30th (Cambridgeshire) Regiment of Foot
The 30th Regiment of Foot was an infantry regiment of the British Army, raised in 1702. Under the Childers Reforms it amalgamated with the 59th Regiment of Foot to form the East Lancashire Regiment in 1881; the regiment was raised in Lincolnshire by Viscount Castleton as Lord Castleton's Regiment of Foot in 1689, during the Nine Years' War. In 1691 travelled to Flanders. In 1694 the colonelcy of the unit changed and it became Colonel Thomas Sanderson's Regiment of Foot. With the signing of the Treaty of Ryswick in 1697 the war came to an end. Sanderson's Regiment returned to England, where it was disbanded on 4 March 1698. By 1702 England was involved in the European conflict which became known as the War of the Spanish Succession. Sanderson was commissioned to reform his regiment as marines. In February 1702 Thomas Sanderson's Regiment of Marines was reraised in Lincolnshire; the unit took part in the capture and defence of Gibraltar in July 1704. It subsequently took part in the campaign led by the Earl of Peterborough and was involved in the capture of Barcelona in September 1705.
The regiment's title changed with the name of its colonel: Thomas Pownall and Charles Wills. In 1714 the regiment was converted to conventional infantry as Charles Willis's Regiment of Foot and deployed to Ireland that year; the regiment was sent to Menorca on garrison duty in 1724 and was again in Gibraltar during the siege of 1727. The regiment served in Ireland again from 1732 to 1743 and sailed with the expedition under General James St Clair to capture the Breton port of Lorient in September 1746 during the War of the Austrian Succession: they destroyed the French fortifications near Quiberon and returned to England. Troops from the regiment served as marines again on board Lord Anson's fleet at the First Battle of Cape Finisterre in May 1747; the regiment was sent to Ireland again in 1749. On 1 July 1751 a royal warrant was issued declaring that in future regiments were no longer to be known by their colonel's name, but by the "Number or Rank of the Regiment". Accordingly, Colonel the Earl of Loudoun's Regiment was renamed as the 30th Regiment of Foot.
The warrant for the first time regulated the uniform clothing of the army, provided that the 30th should wear pale yellow facings on their red uniform coats. The regiment returned to England in 1755 and took part in the Raid on Rochefort in September 1757, the Raid on St Malo in June 1758 and the Raid on Cherbourg in August 1758 as well as the Battle of Saint Cast in September 1758 during the Seven Years' War, their most notable action during the war was the capture of Belle Île in June 1761. The regiment served in Gibraltar again from 1763 to 1771 and in Ireland again from 1775 to 1781. In 1781 the regiment embarked for North America where they arrived in Charleston to take part in the southern campaign of the American War of Independence; the regiment spent nine years on Antigua, Saint Lucia and Dominica. In 1782 all regiments of the line without a royal title were given a county designation and the regiment became the 30th Regiment of Foot. In 1791 the regiment was called to put down a rebellion by the Maroons.
The regiment arrived back in England in 1791 and provided support to the French Royalists at the Siege of Toulon in autumn 1793 during the French Revolutionary Wars. In March 1801 the regiment formed part of the expedition to Egypt to drive out the French occupying force and took part in the Battle of Mandora and the Battle of Alexandria that month; the regiment formed a second battalion in the following year. In January 1807 the 1st Battalion sailed for India; the 2nd Battalion embarked for Portugal in March 1809 for service in the Peninsular War. It fought at the Siege of Badajoz in March 1812: the battalion's losses were 6 officers including the commanding officer, Lieutenant Colonel George Grey, 132 other ranks, it saw action at the Battle of Salamanca in July 1812. It went on to fight at the Siege of Burgos in September 1812 before returning home in December 1812; the battalion subsequently landed in Holland and fought at the Battle of Quatre Bras and the Battle of Waterloo in June 1815. At Waterloo the 2nd Battalion, 73rd Regiment of Foot and the 2nd Battalion, 30th Regiment of Foot formed a defensive square to defend their ground against successive French attacks.
