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John Carroll (archbishop of Baltimore)

John Carroll was a prelate of the Roman Catholic Church who served as the first bishop and archbishop in the United States. He served as the ordinary of the Archdiocese of Maryland. Carroll is known as the founder of Georgetown University, of St. John the Evangelist Parish of Rock Creek, the first secular parish in the country. John Carroll was born to Daniel Carroll I and Eleanor Carroll at the large plantation which Eleanor had inherited from her family, he spent his early years at the family home, sited on thousands of acres near Marlborough Town, the county seat of Prince George's County in the Province of Maryland.. Other Carroll relatives were instrumental in the development of the colonial Province of Maryland and the establishment of Baltimore, soon to be the third-largest city in America, developed as a port on the Chesapeake Bay, his older brother Daniel Carroll II became one of only five men to sign both the "Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union" and the Constitution of the United States.

His cousin Charles Carroll of Carrollton was an important member of the Revolutionary Patriot cause, was the last surviving signer of the Declaration of Independence. Charles Carroll lived long enough to participate in the industrial revolution, with the ceremonies of the 1828 setting of the "first stone" for the beginning of the construction of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. John Carroll was schooled at home by his mother, before being sent to a Catholic school at Bohemia Manor in Northeastern Maryland, secretly conducted by Father Thomas Poulton, a Jesuit. At the age of thirteen, he was sent to the College of St. Omer in French Flanders.. During the upheavals of the French Revolution, the College migrated to Bruges, Liège, it returned to England and was located at Stonyhurst in 1794, where it remains today.) Attending St. Omer with him was his cousin Charles, to become the only Catholic signatory of the Declaration of Independence, the first United States Senator from Maryland. Carroll joined the Society of Jesus as a postulant at the age of 18 in 1753.

In 1755, he began his studies of theology at Liège. After fourteen years, he was ordained to the diaconate and the priesthood in 1761. Carroll was formally professed as a Jesuit in 1771. Carroll remained in Europe until he was 40, teaching at St-Omer and Liège, he served as chaplain to a British aristocrat traveling on the continent. When Pope Clement XIV suppressed the Society of Jesus in 1773 in Europe, Carroll made arrangements to return to Maryland; the brief suppression of the Jesuits was a painful experience for Carroll, who suspected the Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith of being responsible for this ill-informed decision. As a result of laws discriminating against Catholics, there was no public Catholic Church in Maryland. Carroll worked as a missionary in Virginia. In 1774 Carroll founded St. John the Evangelist Parish at Forest Glen on land that belonged to his mother. In 1776, the Continental Congress asked Carroll, along with his cousin, delegate Charles Carroll, fellow Marylander Samuel Chase, Benjamin Franklin, to travel north to Montreal in the Saint Lawrence River Valley to try to persuade the French Canadian-majority Province of Quebec to join the Revolution with the lower Thirteen Colonies.

The French Canadians had been forced to cede control of their territory in 1763 to the occupying British Army, which won the Seven Years' War, known as the French and Indian War in North America. The Quebec Act of 1774 allowed French Canadians to keep their language, their religion, much of their law; the group was unsuccessful, but Carroll became known to other early founders of the United States Republic. Snubbed by the local clergy on the orders of Jean-Olivier Briand, Bishop of Quebec, Carroll took an early opportunity to accompany the ailing Franklin back to the colonial capital at Philadelphia; the Jesuit fathers, led by Carroll and five other priests, began a series of meetings at ] beginning on June 27, 1783. Through these General Chapters, they organized the Catholic Church in the United States at White Marsh; the Catholic clergy at the time of the new Republic were keenly aware that anti-British sentiment made their canonical allegiance to Bishop Richard Challoner, the vicar-apostolic of the London district, somewhat suspect.

As a result, they explored various options. When Bishop Challoner died in 1781, his successor, James Talbot, refused to exercise jurisdiction in the new nation, but the American clergy numbering some two dozen, did not feel the time was right to have a bishop appointed in the new nation. The papal nuncio to France conferred with the American ambassador in Paris, Benjamin Franklin, as to how the issue might be resolved in a way that would be acceptable to the United States. Franklin responded by saying that the off

Canon EOS

Canon EOS is an autofocus single-lens reflex camera and mirrorless camera series produced by Canon Inc. Introduced in 1987 with the Canon EOS 650, all EOS cameras used 35 mm film until October 1996 when the EOS IX was released using the new and short-lived APS film. In 2000, the D30 was announced, as the first digital SLR designed and produced by Canon. Since 2005, all newly announced EOS cameras have used digital image sensors rather than film; the EOS line is still in production as Canon's current digital SLR range, with the 2012 introduction of the Canon EOS M, Canon's mirrorless interchangeable-lens camera system. In 2018 the system was further extended with the introduction of the EOS R camera, Canon's first full frame mirrorless interchangeable lens system; the development project was called “EOS.” The “EOS” is the name of the goddess of dawn in Greek mythology more apropos for the new-generation SLR camera. The EOS emblem was created using Handel Gothic typography, it competes with the Nikon F series and its successors, as well as autofocus SLR systems from Olympus Corporation, Sony/Minolta, Panasonic/Leica.

At the heart of the system is the EF lens mount, which replaced the previous FD lens mount, which supported only manual-focus lenses. The EOS R full frame camera introduced a new lens mount to the system – the RF mount; the bayonet-style EF lens mount. Breaking compatibility with the earlier FD mount, it was designed with no mechanical linkages between moving parts in the lens and in the camera; the aperture and focus are controlled with motors in the lens itself. This was similar in some ways to Canon's earlier attempt at AF with the T80. Other manufacturers including Contax, Nikon's 1983 F3AF, Olympus have since embraced this type of direct drive system, it is a large lens mount compared to most of its competition, enabling the use of larger aperture lenses. The flash system in the EOS cameras has gone through a number of evolutions since its first implementation; the basic EOS flash system was developed not for the first EOS camera, but rather for the last high-end FD-mount manual-focus camera, the T90, launched in 1986.

