A Princess of Mars
A Princess of Mars is a science fantasy novel by American writer Edgar Rice Burroughs, the first of his Barsoom series. It was first serialized in the pulp magazine All-Story Magazine from February–July, 1912. Full of swordplay and daring feats, the novel is considered a classic example of 20th-century pulp fiction, it is a seminal instance of the planetary romance, a subgenre of science fantasy that became popular in the decades following its publication. Its early chapters contain elements of the Western; the story is set on Mars, imagined as a dying planet with a harsh desert environment. This vision of Mars was based on the work of the astronomer Percival Lowell, whose ideas were popularized in the late 19th and early 20th centuries; the Barsoom series inspired a number of well-known 20th-century science fiction writers, including Jack Vance, Ray Bradbury, Arthur C. Clarke, Robert A. Heinlein, John Norman; the series was inspirational for many scientists in the fields of space exploration and the search for extraterrestrial life, including Carl Sagan, who read A Princess of Mars when he was a child.
John Carter, a Confederate veteran of the American Civil War, goes prospecting in Arizona after the war's end. Having struck a rich vein of gold, he runs afoul of the Apaches. While attempting to evade pursuit by hiding in a sacred cave, he is mysteriously transported to Mars, called "Barsoom" by its inhabitants. Carter finds that he has great strength and superhuman agility in this new environment as a result of its lesser gravity and lower atmospheric pressure, he soon falls in with a nomadic tribe of Green Martians, or Tharks, as the planet's warlike, six-limbed, green-skinned inhabitants are known. Thanks to his strength and martial prowess, Carter rises to a high position in the tribe and earns the respect and the friendship of Tars Tarkas, one of the Thark chiefs; the Tharks subsequently capture Dejah Thoris, Princess of Helium, a member of the humanoid red Martian race. The red Martians inhabit a loose network of city-states and control the desert planet's canals, along which its agriculture is concentrated.
Carter rescues Dejah Thoris from the green men in a bid to return her to her people. Subsequently, Carter becomes embroiled in the political affairs of both the red and green Martians in his efforts to safeguard Dejah Thoris leading a horde of Tharks against the city-state of Zodanga, the historic enemy of Helium. Winning Dejah Thoris' heart, he becomes Prince of Helium, the two live together for nine years. However, the sudden breakdown of the Atmosphere Plant that sustains the planet's waning air supply endangers all life on Barsoom. In a desperate attempt to save the planet's inhabitants, Carter uses a secret telepathic code to enter the factory, bringing an engineer along who can restore its functionality. Carter succumbs to asphyxiation, only to awaken back on Earth, left to wonder what has become of Barsoom and his beloved. John Carter: An Earthman from Virginia with a mysterious background, Captain John Carter fought in the American Civil War on the Confederate side. At the end of the war he goes prospecting for gold in Arizona.
After various adventures, including an attack by Apaches, he is miraculously transported to Mars. During his nine years on that planet he disappears from Earth and is believed dead, but he re-emerges in New York in 1876, settling in a house overlooking the Hudson River, he dies again in 1886, leaving instructions for a fictionalized Burroughs, who refers to Carter as his Uncle Jack, to entomb him in a crypt. He leaves Burroughs with the manuscript of A Princess of Mars, with instructions not to publish it for another 21 years. John Carter states that he has no memory before the age of 30 and has always appeared the same, without aging, he is adept at strategy and all weapons, including firearms and swords. He is clean-shaven, with close-cropped black hair and steel gray eyes, he is honorable and eternally optimistic in the face of certain death. From the Green Martians he received the name "Dotar Sojat," after the first two green warriors whom he slew after his advent on Barsoom, he sometimes uses this name as an alias in books of the Martian series.
