Williams College is a private liberal arts college in Williamstown, United States. It was established in 1793 with funds from the estate of Ephraim Williams, a colonist from the Province of Massachusetts Bay, killed in the French and Indian War in 1755; the college was ranked first in 2017 in the U. S. News & World Report's liberal arts ranking for the 15th consecutive year, first among liberal arts colleges in the 2018 Forbes magazine ranking of America's Top Colleges. Williams is on a 450-acre campus in Williamstown, in the Berkshires in rural northwestern Massachusetts; the campus contains more than 100 academic and residential buildings. There are 349 voting faculty members, with a student-to-faculty ratio of 7:1; as of 2017, the school has an enrollment of 57 graduate students. The college competes in the NCAA Division III New England Small College Athletic Conference, competes in the conference as the Ephs. Following a liberal arts curriculum, Williams College provides undergraduate instruction in 25 academic departments and interdisciplinary programs including 36 majors in the humanities, social sciences, natural sciences.
Williams offers an entirely undergraduate instruction, as there are two graduate programs in development economics and art history. The College maintains affiliations with the nearby Clark Art Institute and Massachusetts Museum of Contemporary Art, has a close relationship with Exeter College, Oxford University. Undergraduate admission is selective, with an acceptance rate of 12.1% for the Class of 2022. The college has produced many prominent alumni, including 8 Pulitzer Prize winners, a Nobel Prize Laureate, a Fields medalist, 3 chairmen of the U. S. Securities and Exchange Commission, 10 billionaire alumni, 71 members of the United States Congress, 22 U. S. Governors, 4 U. S. Cabinet secretaries, an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court, a President of the United States, 3 prime ministers, CEOs and founders of Fortune 500 companies, high-ranking U. S. diplomats, foreign central bankers, scholars in academia and media figures, numerous Emmy and Grammy award winners, professional athletes. Other notable alumni include 39 Rhodes Scholars, 17 Marshall Scholarship winners, numerous Watson Fellows and Fulbright scholarship recipients.
Colonel Ephraim Williams was an officer in the Massachusetts militia and a member of a prominent landowning family. His will included a bequest to support and maintain a free school to be established in the town of West Hoosac, provided the town change its name to Williamstown. Williams was killed at the Battle of Lake George on September 8, 1755. After Shays' Rebellion, the Williamstown Free School opened with 15 students on October 26, 1791; the first president was Ebenezer Fitch. Not long after its founding, the school's trustees petitioned the Massachusetts legislature to convert the free school to a tuition-based college; the legislature agreed and on June 22, 1793, Williams College was chartered. It was the second college to be founded in Massachusetts. At its founding, the college maintained a policy of racial segregation, refusing admission to black applicants; this policy was challenged by Lucy Terry Prince, credited as the first black American poet, when her son Festus was refused admission on account of his race.
Prince, who had established a reputation as a raconteur and rhetorician, delivered a three-hour speech before the college's board of trustees, quoting abundantly from scripture, but was unable to secure her son's admission. More recent scholarship, has highlighted there are no records within the college to confirm this event occurred, Festus Prince may have been refused entry for an insufficient mastery of Latin and French, all of which were necessary for successful completion of the entrance exam at the time, which would most not have been available in the local schools of Guilford, where Festus was raised. In 1806, a student prayer meeting gave rise to the American Foreign Mission Movement. In August of that year, five students met in the maple grove of Sloan's Meadow to pray. A thunderstorm drove them to the shelter of a haystack, the fervor of the ensuing meeting inspired them to take the Gospel abroad; the students went on to build the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, the first American organization to send missionaries overseas.
The Haystack Monument near Mission Park on the Williams Campus commemorates the historic "Haystack Prayer Meeting". By 1815, Williams had only two buildings and 58 students and was in financial trouble, so the board voted to move the college to Amherst, Massachusetts. In 1821, the president of the college, Zephaniah Swift Moore, who had accepted his position believing the college would move east, decided to proceed with the move, he took 15 students with him, re-founded the college under the name of Amherst College. Some students and professors decided to stay at Williams and were allowed to keep the land, at the time worthless. According to legend, Moore took portions of the Williams College library. Although plausible, the transfer of books is unsubstantiated. Moore died just two years after founding Amherst, was succeeded by Heman Humphrey, a trustee of Williams College. Edward Dorr Griffin was appointed President of Williams and is credited with saving Williams during his 15-year tenure. A Williams student, Gardner Cotrell Leonard, designed the gowns he and his classmates wore to graduation in 1887.