By the beginning of 1816 the 2nd Battalion were once more in Ireland. In April 1817 the order came for disbandment of the 2nd Battalion. Lieutenant Edward Macready wrote in his journal: "This brave corps … will be remembered as long as the names of Fuentes de Onoro, Salamanca, Quatre Bras and Waterloo are emblazoned in the highest pages of British achievement." The same year, the 1st Battalion in India, was involved in the Third Anglo-Maratha War before returning to England in 1829. The regiment served in Ireland from 1831 to 1834, in Bermuda from 1834 to 1841 and Nova Scotia from 1841 to 1843, it was back in Ireland again from 1844 to 1846. The regiment landed at Scutari in May 1854 and was present at the Battle of Alma in September 1854, the Battle of Inkerman in November 1854 and the Siege of Sevastopol in winter 1854 during the Crimean War. In June 1861 the regiment moved to Canada as Britain increased their military presence following the Trent Affair; the regiment remained there until 1869, was involved in repelling the Fenian raids.
The regiment was posted to Ireland in 1869, moving to Jersey in 1871. As part of the Cardwell Reforms of the 1870s, where sing
Scottish Command or Army Headquarters Scotland is a command of the British Army. Great Britain was divided into military districts on the outbreak of war with France in 1793; the Scottish District was commanded by Scotland. In January 1876 a ‘Mobilization Scheme for the forces in Great Britain and Ireland’ was published, with the ‘Active Army’ divided into eight army corps based on the District Commands. 8th Corps was to be formed based at Edinburgh. This scheme disappeared in 1881; the 1901 Army Estimates introduced by St John Brodrick allowed for six army corps based on six regional commands. As outlined in a paper published in 1903, VI Corps was to be formed in a reconstituted Scottish Command, with HQ at Edinburgh. Lieutenant General Sir Charles Tucker was appointed acting General Officer Commanding-in-Chief of VI Corps in April 1903. Scottish Command was established in 1905 at Edinburgh Castle but moved to Craigiehall in 1955. Army Order No 324, issued on 21 August 1914, authorised the formation of a'New Army' of six Divisions, manned by volunteers who had responded to Earl Kitchener's appeal.
Each division was to be under the administration of one of the Home Commands, Scottish Command formed what became the 9th Division. It was followed by 15th Division of K2 in September 1914; the 64th Division was established in the Command by 1915 after the departure of 51st Division for France. In September 1939 consisted of Highland Area with 9th Infantry Division and 51st Infantry Division, Lowland Area with 15th Infantry Division and 52nd Infantry Division, plus other troops. By 1940 during the Battle of Britain the command was responsible to Home Forces; as France was capitulating, General Władysław Sikorski. The Polish commander-in-chief and prime minister, was able to evacuate many Polish troops—probably over 20,000—to the United Kingdom. After regrouping in southern Scotland these Polish ground units took over responsibility in October 1940 for the defence of the counties of Fife and Angus. I Corps was under the direct command of Scottish Command. While in this area the Corps was reorganised and expanded.
In 1950, the 51st/52nd Division was split, restoring the independence of the 52nd Lowland Division, which took regional command of Territorial Army units based in the Scottish Lowlands, including the Territorial infantry battalions of the Lowland Brigade regiments. The Command was merged into HQ UK Land Forces in 1972 and Scotland became a District under the new structure. Scotland continued to have district status directed by Army Headquarters Scotland at Craigiehall near Edinburgh until 2000 when the last General Officer Commanding Scotland stood down and the Army HQ Scotland was replaced by HQ 2nd Infantry Division with control of troops in Scotland and the North of England; the post of General Officer Commanding Scotland was recreated again on 2 April 2012 following the disbandment of 2nd Infantry Division. In 2014, Headquarters Scotland was merged with Headquarters 51st Infantry Brigade based at Forthside Barracks, Stirling. In 2015, the post of General Officer Commanding Scotland was eliminated.