Dejah Thoris: A red Martian princess of Helium, she is courageous, in mortal danger or under threat of dishonor by the evil designs of a succession of villains. She is the daughter of Mors Kajak, Jed of Lesser Helium, the granddaughter of Tardos Mors, Jeddak of Helium; as such she is aristocratic and fiercely proud of her heritage. Introduced early in the novel, she becomes the love interest of John Carter; as a central character in the first three Barsoom novels, her frequent capture by various enemies, subsequent pursuit by John Carter, is a constant motivating element in their plots. Tars Tarkas: A fierce Green Martian warrior from the tribe of Thark, he is unusual among his race for his ability to experience tender emotions such as friendship and love, his emotional development stems from a forbidden love affair in his youth, when he secretly began a partnership with a Green Martian woman named Gozava. He befriends John Carter and fights at his side. Carter helps him become Jeddak of Thark and negotiates an alliance between the Green Martians and the city-state of Helium, which results in the destruction of Helium's enemy, Zodanga.
Tars Tarkas more than once displays an ironic sense of humor. Tal Hajus: Jeddak of the Tharks, who years previ
Princess of Mars
Princess of Mars is a 2009 direct-to-DVD science fiction film made by American independent studio The Asylum, loosely based on the 1917 novel A Princess of Mars by author Edgar Rice Burroughs. The film's promotional art mentions how the original story inspired some elements of James Cameron's Avatar, but the credits or promotional material of the film do not mention Edgar Rice Burroughs, it is not to be confused with the higher-budget 2012 film John Carter, an adaptation of the novel. In Europe, the film was released with the title The Martian Colony Wars. John Carter is a modern-day U. S. Army sniper serving in Afghanistan, wounded in the line of duty and used in a teleportation experiment wherein he is transferred to Barsoom, a planet outside of Earth's solar system, where he exhibits the ability to leap amazing distances. Enslaved by the Tharks, he earns a rank among them and saves a rival group's princess, the human-looking Dejah Thoris, from death; the group of Tharks, led by Tars Tarkas, takes Carter to their leader Tal Hajus, guarded by Tars Tarkas' daughter Sola.
Learning that Tarkas gave Carter a military rank only Hajus can give and Carter are forced to duel. Upon winning, Carter faces an Afghan mercenary who had betrayed him; when Sarka escapes, Carter helps Tarkas become the new leader of the Tharks. Captain Carter learns that Dejah Thoris has fled to the planetary air-cleaning station that keeps Barsoom habitable, which Sarka damages, causing the atmosphere to deteriorate. John Carter and Sarka face each other in a duel. After Carter and Dejah Thoris reactivate the station, Carter is returned to Earth, where he declines to tell his superiors about his adventures for fear they will colonize Barsoom, returns to military duties while hoping one day to return to the planet. Antonio Sabato Jr. as John Carter Traci Lords as Dejah Thoris Matt Lasky as Tars Tarkas Chacko Vadaketh as Sarka / Sab Than Mitchell Gordon as Tal Hajus Noelle Perris as Sola This film makes extensive use of the Vasquez Rocks for its alien landscape, appearing throughout the film as different locations.
List of films set on Mars Princess of Mars at The Asylum Princess of Mars on IMDb
Antonio Sabàto Jr.
Antonio Sabàto Jr. is an Italian-American model and politician. Sabàto first found fame in the 1990s, posing as an underwear model for Calvin Klein and appearing as Jagger Cates on the soap opera General Hospital from 1992 to 1995. By the early 2000s, Sabàto's career had started to wane, most of his acting credits attributed to guest appearances, reality TV, low budget films. In recent years, Sabàto has received attention in the media for his involvement in politics, he ran unsuccessfully for U. S. Congress against incumbent Democratic Congresswoman Julia Brownley for California's 26th district in the 2018 elections. Sabàto was born in a Leap Day, his father is Antonio Sabàto Sr.. His mother, Yvonne Kabouchy, is a realtor from Prague, is of Czech and Ashkenazi Jewish heritage, he has a sister named Simonne. Sabàto and his family moved to the United States from Italy in 1985 and he became a naturalized citizen of the United States in 1996, he received his high school diploma from Palisades Charter High School in California.