Seven years he advised the Inter-Collegiate Commission on Academic Costume, which met at Columbia University, established the current system of U. S. academic dress. One reason gowns were adopted in the late nineteent
Albany, New York
Albany is the capital of the U. S. state of New York and the seat of Albany County. Albany is located on the west bank of the Hudson River 10 miles south of its confluence with the Mohawk River and 135 miles north of New York City. Albany is known for its rich history, culture and institutions of higher education. Albany constitutes the economic and cultural core of the Capital District of New York State, which comprises the Albany–Schenectady–Troy, NY Metropolitan Statistical Area, including the nearby cities and suburbs of Troy and Saratoga Springs. With a 2013 Census-estimated population of 1.1 million the Capital District is the third-most populous metropolitan region in the state. As of the 2010 census, the population of Albany was 97,856; the area that became Albany was settled by Dutch colonists who in 1614, built Fort Nassau for fur trading and, in 1624, built Fort Orange. In 1664, the English took over the Dutch settlements, renaming the city as Albany, in honor of the Duke of Albany, the future James II of England and James VII of Scotland.
The city was chartered in 1686 under English rule. It became the capital of New York in 1797 following formation of the United States. Albany is one of the oldest surviving settlements of the original British thirteen colonies, is the longest continuously chartered city in the United States. During the late 18th century and throughout most of the 19th, Albany was a center of trade and transportation; the city lies toward the north end of the navigable Hudson River, was the original eastern terminus of the Erie Canal connecting to the Great Lakes, was home to some of the earliest railroad systems in the world. In the 1920s, a powerful political machine controlled by the Democratic Party arose in Albany. In the latter part of the 20th century, Albany experienced a decline in its population due to urban sprawl and suburbanization. In the early 21st century, Albany has experienced growth in the high-technology industry, with great strides in the nanotechnology sector. Albany is one of the oldest surviving European settlements from the original thirteen colonies and the longest continuously chartered city in the United States.
The Hudson River area was inhabited by Algonquian-speaking Mohican, who called it Pempotowwuthut-Muhhcanneuw, meaning "the fireplace of the Mohican nation." Based to the west along the Mohawk River, the Iroquoian-speaking Mohawk referred to it as Sche-negh-ta-da, or "through the pine woods," referring to the path they took there. The Mohawk were one of the Five Nations of the Iroquois Confederacy, or Haudenosaunee, became strong trading partners with the Dutch and English, it is the Albany area was visited by European fur traders as early as 1540, but the extent and duration of those visits has not been determined. Permanent European claims began when Englishman Henry Hudson, exploring for the Dutch East India Company on the Half Moon, reached the area in 1609, claiming it for the United Netherlands. In 1614, Hendrick Christiaensen built Fort Nassau, a fur-trading post and the first documented European structure in present-day Albany. Commencement of the fur trade provoked hostility from the French colony in Canada and among the natives, all of whom vied to control the trade.
In 1618, a flood ruined the fort on Castle Island. Both forts were named in honor of the Dutch royal House of Orange-Nassau. Fort Orange and the surrounding area were incorporated as the village of Beverwijck in 1652. In these early decades of trade, the Dutch and Mohawk developed relations that reflected differences among their three cultures; when New Netherland was captured by the English in 1664, the name was changed from Beverwijck to Albany in honor of the Duke of Albany. Duke of Albany was a Scottish title given since 1398 to a younger son of the King of Scots; the name is derived from Alba, the Gaelic name for Scotland. The Dutch regained Albany in August 1673 and renamed the city Willemstadt. On November 1, 1683, the Province of New York was split into counties, with Albany County being the largest. At that time the county included all of present New York State north of Dutchess and Ulster Counties in addition to present-day Bennington County, theoretically stretching west to the Pacific Ocean.
Albany was formally chartered as a municipality by provincial Governor Thomas Dongan on July 22, 1686. The Dongan Charter was identical in content to the charter awarded to the city of New York three months earlier. Dongan created Albany as a strip of land 16 miles long. Over the years Albany would lose much of the land to the annex land to the north and south. At this point, Albany had a population of about 500 people. In 1754, representatives of seven British North American colonies met in the Stadt Huys, Albany's city hall, for the Albany Congress. Although it was never adopted by Parliament, it was an important precursor to the United States Constitution; the same year, the fourth in a series of wars dating back to 1689, began.