Commanders-in-Chief have included: 1661–1663: John Middleton, 1st Earl of Middleton 1663–1667: John Leslie, 7th Earl of Rothes 1667–1674: George Livingston, 3rd Earl of Linlithgow 1674–1677: Sir George Munro 1677–1679: George Livingston, 3rd Earl of Linlithgow 1679-1679: James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth and Buccleuch 1679–1685: Thomas Dalyell 1685-1685: George Douglas, 1st Earl of Dumbarton 1685–1688: William Drummond, 1st Viscount Strathallan 1688-1688: James Douglas 1689-1690: Hugh Mackay 1690-1697: Sir Thomas Livingstone, Viscount Teviot 1702–1705: George Ramsay 1706–1710: David Melville, 3rd Earl of Leven 1710–1712: David Colyear, 1st Earl of Portmore 1712–1716: John Campbell, 2nd Duke of Argyll 1716–1724: George Carpenter, 1st Baron Carpenter 1724–1740: George Wade... 1745-1745: Sir John Cope 1745-1745: Roger Handasyd 1745–1746: Henry Hawley 1746–1747: William Anne Keppel, 2nd Earl of Albemarle 1747–1756: Humphrey Bland 1756–1767: Lord George Beauclerk 1767–1778: John Campbell, Marquess of Lorne 1778–1780: Sir James Adolphus Oughton 1780–1787: Alexander Mackay...
1789–1798: Lord Adam Gordon 1798–1799: Sir Ralph Abercromby... 1803–1806: Francis Rawdon-Hastings, 2nd Earl of Moira 1806–1812: William Cathcart, 1st Viscount Cathcart 1812–1816: Henry Wynyard 1816–1819: Sir John Hope 1819–1825: Lieutenant-General Sir Thomas Bradford 1825–1830: Lieutenant-General Sir Robert O'Callaghan 1830–1837: General Patrick Stuart 1837–1842: General Lord Greenock 1842–1847: Lieutenant-General Sir Neil Douglas 1847–1852: General Henry Riddell 1852–1854: General Sir Thomas Napier 1854–1860: General Viscount Melville 1860–1861: Major-General Duncan Cameron 1861–1867: Major-General Edward Forestier-Walker 1868–1873: Major-General Randal Rumley 1873–1875: Major-General Sir John Douglas 1875–1878: Major-General John Stuart 1878–1880: Major-General Robert Bruce 1880–1881: Major-General William Hope 1881–1885: Major-General Alastair Macdonald 1885–1888: Major-General Alexander Elliot 1888–1893: Major-General Sir Arthur Lyttelton-Annesley 1893–1894: Major-General Arthur Lyon Fremantle 1894–1896: Major-General Sir Hugh Rowlands 1896 – 1901 Lieutenant General Sir Edward Chapman
A soldier is one who fights as part of an army. A soldier can be a conscripted or volunteer enlisted person, a non-commissioned officer, or an officer; the word soldier derives from the Middle English word soudeour, from Old French soudeer or soudeour, meaning mercenary, from soudee, meaning shilling's worth or wage, from sou or soud, shilling. The word is related to the Medieval Latin soldarius, meaning soldier; these words derive from the Late Latin word solidus, referring to an Ancient Roman coin used in the Byzantine Empire. In most armies use of the word "soldier" has taken on a more general meaning due to the increasing specialization of military occupations that require different areas of knowledge and skill-sets; as a result, "soldiers" are referred to by names or ranks which reflect an individual's military occupation specialty arm, service, or branch of military employment, their type of unit, or operational employment or technical use such as: trooper, commando, infantryman, paratrooper, ranger, engineer, craftsman, medic, or a gunner.
