the position of "no taxation without representation", starting with the Stamp Act Congress in 1765, they rejected the authority of the British Parliament to tax them because they lacked members in that governing body. Protests escalated to the Boston Massacre in 1770 and the burning of the Gaspee in Rhode Island in 1772, followed by the Boston Tea Party in December 1773, during which Patriots destroyed a consignment of taxed tea; the British responded by closing Boston Harbor followed with a series of legislative acts which rescinded Massachusetts Bay Colony's rights of self-government and caused the other colonies to rally behind Massachusetts. In late 1774, the Patriots set up their own alternative government to better coordinate their resistance efforts against Great Britain.
Tensions erupted into battle between Patriot militia and British regulars when the king's army attempted to capture and destroy Colonial military supplies at Lexington and Concord on April 19, 1775. The conflict developed into a global war, during which the Patriots fought the British and Loyalists in what became known as the American Revolutionary War; each of the thirteen colonies formed a Provincial Congress that assumed power from the old colonial governments and suppressed Loyalism, from there they built a Continental Army under the leadership of General George Washington. The Continental Congress determined King George's rule to be tyrannical and infringing the colonists' rights as Englishmen, they declared the colonies free and independent states on July 2, 1776; the Patriot leadership professed the political philosophies of liberalism and republicanism to reject monarchy and aristocracy, they proclaimed that all men are created equal. The Continental Army forced the redcoats out of Boston in March 1776, but that summer the British captured and held New York City and its strategic harbor for the duration of the war.
The Royal Navy blockaded ports and captured other cities for brief periods, but they failed to defeat Washington's forces. The Patriots unsuccessfully attempted to invade Canada during the winter of 1775–76, but captured a British army at the Battle of Saratoga in October 1777. France now entered the war as an ally of the United States with a large army and navy that threatened Britain itself; the war turned to the American South where the British under the leadership of Charles Cornwallis captured an army at Charleston, South Carolina in early 1780 but failed to enlist enough volunteers from Loyalist civilians to take effective control of the territory. A combined American–French force captured a second British army at Yorktown in the fall of 1781 ending the war; the Treaty of Paris was signed September 3, 1783, formally ending the conflict and confirming the new nation's complete separation from the British Empire. The United States took possession of nearly all the territory east of the Mississippi River and south of the Great Lakes, with the British retaining control of Canada and Spain taking Florida.
Among the significant results of the revolution was the creation of the United States Constitution, establishing a strong federal national government that included an executive, a national judiciary, a bicameral Congress that represented states in the Senate and the population in the House of Representatives. The Revolution resulted in the migration of around 60,000 Loyalists to other British territories British North America; as early as 1651, the English government had sought to regulate trade in the American colonies. On October 9, the Navigation Acts were passed pursuant to a mercantilist policy intended to ensure that trade enriched only Great Britain, barring trade with foreign nations; some argue that the economic impact was minimal on the colonists, but the political friction which the acts triggered was more serious, as the merchants most directly affected were most politically active. King Philip's War ended in 1678, much of it was fought without significant assistance from England.
This contributed to the development of a unique identity from that of the British people. In the 1680s, King Charles II determined to bring the New England colonies under a more centralized administration in order to regulate trade more effectively, his efforts were fiercely opposed by the colonists, resulting in the abrogation of their colonial charter by the Crown. Charles' successor James II finalized these efforts in 1686, establishing the Dominion of New England. Dominion rule triggered bitter resentment throughout New England. New Englanders were encouraged, however, by a change of government in England that saw James II abdicate, a populist uprising overthrew Dominion rule on April 18, 1689. Colonial governments reasserted their control in the wake of the revolt, successive governments made no more attempts to restore the Dominion. Subsequent English governments continued in their efforts to tax certain goods, passing acts regulating the trade of wool and molasses; the Molasses Act of 1733 in particular was egregious to the colonists, as a significant part of colonial trade relied on the product.
The taxes damaged the N