Daniel D. Tompkins
Daniel D. Tompkins was an American politician, he was the fourth governor of New York from 1807 to 1817, the sixth vice president of the United States from 1817 to 1825. Born in Scarsdale, New York, Tompkins practiced law in New York City after graduating from Columbia College, he was a delegate to the 1801 New York constitutional convention and served on the New York Supreme Court from 1804 to 1807. In 1807, he defeated incumbent Morgan Lewis to become the Governor of New York, he held that office from 1807 to 1817, serving for the duration of the War of 1812. During the war, he spent his own money to equip and pay the militia when the legislature wasn't in session, or would not approve the necessary funds. Tompkins was the Democratic-Republican Party's vice presidential nominee in the 1816 presidential election; the ticket of James Monroe and Tompkins prevailed over limited Federalist opposition. He served as vice president from 1817 to 1825, was the only 19th century vice president to serve two full terms.
In 1820, he was defeated by DeWitt Clinton. After the War of 1812, Tompkins was in poor physical and financial health, the latter condition stemming from his spending for the military effort during the War of 1812, he fell into alcoholism and was unable to re-establish fiscal solvency despite winning partial reimbursement from the federal government in 1823. He died in June 1825, soon after leaving office. Tompkins was baptized Daniel Tompkins, but added the middle initial "D." while a student at Columbia College to distinguish himself from another Daniel Tompkins, a student there. There is controversy as to; the accepted conclusion is that it did not stand for anything, served only to distinguish him from the other Daniel Tompkins. Daniel D. Tompkins was born in Scarsdale, Westchester County, New York, at his home, the estate of Fox Meadow, he was the son of Jonathan Griffin Tompkins. His older brother, Caleb Tompkins was a United States Representative from 1817 to 1821. Daniel Tompkins graduated from Columbia College in New York City in 1795, studied law with James Kent and Peter Jay Munro.
He was admitted to the bar in 1797, practiced in New York City. Despite the Federalist leanings of Kent and Munro, Tomkins entered politics as a Democratic-Republican, he was a delegate to the New York State Constitutional Convention in 1801, a member of the New York State Assembly in 1804. He was elected to the 9th United States Congress, but resigned before the beginning of the term to accept, at age 30, an appointment as associate justice of the New York Supreme Court, in which capacity he served from 1804 to 1807. On February 20, 1798, Daniel Tompkins, 23, married 16-year-old Hannah Minthorne, the daughter of Mangle Minthorne, an Assistant Alderman of New York City; the couple had eight children, including Arietta Minthorn Tompkins, who married a son of Smith Thompson in 1818, Minthorne Tompkins, the Free Soil Party candidate for Governor of New York in 1852. The Tompkinsville section of Staten Island was named after him, his main residence was located on Fort Hill, near Fort Place which burned down in 1874.
Their children Hannah and Minthorne were named after their mother, Hannah and Minthorne streets in Staten Island are named for them. Hannah was ill in the year before her husband became vice president, did not attend his inauguration, she survived him by nearly four years in Staten Island. On April 30, 1807, he defeated the incumbent Governor Morgan Lewis – Tompkins received 35,074 votes, Lewis 30,989 – and remained in office as Governor of New York until 1817, he was reelected in 1810, defeating Jonas Platt – Tompkins 43,094 votes, Jonas Platt 36,484. In 1813 he defeated Stephen Van Rensselaer – Tompkins 43,324 votes, Van Rensselaer 39,718 – and in 1816, he beat Rufus King – Tompkins 45,412 votes, King 38,647. Tompkins was supported by DeWitt Clinton in his first run for office, but Tompkins broke with Clinton by supporting James Madison over Clinton in the 1808 presidential election. During the War of 1812, Tompkins proved to be one of the most effective war governors, he played an important role in reorganizing the state militia and promoted the formation of a standing state military force based on select conscription.