In many countries soldiers serving in specific occupations are referred to by terms other than their occupational name. For example, military police personnel in the British Army are known as "red caps" because of the colour of their caps. Infantry are sometimes called "grunts" or "squaddies", while U. S. Army artillery crews, or "gunners," are sometimes referred to as "redlegs", from the service branch color for artillery. U. S. soldiers are called "G. I.s". French Marine Infantry are called marsouins because of their amphibious role. Military units in most armies have nicknames of this type, arising either from items of distinctive uniform, some historical connotation or rivalry between branches or regiments; some soldiers, such as conscripts or draftees, serve a single limited term. Others choose to serve until retirement. In the United States, military members can retire after 20 years. In other countries, the term of service is 30 years, hence the term "30-year man". According to the United Nations, 10-30% of all soldiers worldwide are women.
Airman Marine Sailor Media related to Soldier at Wikimedia Commons
Loch Fyne, is a sea loch off the Firth of Clyde and forms part of the coast of the Cowal peninsula. Located on the west coast of Argyll and Bute, Scotland, it extends 65 kilometres inland from the Sound of Bute. It is connected to the Sound of Jura by the Crinan Canal. Although there is no evidence that grapes have grown there, the title is honorific, indicating that the river, Abhainn Fìne, was a well-respected river. In the north the terrain is mountainous, with the Arrochar Alps, Beinn Bhuidhe, Glen Shira, Glen Fyne, Glen Croe, Arrochar and Loch Lomond nearby, it is overlooked by the an old travelers' monument. Loch Fyne is a popular area for sport fishing, it is a popular tourist destination with attractions such as Inveraray Castle and the nearby ruins of Castle MacEwen and Old Castle Lachlan. The village of Portavadie is on the east shore of the loch. A passenger ferry traverses the loch to Tarbert from the slipway at Portavadie. Dolphins and otters inhabit the loch, basking sharks can appear in its waters during the summer months.
A Ross's gull was present at the loch in early 2007. During the Second World War, the Combined Operations Training Centre on the banks of the loch, was an important military facility; the Crinan Canal connects Loch Fyne at Ardrishaig and the Sound of Jura at the hamlet of Crinan itself, giving a shortcut for smaller vessels out to the Hebrides saving the longer route of going around the Kintyre peninsula. The canal was built between 1794 and 1801 when the canal was opened, under the supervision of John Rennie. In 1816 Thomas Telford redesigned parts of the canal to remedy technical issues with water supplies for the canal. There are fifteen locks along the canal's 9-mile length. Loch Fyne has a reputation for its oyster fishery, as a consequence, the loch has given its name to the once locally owned Loch Fyne Oysters and to the associated Loch Fyne Restaurants, it is notable for its herring-fishing industry, hence the famous Loch Fyne Kipper caught using the drift-net method. In the mid-19th century, Loch Fyne was the center of the battle between the traditional drift-net fishermen and the new trawl-net fishermen who sprang up around Tarbert and Campbeltown in 1833.
Several Scottish sea-fishing records have been set in the loch: Ardkinglas Railway Map sources for Loch FyneOld Castle Lachlan - website Gaelic place names of Scotland - website Combined Operations Command - website
Jacobitism was the name of the political movement in Great Britain and Ireland that aimed to restore the House of Stuart to the thrones of England and Ireland. The movement was named after the Latin form of James. After James II and VII went into exile after the 1688 Glorious Revolution, the English Parliament argued he had'abandoned' the throne of England and offered it to his Protestant daughter Mary II and son-in-law and nephew William III as joint monarchs. In Scotland, the Convention did the same but claimed he had'forfeited' the throne of Scotland by his actions, listed in the Articles of Grievances; this was a fundamental change capturing a key ideological difference between Jacobites and their opponents. However, Jacobitism was a complex mix of ideas. After 1707, many Scottish Jacobites wanted to undo the Acts of Union that created Great Britain but opposed the idea of divine right. Outside Ireland, Jacobitism was strongest in the Scottish Highlands and Aberdeenshire, traditional Catholic areas in Northern England Northumberland, County Durham and Lancashire), plus parts of Wales and South-West England.