His parents are divorced. Sabàto was featured on the cover of erotic magazine Playgirl in April 1993. Represented in Los Angeles by fashion agent, Omar Albertto, Sabàto first gained attention as a Calvin Klein underwear model in 1996. In 1990 he appeared in Janet Jackson's "Love Will Never Do" music video along with actor Djimon Hounsou, a former CK underwear model. In 2013, Sabato was named the international celebrity spokesperson for AnastasiaDate, an online mail-order bride website which connects wealthy American older men with Eastern European women. Moving into acting, from 1992 through 1995 he appeared on the soap opera General Hospital, the science fiction series Earth 2 and on the prime time soap opera Melrose Place. Throughout the late 1990s, he starred in various TV movies and direct-to-video films, as well as a supporting role in the 1998 feature film. In 2003 he played the protagonist's lover Pablo in the movie Testosterone filmed in Argentina with Sonia Braga, David Sutcliffe, Jennifer Coolidge, Celina Font and Leonardo Brezicki.
From 2005 to 2006, Sabàto played Dante Damiano on the daytime soap opera The Bold and the Beautiful, in 2008, Sabàto reprised his role of Jagger Cates on the second season of General Hospital: Night Shift. Sabàto made an appearance on Bones as a bouncer from a Jersey Shore club in season 6, episode 3, "The Maggots in the Meathead" in 2010. In 2013 he played Father Zaragosa in the television series The League. In 2016, Sabàto was contracted to be a Chippendales dancer for a special engagement in June at the Rio All Suite Hotel and Casino in Las Vegas. In 2005, Sabàto appeared on But Can They Sing?, a celebrity reality singing competition on VH1, coming in 5th place. He competed in the 2008 NBC competition Celebrity Circus, he noted during the show that both his mother's father had been circus performers. In August 2009, Sabàto starred in My Antonio, a reality show on VH1 in which female contestants competed to win his heart; the show notably featured Sabàto's ex-wife, Tully Jensen, as one of the contestants, his mother appeared on the show, providing advice.
The show's winner was Brooke Barlow. Sabàto and his family appeared on ABC's Celebrity Wife Swap on January 31, 2012, his then-fiancé Cheryl Moana Marie Nunes traded places on the show with WWE wrestler Mick Foley's wife, Colette Foley. Sabàto competed on season 19 of Dancing with the Stars in 2014, he was paired with professional dancer Cheryl Burke, they finished in 8th place. Since 2014, Sabàto has served as the host of a 30-minute long syndicated home remodeling show, Fix It and Finish It. On Monday, May 8, 2017, Sabàto filed paperwork with the Federal Election Commission announcing plans to run for the 26th district Congressional seat in California as a Republican against incumbent Democrat Julia Brownley, he came in second place in the jungle primary with 22.4% of the vote, advancing to face Brownley in the General Election. He lost the election on November 6, 2018. Regarding illegal immigration, Sabàto has said, "There should be no shortcuts for those who don't want to pay or wait", he supports Trump's wall on the southern border, has said, "We need a wall."Sabàto has made many harsh statements regarding former U.
S President Barack Obama, including saying he has "no guts," accusing him of destroying the U. S. economy, asserting that Obama should be arrested and sent to the Guantanamo Bay detention camp. The former Democrat has implied that Obama is the reason he left the Democratic Party. For several years, Sabàto has maintained that, in his opinion, Obama is not a Christian but a Muslim; the first instance of such a claim came in 2016, when Sabàto, after making a speech at the Republican National Convention, told ABC News "I don't believe he follows the God that I love and the Jesus that I love," and "If you follow his story, if you read his book, if you understand about Obama, I mean, that's not a Christian name, is it?" When pressed for evidence to back up his claims, Sabàto answered that it's "in his heart." Two years in 2018, he reaffirmed his belief that Obama is a Muslim when appearing on The View, saying "If he's not a Muslim, we should call him President Barry," and falsely claimed that "What I was saying was, he changed his name to Obama because he followed the Islam religion when he was growing up so, I felt that once you're in that religion, you stay for the rest of your life."Sabàto endorsed Donald Trump for President in 201
An ore is an occurrence of rock or sediment that contains sufficient minerals with economically important elements metals, that can be economically extracted from the deposit. The ores are extracted from the earth through mining; the ore grade, or concentration of an ore mineral or metal, as well as its form of occurrence, will directly affect the costs associated with mining the ore. The cost of extraction must thus be weighed against the metal value contained in the rock to determine what ore can be processed and what ore is of too low a grade to be worth mining. Metal ores are oxides, silicates, or native metals that are not concentrated in the Earth's crust, or noble metals such as gold; the ores must be processed to extract the elements of interest from the waste rock and from the ore minerals. Ore bodies are formed by a variety of geological processes; the process of ore formation is called ore genesis. An ore deposit is an accumulation of ore; this is distinct from a mineral resource. An ore deposit is one occurrence of a particular ore type.