He declined an appointment as United States Secretary of State by President James Madison in 1814, instead accepting appointment as commander of the federal military district that included New York City. Tompkins was elected a member of the American Antiquarian Society in 1814. In 1815 Tompkins established a settlement along the eastern shore of Staten Island that came to be called Tompkinsville, he built a dock along the waterfront in the neighborhood in 1817 and began offering daily steam ferry service between Staten Island and Manhattan. In 1816 he purchased much of the land known as Tompkinsville from the Church of St. Andrew, but his financial troubles led the church to foreclose, his son-in-law and daughter, Dr. John S. and Hannah Westervelt bought the property, which they divided into many lots to sell off. In 1817, Governor Tompkins suggested that July 4, 1827, be set as the date on which all slaves in New York state—including those who were born before the Gradual Manumission Act of July 4, 1799, —should be freed.
Many New York Democratic-Republicans supported Tompkins for president in the
Major-General James Clinton was an American Revolutionary War officer who, with John Sullivan, led the Sullivan Expedition. He obtained the rank of brevet major general. Clinton was born in Ulster County in the colony of New York, at Little Britain in the town of New Windsor, now part of Orange County, New York, he was the third son of Col. Charles Clinton, an Anglo-Irish colonist and a colonel in the French and Indian War who emigrated to New Ulster in 1729, Elizabeth Denniston, he was the brother of George Clinton, Governor of New York from 1777 to 1795 and U. S. Vice President from 1805 to 1812, the grandson of James Clinton, the great-grandson of William Clinton, a royalist officer in the army of Charles I of England. James Clinton's military experience began in the French and Indian War, where he served in the provincial troops of New York, he was commissioned an ensign in 1757 and achieved the rank of captain in the New York Regiment in 1759. In 1758, commanding a company, he participated, along with his father and brother George, in General John Bradstreet’s capture of Fort Frontenac.
He and his brother played a key role in capturing a French vessel. James remained in the army, stationed at various frontier posts. In 1763 he raised and commanded a corps of two hundred men, who were designated as "Guards of the Frontier". After the war he married Mary De Witt. A month after the first open armed conflict in Lexington, the Continental Congress resolved on May 25, 1775 to build fortifications in the Hudson highlands for the purpose of protecting and maintaining control of the Hudson River. James Clinton and Christopher Tappan, lifetime residents of the area, were sent to scout appropriate locations. Clinton was commissioned as the colonel of the 3rd New York Regiment, which took part in Brig. Gen. Richard Montgomery’s unsuccessful expedition to Quebec in 1775. In March 1776, Clinton took command of the 2nd New York Regiment and soon after, in August, was promoted to brigadier general in the Continental Army, he served most of the war along the New York frontier. During the Saratoga Campaign in 1777, he commanded Fort Clinton in the Hudson Highlands.
He participated in a successful effort to prevent British General Sir Henry Clinton from rescuing General John Burgoyne at Saratoga, but he and his troops were unable to hold Forts Clinton and Montgomery. Clinton sustained. In 1778 he was stationed in Albany to oppose Tory forces. In 1779, Clinton led an expedition down the Susquehanna River after making the upper portion navigable by damming up the river's source at Otsego Lake, allowing the lake's level to rise, destroying the dam and flooding the river for miles downstream; this event is described by James Fenimore Cooper in the introduction to his popular novel The Pioneers, commemorated by a Memorial Day canoe race. At Tioga, New York, Clinton met up with General John Sullivan's forces, who had marched from Easton, Pennsylvania. Together, on August 29, they defeated the Indians at the Battle of Newtown; this became known as the "Sullivan-Clinton Campaign" or the "Sullivan Expedition." In 1780, Clinton temporarily commanded the Northern Department.
By October 1781, his brigade had joined George Washington's army in the siege of Yorktown. After he left the army, Clinton served on the commission defining the New York-Pennsylvania boundary. In 1783 General Clinton became an original member of the New York Society of the Cincinnati, he served as an assemblyman in the New York State legislature from 1787-1788 and again from 1800-1801, as a New York State Senator from 1788-1792. On February 18, 1765, James Clinton married his first wife, Mary DeWitt, the only daughter of Egbert DeWitt, members of an old Dutch family, they had seven children, including: Alexander Clinton, who served in Colonel Lamb's regiment during the Revolution and drowned in the Hudson river Charles Clinton, who married Elizabeth Mulliner DeWitt Clinton also a Governor of New York George Clinton, Jr. who served in Congress Mary Clinton, who married Robert Burrage Norton. After his death, she married Judge Ambrose Spencer Elizabeth Clinton, who married William Stuart Katharine Clinton, who married Samuel Lake Norton, brother to her sister Mary's husband.