This was the first Canon camera with through-the-lens flash metering, although other brands had been metering that way for some time. It introduced the A-TTL system for better flash exposure in program mode, using infrared preflashes to gauge subject distance; this system was carried over into the early EOS cameras wholesale. A-TTL fell out of favor, was replaced by E-TTL; this used a pre-flash for advanced metering, used the autofocus system to judge where the main subject was for more accurate exposure. E-TTL II, an enhancement in the camera's firmware only, replaced E-TTL from 2004. Canon Speedlite-brand flashes have evolved alongside the cameras, they are capable of wired and wireless multi-flash setups, the latter using visible or infrared pulses to synchronise. Canon produces Speedlite accessories, including the OC-E3 Off-Camera Shoe Cord, which can be used to hand-hold the flash while allowing the camera to control it through the cord; the Off-Camera Shoe Cord is popular among portrait photographers who need to have more control over lighting than a camera mounted flash can offer.

As of 2017, Canon has released no fewer than 70 EOS SLR and DSLR camera models, starting with the introduction of the EOS 650 in 1987. In the 1990s, Canon worked with Kodak to produce digital camera bodies, starting with the EOS DCS 3 in 1995; the first digital EOS SLR camera wholly designed and manufactured by Canon was the EOS D30, released in 2000. Canon sold two EOS cameras designed to use the EOS IX and the EOS IX Lite. Canon sold a manual-focus camera, the Canon EF-M, which used the same EF lens mount as the EOS cameras, it lacked autofocus. It came equipped with a split-screen/microprism focusing screen for precise manual focusing. Through the tracking of eyeball movements, EOS cameras equipped with eye-controlled focusing were able to select the desired autofocus point in the scene, based on where the user was looking in the viewfinder frame. ECF was useful in sports photography where the subject may shift its position in the frame rapidly. EOS cameras equipped with ECF were the EOS A2E, EOS Elan IIE, EOS IXe, EOS-3, EOS Elan 7E, EOS Elan 7NE.

Canon did not continue its use of eye-controlled focusing in its digital SLRs. The EOS Elan 7NE was the last EOS camera to have this function. Most prosumer and professional level EOS cameras feature a large quick control dial on the camera back; the first consumer-level EOS camera with this feature was the EOS 760D/Rebel T6s, announced in February 2015. This feature allows easy adjustment of certain parameters using the thumb; the QCD is used for quick access to often-used functions that would otherwise require a more complicated procedure of button presses and dial clicks. Settings such as ISO button, Exposure Compensation button, or menus are all available through the QCD≈. Cameras equipped with the QCD can be operated with one hand without taking the eye off the viewfinder. A QCD is programmed to do perform useful functions, which may include setting exposure compensation, setting of aperture in manual exposure mode, scrolling of images and men

Seafood (film)

Seafood is a 2001 Chinese film directed by the established writer Zhu Wen. Though Seafood was Zhu's first film as director, he had gained some experience with filmmaking as a screenwriter for Zhang Ming and Zhang Yuan. Seafood was produced independently by Thought Dance Entertainment and Zhu's own Zhu Wen Workshop; the film depicts a self-destructive prostitute who attempts to commit suicide in a resort town by the sea. She is thwarted by a police officer whose unorthodox methods of "rehabilitating" her consists of seafood and rape; as a result of the film's dark premise, Seafood has been called "one of the most transgressive visions of China...ever witnessed."Never released in China, the film was well received abroad, where it won numerous awards most notably at the 2001 Venice International Film Festival. Zhang Xiaomei, is a prostitute living in Beijing; when relationship problems with her boyfriend erupt, she flees to the resort city of Beidaihe and takes a room in a small hotel where she contemplates committing suicide.

There she meets a young poet. The next morning, she wakes and learns that the poet has slit his wrists; when the police arrive, she meets Deng Jianguo, a middle-aged officer who questions her over the poet's death. Their relationship soon grows complicated as Deng learns of Xiaomei's plans to commit suicide. Over the course of several days, he takes her to eat seafood dinners, extolling the virtues and health benefits of the diet, including a claim that it makes him a more potent lover; when Xiaomei tries to commit suicide in a nearby town, she is thwarted by Deng who brings her back to Beidaihe and proceeds to rape her. Xiaomei leaves the seaside town for Beijing again. Seafood was shot on handheld digital video. While some critics found the camerawork to be "routine" for the medium, one shot in particular was filmed not by the cinematographer, Liu Yonghung, but by Zhu Wen himself. Zhu has stated in an interview that this constituted the first time he had touched a camera and that he was so pleased with the naturalistic effect, that he ended up keeping the shot.

Given the film's dark subject matter of rape and suicide, Zhu Wen had no illusions that the film would screen in his native China. In some ways, the inability to screen Seafood in China led Zhu to direct his second feature, South of the Clouds within the state-run film system, so that he would have a work that he could show to family and friends; the film did well in the film festival circuit, winning a special jury prize at the Venice International Film Festival's Cinema of the Present competition and a grand jury prize at Cinemanila. The film screened at a handful of other major festivals, such as Karlovy Vary, Vancouver. Seafood on IMDb Seafood at AllMovie Seafood at the Chinese Movie Database