Most ore deposits are named according to their location, or after a discoverer, or after some whimsy, a historical figure, a prominent person, something from mythology or the code name of the resource company which found it. Ore deposits are classified according to various criteria developed via the study of economic geology, or ore genesis; the classifications below are typical. Mesothermal lode gold deposits, typified by the Golden Mile, Kalgoorlie Archaean conglomerate hosted gold-uranium deposits, typified by Elliot Lake, Ontario and Witwatersrand, South Africa Carlin–type gold deposits, including. Volcanic hosted massive sulfide Cu-Pb-Zn including. Stratiform arkose-hosted and shale-hosted copper, typified by the Zambian copperbelt. Stratiform tungsten, typified by the Erzgebirge deposits, Czechoslovakia Exhalative spilite-chert hosted gold deposits Mississippi valley type zinc-lead deposits Hematite iron ore deposits of altered banded iron formation Sudbury Basin nickel and copper, Canada The basic extraction of ore deposits follows these steps: Prospecting or exploration to find and define the extent and value of ore where it is located Conduct resource estimation to mathematically estimate the size and grade of the deposit Conduct a pre-feasibility study to determine the theoretical economics of the ore deposit.
This identifies, early on, whether further investment in estimation and engineering studies is warranted and identifies key risks and areas for further work. Conduct a feasibility study to evaluate the financial viability and financial risks and robustness of the project and make a decision as whether to develop or walk away from a proposed mine project; this includes mine planning to evaluate the economically recoverable portion of the deposit, the metallurgy and ore recoverability and payability of the ore concentrates, engineering and infrastructure costs and equity requirements and a cradle to grave analysis of the possible mine, from the initial excavation all the way through to reclamation. Development to create access to an ore body and building of mine plant and equipment The operation of the mine in an active sense Reclamation to make land where a mine had been suitable for future use Ores are traded internationally and comprise a sizeable portion of international trade in raw materials both in value and volume.
This is because the worldwide distribution of ores is unequal and dislocated from locations of peak demand and from smelting infrastructure. Most base metals are traded internationally on the London Metal Exchange, with
The Apache are a group of culturally related Native American tribes in the Southwestern United States, which include the Chiricahua, Lipan, Salinero and Western Apache. Distant cousins of the Apache are the Navajo, with which they share the Southern Athabaskan languages. There are Apache communities in Oklahoma and reservations in Arizona and New Mexico. Apache people have moved throughout the United States and elsewhere, including urban centers; the Apache Nations are politically autonomous, speak several different languages and have distinct cultures. The Apache homelands have consisted of high mountains and watered valleys, deep canyons and the southern Great Plains, including areas in what is now Eastern Arizona, Northern Mexico (Sonora and New Mexico, West Texas, Southern Colorado; these areas are collectively known as Apacheria. The Apache tribes fought the invading Mexican peoples for centuries; the first Apache raids on Sonora appear to have taken place during the late 17th century. In 19th-century confrontations during the American-Indian wars, the U.