After his death, she married Ambrose Spencer, her sister's widowerHis second wife was Mary Gray, the widow of Alexander Gray, born in Ireland. Together and Mary were the parents of six children: James G. Clinton, who died young. Caroline Hannah Clinton, who married Charles Augustus Dewey, an Associate Justice of the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court Emma Little Clinton, who died unmarried James Graham Clinton, who married Margaret Ellsworth Conger and served in Congress. Letitia Clinton, who married Dr. Francis Bolton Anna Clinton, who married Lt. Edward RossClinton died in Little Britain, New York, on September 22, 1812, the same year as his brother George. Through his son DeWitt, he was the grandfather of ten, including George William Clinton who served as Mayor of Buffalo, New York from 1842 to 1843. Through his son George, he was the grandfather of three. Notes SourcesCampbell, William W; the Life and Writings of De Witt Clinton and Scribner, 1849 Sullivan/Clinton Expedition James Clinton at Find a Grave
United States House of Representatives
The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper chamber. Together they compose the legislature of the United States; the composition of the House is established by Article One of the United States Constitution. The House is composed of Representatives who sit in congressional districts that are allocated to each of the 50 states on a basis of population as measured by the U. S. Census, with each district entitled to one representative. Since its inception in 1789, all Representatives have been directly elected; the total number of voting representatives is fixed by law at 435. As of the 2010 Census, the largest delegation is that of California, with fifty-three representatives. Seven states have only one representative: Alaska, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota and Wyoming; the House is charged with the passage of federal legislation, known as bills, after concurrence by the Senate, are sent to the President for consideration.
In addition to this basic power, the House has certain exclusive powers, among them the power to initiate all bills related to revenue. The House meets in the south wing of the United States Capitol; the presiding officer is the Speaker of the House, elected by the members thereof. The Speaker and other floor leaders are chosen by the Democratic Caucus or the Republican Conference, depending on whichever party has more voting members. Under the Articles of Confederation, the Congress of the Confederation was a unicameral body in which each state was represented, in which each state had a veto over most action. After eight years of a more limited confederal government under the Articles, numerous political leaders such as James Madison and Alexander Hamilton initiated the Constitutional Convention in 1787, which received the Confederation Congress's sanction to "amend the Articles of Confederation". All states except Rhode Island agreed to send delegates; the issue of how to structure Congress was one of the most divisive among the founders during the Convention.
Edmund Randolph's Virginia Plan called for a bicameral Congress: the lower house would be "of the people", elected directly by the people of the United States and representing public opinion, a more deliberative upper house, elected by the lower house, that would represent the individual states, would be less susceptible to variations of mass sentiment. The House is referred to as the lower house, with the Senate being the upper house, although the United States Constitution does not use that terminology. Both houses' approval is necessary for the passage of legislation; the Virginia Plan drew the support of delegates from large states such as Virginia and Pennsylvania, as it called for representation based on population. The smaller states, favored the New Jersey Plan, which called for a unicameral Congress with equal representation for the states; the Convention reached the Connecticut Compromise or Great Compromise, under which one house of Congress would provide representation proportional to each state's population, whereas the other would provide equal representation amongst the states.
The Constitution was ratified by the requisite number of states in 1788, but its implementation was set for March 4, 1789. The House began work on April 1789, when it achieved a quorum for the first time. During the first half of the 19th century, the House was in conflict with the Senate over regionally divisive issues, including slavery; the North was much more populous than the South, therefore dominated the House of Representatives. However, the North held no such advantage in the Senate, where the equal representation of states prevailed. Regional conflict was most pronounced over the issue of slavery. One example of a provision supported by the House but blocked by the Senate was the Wilmot Proviso, which sought to ban slavery in the land gained during the Mexican–American War. Conflict over slavery and other issues persisted until the Civil War, which began soon after several southern states attempted to secede from the Union; the war culminated in the abolition of slavery. All southern senators except Andrew Johnson resigned their seats at the beginning of the war, therefore the Senate did not hold the balance of power between North and South during the war.