The emblem of the Jacobites is the White Cockade. White Rose Day is celebrated on 10 June, the anniversary of the birth of the Old Pretender in 1688. In addition to the 1689–1691 Williamite War in Ireland, there were a number of Jacobite revolts in Scotland and England between 1689 and 1746, plus many unsuccessful plots; the collapse of the 1745 Rising ended Jacobitism as a serious political movement. The first Stuart to be monarch of both Scotland and England was James VI and I, who claimed his authority was divinely inspired, a concept known as divine right, he considered his decisions were not subject to'interference' by either Parliament or the Church, a political view that would remain remarkably consistent among his Stuart successors. When James became King of England in 1603, a unified Church of Scotland and England governed by bishops was the first step in his vision of a centralised, Unionist state. While both churches were nominally Episcopalian, in reality they were different in governance and doctrine.
Attempts by James's son Charles I to impose common practices led to the 1639-1651 Wars of the Three Kingdoms, the execution of Charles in 1649 and the incorporation of Scotland into the English Commonwealth. After the Restoration of Charles II in 1660, political and religious conflict continued. In Ireland, the key issues were land rights and tolerance for the Catholic majority. Retrieving these was a primary aim of the 1641 Irish Rebellion but after the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland, land held by Irish Catholics had fallen from 60% in 1641 to 9%. Only a small minority of large Catholic landowners benefitted from the 1662 Act of Settlement passed after the Restoration. In addition to struggles over religion, the Stuarts resisted the growing strength of Parliament. Louis XIV of France was the greatest exponent of Royal Absolutism in contemporary Europe, which meant many associated political absolutism with Catholicism. Charles II refused to call an English Parliament between 1681–1685, while in Ireland, only one session of Parliament was held between 1660 and 1689.
In 1685, Charles' Catholic brother became James II and VII, with considerable support in all three kingdoms. James' attempts to extend these measures to other Dissenters and his use of the Royal Prerogative to do so evoked memories of the religious and political divisions that led to the Civil Wars and were resisted by the Presbyterian Scots and his English Tory Anglican supporters. However, his Catholic viceroy in Ireland, Richard Talbot, 1st Earl of Tyrconnell, began replacing Protestant office holders with Catholics, while purging them from an expanded Royal Irish Army. In June 1688, two events turned dissent into a crisis. Prosecuting the Seven Bishops seemed to go beyond tolerance for Catholicism and into an assault on the Episcopalian establishment. In 1685, many feared civil war. Representatives from across the political class invited William to assume the English throne and he landed in Brixham on 5 November. Parliament offered the English throne to William and Mary in February 1689. A Scottish Convention was elected in March 1689 to agree a Settlement, with only a tiny minority of the 125 delegates loyal to James.
On 12 March, James began the War in Ire
Jacobite rising of 1745
The Jacobite rising of 1745 known as the Forty-five Rebellion or the'45, was an attempt by Charles Edward Stuart to regain the British throne for his father, James Francis Edward Stuart. It took place during the War of the Austrian Succession, when the bulk of the British Army was fighting in mainland Europe, proved to be the last in a series of revolts that began in 1689, with major outbreaks in 1708, 1715 and 1719. Charles launched the rebellion on 19 August 1745 at Glenfinnan in the Scottish Highlands, capturing Edinburgh and winning the Battle of Prestonpans in September. At a council in October, the Scots agreed to invade England after Charles assured them of substantial support from English Jacobites and a simultaneous French landing in Southern England. On that basis, the Jacobite army entered England in early November, reaching Derby on 4 December, where they decided to turn back. Similar discussions had taken place at Carlisle and Manchester and many felt they had gone too far already.
The invasion route had been selected to cross areas considered Jacobite but the promised English support failed to materialise. The decision was supported by the vast majority but caused an irretrievable split between Charles and his Scots supporters. Despite victory at Falkirk Muir in January 1746, the Battle of Culloden in April ended the Rebellion and significant backing for the Stuart cause. Charles escaped to France, but was unable to win support for another attempt, died in Rome in 1788; the 1688 Glorious Revolution replaced James II and VII with his Protestant daughter Mary and her Dutch husband William, who ruled as joint monarchs of England and Scotland. Neither Mary, who died in 1694, nor her sister Anne, had surviving children, which left their Catholic half-brother James Francis Edward as the closest natural heir. To ensure a Protestant monarch, the 1701 Act of Settlement excluded Catholics from the succession and when Anne became queen in 1702, her heir was the distantly related but Protestant Sophia of Hanover.