S. Army found the Apache to be skillful strategists; the following Apache tribes are federally recognized: Apache Tribe of Oklahoma Fort Sill Apache Tribe of Oklahoma Jicarilla Apache Nation, New Mexico Mescalero Apache Tribe of the Mescalero Reservation, New Mexico San Carlos Apache Tribe of the San Carlos Reservation, Arizona Tonto Apache Tribe of Arizona White Mountain Apache Tribe of the Fort Apache Reservation, Arizona Yavapai-Apache Nation of the Camp Verde Indian Reservation, ArizonaThe Jicarilla are headquartered in Dulce, New Mexico, while the Mescalero are headquartered in Mescalero, New Mexico. The Western Apache, located in Arizona, is divided into several reservations, which crosscut cultural divisions; the Western Apache reservations include the Fort Apache Indian Reservation, San Carlos Apache Indian Reservation, Yavapai-Apache Nation and Tonto-Apache Reservation. The Chiricahua were divided into two groups; the majority moved to the Mescalero Reservation and form, with the larger Mescalero political group, the Mescalero Apache Tribe of the Mescalero Apache Reservation, along with the Lipan Apache.
The other Chiricahua are enrolled in the Fort Sill Apache Tribe of Oklahoma, headquartered in Apache, Oklahoma. The Plains Apache are located in Oklahoma, headquartered around Anadarko, are federally recognized as the Apache Tribe of Oklahoma; the people who are known today as Apache were first encountered by the Conquistadors of the Spanish Crown, thus the term Apache has its roots in the Spanish language. The Spanish first used the term "Apachu de Nabajo" in the 1620s, referring to people in the Chama region east of the San Juan River. By the 1640s, they applied the term to southern Athabaskan peoples from the Chama on the east to the San Juan on the west; the ultimate origin is uncertain and lost to Spanish history. Modern Apache people today, the US government, maintain use of the Spanish term to describe themselves and tribal functions. Indigenous lineages who speak the language, handed down to them would refer to themselves and their people in that language's term Inde meaning "person" and/or "People".
Distant cousins and a subgroup of the Apache are the Navajo Peoples who in their own language refer to themselves as the Diné. The first known written record in Spanish is by Juan de Oñate in 1598; the most accepted origin theory suggests Apache was borrowed and transliterated from the Zuni word ʔa·paču meaning "Navajos". Another theory suggests the term comes from Yavapai ʔpačə meaning "enemy"; the Zuni and Yavapai sources are less certain because Oñate used the term before he had encountered any Zuni or Yavapai. A less origin may be from Spanish mapache, meaning "raccoon"; the fame of the tribes' tenacity and fighting skills bolstered by dime novels, was known among Europeans. In early 20th century Parisian society, the word Apache was adopted into French meaning an outlaw; the term Apachean includes the related Navajo people. Many of the historical names of Apache groups that were recorded by non-Apache are difficult to match to modern-day tribes or their subgroups. Over the centuries, many Spanish and English-speaking authors did not differentiate between Apache and other semi-nomadic non-Apache peoples who might pass through the same area.
Most Europeans learned to identify the tribes by translating their exonym, what another group whom the Europeans encountered first called the Apache peoples. Europeans did not learn what the peoples called themselves, their autonyms. While anthropologists agree on some traditional major subgrouping of Apaches, they have used different criteria to name finer divisions, these do not always match modern Apache groupings; some scholars do not consider groups residing in. In addition, an Apache individual has different ways of identification with a group, such as a band or clan, as well as the larger tribe or language grouping, which can add to the difficulties in an outsider comprehending the distinctions. In 1900, the U. S. government classified the members of the Apache tribe in the United States as Pinal Coyotero, Mescalero, San Carlos and White Mountain Apache. The different groups were located in Arizona, New Mexico, Oklahoma. In the 1930s, the anthropologist Grenville Goodwin classified the Western Apache into five groups: White Mountain, San Carlos, North Tonto, South Tonto.
Since other anthropologists (e.g. Albert Sc
The Chessmen of Mars
The Chessmen of Mars is a science fantasy novel by American writer Edgar Rice Burroughs, the fifth of his Barsoom series. Burroughs began writing it in January, 1921, the finished story was first published in Argosy All-Story Weekly as a six-part serial in the issues for February 18 and 25 and March 4, 11, 18 and 25, 1922, it was published as a complete novel by A. C. McClurg in November 1922. In this novel Burroughs focuses on a younger member of the family established by John Carter and Dejah Thoris, protagonists of the first three books in the series; the heroine this time is their daughter Tara, princess of Helium, whose hand is sought by the gallant Gahan, Jed of Gathol. Both Helium and Gathol are prominent Barsoomian city states. Tara meets Prince Gahan of Gathol, is unimpressed, viewing him as something of a popinjay, she takes her flier into a storm and loses control of the craft, the storm carries her to an unfamiliar region of Barsoom. After landing and fleeing from a pack of ferocious Banths, she is captured by the horrific Kaldanes, who resemble large heads with small, crab-like legs.