The years of Reconstruction that followed witnessed large majorities for the Republican Party, which many Americans associated with the Union's victory in the Civil War and the ending of slavery. The Reconstruction period ended in about 1877; the Democratic Party and Republican Party each held majorities in the House at various times. The late 19th and early 20th centuries saw a dramatic increase in the power of the Speaker of the House; the rise of the Speaker's influence began in the 1890s, during the tenure of Republican Thomas Brackett Reed. "Czar Reed", as he was nicknamed, attempted to put into effect his view that "The best system is to have one party govern and the other party watch." The leadership structure of the House developed during the same period, with the positions of Majority Leader and Minority Leader being created in 1899. While the Minority Leader
Cabinet of the United States
The Cabinet of the United States is part of the executive branch of the federal government of the United States. The Cabinet's role, inferred from the language of the Opinion Clause of the Constitution, is to serve as an advisory body to the President of the United States. Additionally, the Twenty-fifth Amendment authorizes the Vice President, together with a majority of certain members of the Cabinet, to declare the president "unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office". Among the senior officers of the Cabinet are the Vice President and the heads of the federal executive departments, all of whom—if eligible—are in the line of succession. Members of the Cabinet serve at the pleasure of the President, who can dismiss them at will for no cause. All federal public officials, including Cabinet members, are subject to impeachment by the House of Representatives and trial in the Senate for "treason and other high crimes and misdemeanors"; the President can unilaterally designate senior White House staffers, heads of other federal agencies as members of the Cabinet, although this is a symbolic status marker and does not, apart from attending Cabinet meetings, confer any additional powers.
The tradition of the Cabinet arose out of the debates at the 1787 Constitutional Convention regarding whether the president would exercise executive authority singly or collaboratively with a cabinet of ministers or a privy council. As a result of the debates, the Constitution vests "all executive power" in the president singly, authorizes—but does not compel—the president to "require the Opinion, in writing, of the principal Officer in each of the executive Departments, upon any Subject relating to the Duties of their respective Offices"; the Constitution does not specify what the executive departments will be, how many there will be, or what their duties should be. George Washington, the first U. S. President, organized his principal officers into a Cabinet, it has been part of the executive branch structure since. Washington's Cabinet consisted of five members: himself, Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson, Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton, Secretary of War Henry Knox and Attorney General Edmund Randolph.
Vice President John Adams was not included in Washington's Cabinet because the position was regarded as a legislative officer. It was not until the 20th century that Vice Presidents were included as members of the Cabinet and came to be regarded as a member of the executive branch. Presidents have used Cabinet meetings of selected principal officers but to differing extents and for different purposes. Secretary of State William H. Seward and Professor Woodrow Wilson advocated the use of a parliamentary-style Cabinet government, but President Abraham Lincoln rebuffed Seward, Woodrow Wilson would have none of it in his administration. In recent administrations, Cabinets have grown to include key White House staff in addition to department and various agency heads. President Ronald Reagan formed seven subcabinet councils to review many policy issues, subsequent Presidents have followed that practice. In 3 U. S. C. § 302 with regard to delegation of authority by the President, it is provided that "nothing herein shall be deemed to require express authorization in any case in which such an official would be presumed in law to have acted by authority or direction of the President."
This pertains directly to the heads of the executive departments as each of their offices is created and specified by statutory law and thus gives them the authority to act for the President within their areas of responsibility without any specific delegation. Under the 1967 Federal Anti-Nepotism statute, federal officials are prohibited from appointing their immediate family members to certain governmental positions, including those in the Cabinet. Under the Federal Vacancies Reform Act of 1998, an administration may appoint acting heads of department from employees of the relevant department; these may be existing high-level career employees, from political appointees of the outgoing administration, or sometimes lower-level appointees of the administration. The heads of the executive departments and all other federal agency heads are nominated by the President and presented to the Senate for confirmation or rejection by a simple majority. If approved, they receive their commission scroll, are sworn in and begin their duties.
