Geology of the Central African Republic

The geology of Central African Republic is part of the broader geology of Africa. CAR occupies a swath of ancient rocks, dating back billions of years that record significant aspects of Earth history and yield minerals vital to the country's small economy. Southern CAR is part of the Congo Craton, a stable landmass dating to the Archean, once fused with the Sao Francisco Craton until the opening of the South Atlantic Ocean; some of the oldest rocks in CAR belong to the 3.4 billion year old Bomu Complex which includes migmatite gneiss and metasedimentary schist spanning from the Democratic Republic of Congo. The Congo Craton once functioned as a small continent, until it was joined with Siberia during the formation of the supercontinent Columbia, between 2.1 and 1.8 billion years ago. A string of large igneous province volcanic events took place in three pulses during the time that the craton was part of Columbia, until the supercontinent fragmented; the Congo Craton was subsequently joined to the supercontinent Rodinia between 1.3 billion and 750 million years ago after a period where it may have existed as a separate continent in the Southern Hemisphere.

At the time, the continent was barren with no land life and the region experienced large scale glaciation during the Cryogenian Period. The northern part of the country is grouped with the Saharan Metacraton, which began to form between 3 billion and 2 billion years ago and accelerated with the Pan-African Orogeny and the creation of the Oubangides Belt in the Neoproterozoic. After the breakup of Rodinia, modern CAR was situated near the center of the subsequent supercontinent Pannotia, as part of the assembled basement rock of the current African continent; the region existed in the Southern Hemisphere as part of the supercontinents Pangaea. Many aspects of Central African Republic's geologic history remain unknown. Along with the Brazilian state of Bahia, CAR is the only country known to host carbonados, which some researchers have suggested may be connected to a Precambrian meteorite impact that could have generated the Bangui magnetic anomaly. Up to 60% of bedrock beneath the Central African Republic dates to the Precambrian.

Much of the country is situated in the Archean Congo Craton. The North Equatorial Fold Belt, Pan-African granulites and greenstone belts are found in the north and center of the country. Cretaceous sandstones span central areas of the republic; the Bakouma Formation includes extensive carbonates, glacial outwash and tillite deposits dated to the Neoproterozoic. Stratigraphically, the lower units of Precambrian rock are granite, amphibolite and gneissic-migmatite rock dating to the Neoarchean; these sequences, divided into the Bandas Belt and Dekoa Belt, are described as a greenstone belt. Granitoid batholiths and dolerite dikes dating to the Proterozoic intrude into these layers; the upper sequence is Neoproterozoic age quartzite and schist and tends to be folded, but only weakly metamorphosed. In the west, the Mambere Formation and the Kombele Formation in the east each record glacial sediments, while erosion and river activity left behind the Cretaceous Mouaka-Ouadda and Carnot-Berberati sandstone formations, as well as the plateaus of the Eocene Bambio Sandstone.

During the Quaternary extensive weathering of surface rocks took place, up to 40 meters deep. Iron-rich plinthosols dominate most of the center of the country. Unconsolidated psamment deposits occupy a section of the west and center of the country along with soils grouped under the FAO ferralsol classification of iron and aluminium-rich soils. Hydric, grayish-blue wetland gleysols are found in small locations in the north and along the border with the Congo. Soto-Viruet, Yadira; the Mineral Industries of Central African Republic, Cote D’Ivoire, Togo. US Geological Survey. Retrieved 2017-09-17. Rocks for Crops: Central African Republic. University of Guelph. Retrieved 2017-09-17. Schluter, Thomas. Geological Atlas of Africa. Springer. "Hydrogeology of Central African Republic". Retrieved 2017-09-17

2020 Copa Colombia

The 2020 Copa Colombia the 2020 Copa BetPlay Dimayor for sponsorship reasons, is the 18th edition of the Copa Colombia, the national cup competition for clubs of DIMAYOR. The tournament began on 19 February, it is scheduled to conclude on 11 November 2020, with the champions qualifying for the 2021 Copa Libertadores. Independiente Medellín are the defending champions. On 13 March 2020, after a meeting with its associate clubs, DIMAYOR announced the temporary suspension of the tournament, along with the Primera A and Primera B ones, due to the 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic; the format for the 2020 Copa Colombia will be the same one used for the 2018 edition, with the competition being played in a single-elimination format in its entirety, without any group stages. The 16 Categoría Primera B teams will enter the competition in the first stage, being drawn into eight ties. After two stages, four Primera B teams will qualify for the third stage, along with the twelve Categoría Primera A teams that did not enter international competition in the 2020 season, which will enter the cup at that stage.

In the round of 16, the eight third stage winners will be joined by the four Copa Libertadores qualifiers, as well as the four Copa Sudamericana qualifiers, which will enter the competition at this point. The schedule of the competition will be as follows: The first stage was played by the 16 Categoría Primera B clubs, eight of which were seeded in the ties according to their placement in the 2019 season aggregate table; the two relegated clubs from the Categoría Primera A along with the remaining Primera B clubs were drawn into each tie. The seeded clubs hosted the second leg; the second stage will be played by the eight first stage winners. In each tie, the clubs with the best performance in the first stage will host the second leg; the third stage will be played by the four second stage winners and the 12 Categoría Primera A clubs that did not qualify for international competition, which were seeded in the ties according to their placement in the 2019 season aggregate table. The two promoted clubs from the Categoría Primera B were the last two seeded teams, with Deportivo Pereira taking the eleventh position and Boyacá Chicó the twelfth position.

The four second stage winners as well as the best four teams according to the 2019 Primera A aggregate table will host the second leg. Each tie in the final stages will be played in a home-and-away two-legged format. In each tie, the team with the better overall record up to that stage will host the second leg, except in the round of 16 where the third stage winners will host the second leg; the teams entering this stage will be the ones that qualified for the 2020 Copa Libertadores and 2020 Copa Sudamericana, which will be drawn into each of the eight ties. In case of a tie in aggregate score, neither the away goals rule nor extra time are applied, the winner is decided by a penalty shoot-out; the third stage winners will host the second leg. Team 2 will host the second leg. Team 2 will host the second leg. Team 2 will host the second leg. 2020 Categoría Primera A season 2020 Categoría Primera B season DIMAYOR's official website