The Kaldanes have bred a symbiotic race of headless human-like creatures called Rykors, which they can attach themselves to and ride like a horse. The Kaldanes imprison Tara, intending to fatten her up eat her. While imprisoned, Tara manages to win over one of the Kaldanes, with her lovely singing voice. Gahan, who has fallen in love with Tara, sets out to find her, only to find himself caught up in the same storm, he falls overboard while attempting to rescue one of his crew, he stumbles upon Bantoom, realm of the Kaldanes, manages to rescue Tara, together with Ghek they flee in Tara's crippled flier. Tara doesn't recognize Gahan as the prince she met earlier, as he is worn from his ordeals and no longer dressed in his fancy clothes. In light of her earlier reaction to him, Gahan decides to keep his identity secret, identifies himself instead as a Panthan called Turan; the three of them manage to reach the isolated city of Manator. Gahan ventures into the city seeking food and water, but is tricked and taken prisoner by the inhabitants.
Tara and Ghek are captured. In Manator, captives are forced to a fight to the death in the arena, in a modified version of Jetan, a popular Barsoomian board game resembling Chess; the novel was written during 1921, from January 7 to November 12. It was a inventive and broad piece of imagination, including many details of the traditions and characters featuring in the novel. While working on the piece, Burroughs created a worksheet with 70 entries relating to architecture, locations and geographical locations. Of these the most remarkable is his creation of Jetan, the Martian version of Chess, played with living people. Burroughs was a keen chess player and played games with his assistant, John Shea, while writing the novel, which games he invariably won. Burroughs, as he had done in prior Barsoom novels, cast himself as John Carter's nephew, entrusted with Carter's manuscript of another Martian tale, he mentions these games with Shea in the opening pages of the novel. The novel can be classed as a planetary romance.
This genre is a subset of science fiction, similar to sword and sorcery, but including scientific elements. Most of the action in a planetary romance is on the surface of an alien world includes sword fighting, supernatural elements as telepathy rather than magic, involves civilizations echoing those on Earth in pre-technological eras composed of kingdoms or theocratic nations. Spacecraft may appear, but are not central to the story. Gahan of Gathol: A prince of the Martian kingdom of Gathol who falls in love with Tara of Helium and is spurned by her when revealing his feelings, he disguises himself as Turan, a mercenary, after rescuing her from the valley of the Kaldanes, revealing his true identity at the conclusion of the tale, by which time Tara has fallen in love with his assumed identity. Tara of Helium: A Princess of Helium, daughter of John Carter and Dejah Thoris. Ghek: A Kaldane, unusual among his kind in his ability to appreciate emotion, dissatisfied with Kaldane society, charmed by Tara's singing, joins Gahan of Gathol and Tara of Helium in their escape from the valley of the Kaldanes.
Burroughs' vision of Mars was loosely inspired by astronomical speculation of the time that of Percival Lowell, who saw the planet as a Earthlike world now becoming less hospitable to life due to its advanced age, whose inhabitants had built canals to bring water from the polar caps to irrigate the remaining arable land. Lowell was influenced by Italian astronomer, Giovanni Virginio Schiaparelli, who in 1878, had observed features on Mars he called canali. Mistranslation of this into English as "canals" fuelled belief; the theory of an inhabited planet with flowing water was disproved by data provided by Russian and American probes such as the two Viking missions which found a dead, frozen world where water could not exist in a fluid state. A million years before the narrative commences, Mars was a lush world with oceans; as the oceans receded, the atmosphere grew thin, the planet has devolved into a landscape of partial barbarism. Barsoomians distribute scarce water supplies via a worldwide system of canals, controlled by quarreling city-states.