Sophia died in June 1714 and when Anne followed two months in August, her son succeeded as George I. Louis XIV of France, the Stuarts' main backer, died in 1715 and his successors needed peace with Britain in order to rebuild their economy; the 1716 Anglo-French alliance forced James to leave France. Rebellions in 1715 and 1719 failed, the latter so badly its planners concluded that it might "ruin the King's Interest and faithful subjects in these parts." Senior exiles like Bolingbroke now accepted pardons and returned home or took employment elsewhere and while many remained sympathetic, the Stuart cause seemed at an end. The birth of his sons Charles and Henry helped maintain public interest but by 1737, James was "living tranquilly in Rome, having abandoned all hope of a restoration."In the 1730s, French statesmen began to see the post-1713 expansion of British commercial strength as a threat to the European balance of power and looked for ways to reduce it. A Stuart restoration would be expensive, risky and of little value, since they were unlikely to be any more pro-French than the Hanoverians.
A low level, ongoing insurgency was far more cost-effective and the Scottish Highlands an ideal location, due to the feudal nature of clan society, their remoteness and terrain. An opportunity was provided due to unhappiness with the London government, resulting in the 1725 malt tax riots and 1737 Porteous riots. In March 1743, the Highland-recruited 42nd Regiment or Black Watch was posted to Flanders, contrary to an understanding their service was restricted to Scotland and led to a short-lived mutiny. However, mutinies over pay and conditions were not unusual and the worst riots in 1725 took place in Glasgow, a town Charles noted in 1746 as one'where I have no friends and who are not at pains to hide it.' Trade disputes between Spain and Britain led to the 1739 War of Jenkins' Ear, followed in 1740–41 by the War of the Austrian Succession. The long-serving British prime minister Robert Walpole was forced to resign in February 1742 by an alliance of Tories and anti-Walpole Patriot Whigs, who did a deal that excluded the majority of their Tory partners from government.
Furious Tories such as the Duke of Beaufort now asked for French help in restoring James to the British throne. While war with Britain was only a matter of time, Cardinal Fleury, chief minister since 1723, viewed the Jacobites as unreliable fantasists, an opinion shared by most French ministers. One exception was the Marquis D'Argenson. In 1745, supporters of the exiled Stuarts, or Jacobites, remained a significant element in British and Irish politics but with different and competing goals; these divisions between the Scots and Irish, became apparent during the 1745 Rising, which demonstrated estimates of English support confused indifference to the Hanoverians with enthusiasm for the Stuarts. Charles' senior advisors included Irish exiles such as John O'Sullivan, who wanted an autonomous, Catholic Ireland and the return of lands confiscated after the Irish Confederate Wars. James II promised these concessions in return for Irish support in the 1689–91 Williamite War, only a Stuart on the throne of Great Britain could ensure their fulfilment.
A prominent factor in Tory opposition to th
Elizabeth Hamilton, 1st Baroness Hamilton of Hameldon
Elizabeth Hamilton Campbell, Duchess of Hamilton, Duchess of Argyll & 1st Baroness Hamilton of Hameldon was a celebrated Irish belle, lady-in-waiting and society hostess. Born in Hemingford Grey, she was the daughter of John Gunning of Castle Coote, County Roscommon and his wife, the Hon. Bridget Bourke, daughter of Theobald Bourke, 6th Viscount Mayo. Elizabeth's elder sister was Maria Gunning. In late 1740 or early 1741, the Gunning family returned to John Gunning's ancestral home in Ireland, where they divided their time between their home in Roscommon, a rented house in Dublin. According to some sources, when Maria and her sister Elizabeth came of age, their mother urged them to take up acting in order to earn a living, due to the family's relative poverty; the sources further state that the Gunning sisters worked for some time in the Dublin theatres, befriending actors like Margaret Woffington though acting was not considered a respectable profession as many actresses of that time doubled as courtesans to wealthy benefactors.