An elected Vice President does not require Senate confirmation, nor does the White House Chief of Staff, an appointed staff position of the Executive Office of the President. The heads of the executive departments and most other senior federal officers at cabinet or sub-cabinet level receive their salary under a fixed five-level pay plan known as the Executive Schedule, codified in Title 5 of the United States Code. Twenty-one positions, including the heads of the executive departments and others, receiving Level I pay are listed in 5 U. S. C. § 5312, those forty-six positions on Level II pay are listed in 5 U. S. C. § 5313. As of January 2016, the Level I annual pay was set at $205,700; the annual salary of the Vice President is $235,300. The salary level was set by the Government Salary Reform Act of 1989, which provides an automatic cost of living adjustment for federal employees; the Vice President receives th
Canandaigua (city), New York
Canandaigua is a city in Ontario County, New York, United States. The population was 10,545 at the 2010 census, it is the county seat of Ontario County. The name Canandaigua is derived from the Seneca name of its historic village here, spelled variously Kanandarque, Ganandogan, Ga-nun-da-gwa, or Konondaigua, established long before any European Americans came to the area. In a modern transcription, the historic village is rendered as tganǫdæ:gwęh, which means "the chosen spot", or "at the chosen town"; the city lies within the Town of Canandaigua. The City of Canandaigua is on the northern end of Canandaigua Lake, 24 miles southeast of Rochester and 58 miles west of Syracuse. Parts of six neighboring towns share the Canandaigua mailing address and 14424 ZIP code. Developed near Canandaigua Lake at the site of the historic Seneca village Ganandogan, by the mid-19th century Canandaigua was an important railroad junction and home port for several steamboats that operated on the lake. After the Civil War, local industries included two brick works, the Lisk Manufacturing Company, several mills, the regionally prominent McKechnie Brewery.
The shire town of the original county of western New York, Canandaigua was the site of the trial of Susan B. Anthony in 1873 on charges of voting illegally because only men were allowed to vote. In the 21st century, the town is a center for business, health care, education. Canandaigua is the home of Constellation Brands, founded as Canandaigua Wine Company, it is home to one of the largest Wegmans Food Markets and the New York Wine & Culinary Center. French explorers Robert de La Salle and René de Bréhant de Galinée visited the region in 1669, they recorded seeing a burning spring known to the Seneca in what is now known as the nearby Town of Bristol. The water of the spring appears to burn as a flame; the city was the historic site of a Seneca village. The village site was used for West Avenue Cemetery; the village was formed by former residents of the Ganondagan Seneca village, destroyed by the French in 1687. The Kanandaigua Seneca village, consisting of 23 longhouses, was destroyed during the American Revolutionary War by the Sullivan Expedition on September 10, 1779.
American rebels had mounted this attack in reprisal for an attack by Mohawk and other British allies on Cherry Valley in the eastern part of the territory. The American forces attacked Iroquois villages throughout western New York, destroying 40 and burning the winter stores of the people; the Iroquois fled to Fort Niagara as refugees, many died of starvation that winter. After the war, pioneer settlers came from eastern New New England, they founded the city's public high school, Canandaigua Academy, in 1791. On November 11, 1794, the Treaty of Canandaigua was signed in the town by representatives of the United States of America and the Six Nations of the Iroquois, it established two small reservations for the Seneca and Oneida, allies of the American rebels, but they suffered considerable enmity and discrimination after the war. What is now the city separated from the Town of Canandaigua to become the Village of Canandaigua in 1815 and a city in 1913. In 1807-1808, Jessie Hawley, a flour merchant from Geneva, served 20 months in the Canandaigua debtors' prison.
He was an early proponent of building a canal through the Mohawk Valley to improve shipping and connect the Hudson River with Lake Erie. During his time in prison, he published 14 influential essays on the canal concept. Stephen A. Douglas was a student at Canandaigua Academy between 1830 and January 1833, he was the 1860 Democratic Party presidential nominee, losing to Republican Abraham Lincoln. This area of New York was a center of activism for other progressive movements. In 1873, the Ontario County Courthouse, located in the City of Canandaigua, was the site of the trial of Susan B. Anthony, a leader of the women's suffrage movement, arrested for voting at a time when only men were allowed to vote, she was fined $100, which she did not pay. John Willys was born in Canandaigua in 1873 and operated a bicycle sales and repair shop there, before becoming a successful automobile manufacturer. In 1945, Marvin Sands founded Canandaigua Wine Company. With a growing American market for wine in the late 20th century, the company expanded through acquisitions in the 1980s and 1990s.
It joined other companies in forming Constellation Brands and became the world's largest wine and spirits distributor. In 2006, Canandaigua Wine Company rebranded as Centerra Wine Co. a subsidiary of Constellation Wines, U. S. Inc. On March 14, 2006, President George W. Bush visited Canandaigua, giving speeches at Canandaigua Academy and at Ferris Hills, an assisted-living community for seniors, he was describing Medicare Part D for senior citizens. The text of his speech at Ferris Hills can be found here. According to the United States Census Bureau, Canandaigua has an area of 4.8 square miles, of which 4.6 square miles is land and 0.2 square mile is water. The city is at the northern end of Canandaig