The thinning Martian atmosphere is artific
Arizona is a state in the southwestern region of the United States. It is part of the Western and the Mountain states, it is the 14th most populous of the 50 states. Its capital and largest city is Phoenix. Arizona shares the Four Corners region with Utah and New Mexico. Arizona is the 48th state and last of the contiguous states to be admitted to the Union, achieving statehood on February 14, 1912, coinciding with Valentine's Day. Part of the territory of Alta California in New Spain, it became part of independent Mexico in 1821. After being defeated in the Mexican–American War, Mexico ceded much of this territory to the United States in 1848; the southernmost portion of the state was acquired in 1853 through the Gadsden Purchase. Southern Arizona is known for its desert climate, with hot summers and mild winters. Northern Arizona features forests of pine, Douglas fir, spruce trees. There are ski resorts in the areas of Flagstaff and Tucson. In addition to the Grand Canyon National Park, there are several national forests, national parks, national monuments.
About one-quarter of the state is made up of Indian reservations that serve as the home of 27 federally recognized Native American tribes, including the Navajo Nation, the largest in the state and the United States, with more than 300,000 citizens. Although federal law gave all Native Americans the right to vote in 1924, Arizona excluded those living on reservations in the state from voting until the state Supreme Court ruled in favor of Native American plaintiffs in Trujillo v. Garley; the state's name appears to originate from an earlier Spanish name, derived from the O'odham name alĭ ṣonak, meaning "small spring", which applied only to an area near the silver mining camp of Planchas de Plata, Sonora. To the European settlers, their pronunciation sounded like "Arissona"; the area is still known as alĭ ṣonak in the O'odham language. Another possible origin is the Basque phrase haritz ona, as there were numerous Basque sheepherders in the area. A native Mexican of Basque heritage established the ranchería of Arizona between 1734 and 1736 in the current Mexican state of Sonora, which became notable after a significant discovery of silver there, c.
1737. There is a misconception. For thousands of years before the modern era, Arizona was home to numerous Native American tribes. Hohokam and Ancestral Puebloan cultures were among the many that flourished throughout the state. Many of their pueblos, cliffside dwellings, rock paintings and other prehistoric treasures have survived, attracting thousands of tourists each year; the first European contact by native peoples was with Marcos de Niza, a Spanish Franciscan, in 1539. He explored parts of the present state and made contact with native inhabitants the Sobaipuri; the expedition of Spanish explorer Coronado entered the area in 1540–1542 during its search for Cíbola. Few Spanish settlers migrated to Arizona. One of the first settlers in Arizona was José Romo de Vivar. Father Kino was the next European in the region. A member of the Society of Jesus, he led the development of a chain of missions in the region, he converted many of the Indians to Christianity in the Pimería Alta in the 1690s and early 18th century.
Spain founded presidios at Tubac in 1752 and Tucson in 1775. When Mexico achieved its independence from the Kingdom of Spain and its Spanish Empire in 1821, what is now Arizona became part of its Territory of Nueva California known as Alta California. Descendants of ethnic Spanish and mestizo settlers from the colonial years still lived in the area at the time of the arrival of European-American migrants from the United States. During the Mexican–American War, the U. S. Army occupied the national capital of Mexico City and pursued its claim to much of northern Mexico, including what became Arizona Territory in 1863 and the State of Arizona in 1912; the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo specified that, in addition to language and cultural rights of the existing inhabitants of former Mexican citizens being considered as inviolable, the sum of US$15 million dollars in compensation be paid to the Republic of Mexico. In 1853, the U. S. acquired the land south below the Gila River from Mexico in the Gadsden Purchase along the southern border area as encompassing the best future southern route for a transcontinental railway.
What is now known as the state of Arizona was administered by the United States government as part of the Territory of New Mexico until the southern part of that region seceded from the Union to form the Territory of Arizona. This newly established territory was formally organized by the Confederate States government on Saturday, January 18, 1862, when President Jefferson Davis approved and signed An Act to Organize the Territory of Arizona, marking the first official use of the name "Territory of Arizona"; the Southern territory supplied the Confederate government with men and equipment. Formed in 1862, Arizona scout companies served with the Confederate States Army duri