However, other sources differ and point out that Margaret Woffington did not arrive in Dublin until May 1751, by which time Maria and her sister Elizabeth were in England. In October 1748, a ball was held at Dublin Castle by the Viscountess Petersham; the two sisters did not have any dresses for the gathering until Tom Sheridan, the manager of one of the local theatres, supplied them with two costumes from the green room, those of Lady Macbeth and Juliet. Wearing the costumes, they were presented to the Earl of Harrington, the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. Harrington must have been pleased by the meeting as, by 1750, Bridget Gunning had persuaded him to grant her a pension, which she used to transport herself and Elizabeth, back to their original home in Huntingdon, England. With their attendance at local balls and parties, the beauty of two girls was much remarked upon, they became well-known celebrities, their fame reaching all the way to London, with themselves following soon afterwards. On 2 December 1750, they were presented at the court of St James.
By this time, they were sufficiently famous that the presentation was noted in the London newspapers. Elizabeth was immortalized in portraits by, among others, artists Sir Joshua Reynolds and Gavin Hamilton. In January 1752, Elizabeth met the Duke of Hamilton. According to Walpole, on 14 February at a party at Bedford House, the duke declared his desire to marry Elizabeth that night and he called for a local parson to perform the ceremony. However, without a licence, calling of banns, a ring, the parson refused, they were married that night in Mayfair Chapel in a clandestine marriage, with a ring from a bed-curtain, whereupon Elizabeth became the Duchess of Hamilton. Horace Walpole said of the couple: "Duke Hamilton is the abstract of Scotch pride: he and the Duchess at their own house walk in to dinner before their company, sit together at the upper end of their own table, eat off the same plate, drink to nobody beneath the rank of Earl-would not one wonder how they could get any body either above or below that rank to dine with them at all?"
When the duke died in 1758, she became engaged to the Duke of Bridgwater, but the engagement was cancelled that year for reasons unknown. On 3 February the following year she married John Marquess of Lorne. From 1761 to 1784, she was a Lady of the Bedchamber to Queen Charlotte, her husband succeeded to his father's title of Duke of Argyll in 1770, Elizabeth became known as the Duchess of Argyll. On 20 May 1776, King George III, a long time admirer of hers, created her Baroness Hamilton of Hameldon in her own right, she had three children from her first marriage with the Duke of Hamilton: Lady Elizabeth Hamilton, married Edward Smith-Stanley, 12th Earl of Derby James Douglas-Hamilton, 7th Duke of Hamilton Douglas Douglas-Hamilton, 8th Duke of Hamilton She had five children from her second marriage with the Duke of Argyll: Lady Augusta Campbell George John Campbell, Earl of Campbell George Campbell, 6th Duke of Argyll Lady Charlotte Campbell John Campbell, 7th Duke of Argyll birth – 14 February 1752: Miss Elizabeth Gunning 14 February 1752 – 17 January 1758: Her Grace The Duchess of Hamilton 17 January 1758 – 3 February 1759: Her Grace The Dowager Duchess of Hamilton 3 February 1759 – 9 November 1770: Marchioness of Lorne 9 November 1770 – death: Her Grace The Duchess of Argyll 20 May 1776 – death: The Rt Hon The Baroness Hamilton of Hameldon Elizabeth died on 20 December 1790 at her home of Argyll House in London and was buried at Kilmun Parish Church in Kilmun, Argyllshire.
Lady of the Bedchamber, 1761–1784 The Two Beautiful Misses Gunning The Gunning Sisters Undone by Virginia Henley Horace Beakley, The Story of a Beautiful Duchess, published 1907 Some Old Time Beauties at Project Gutenberg