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John Cassell

John Cassell was an English publisher, printer and editor, who founded the firm Cassell & Co, famous for its educational books and periodicals, which pioneered the serial publication of novels. He was a well-known tea and coffee merchant and a general business entrepreneur. A fervent Christian, he campaigned throughout his life for the temperance movement in Britain, for the reduction of taxes on publishing, was a social reformer who recognised the importance of education in improving the life of the working class, whose many publications, both magazines and books, brought learning and culture to the masses. John Cassell was born on 23 January 1817 in Manchester in Lancashire; the family enjoyed a reasonable standard of living for the first 10 years until his father was disabled by a fall, dying 3 years later. The burden of providing for the family fell on his mother who made a living through upholstery work, though this left her with little time for her son. John received little education as a result and, from an early age, was required to work as a factory hand, manufacturing "tape" and velveteen.

Cassell detested the work, both confining and monotonous, felt oppressed by the appalling social conditions around him. Seeking better prospects, he impressed a local carpenter with his woodworking skills and was offered an apprenticeship. In 1833, Cassell came under the influence of the temperance movement, "signed the pledge" at a local meeting held by a Mr. Thomas Swindlehurst. At the time, alcoholism was a pressing social issue. Cassell identified with the ideals of the movement and, having first honoured his indentures of apprenticeship, decided to become a travelling temperance lecturer. Making good his lack of formal education, he had sought self-improvement by teaching himself general knowledge, English literature and some French language. In 1836, having spent several months lecturing on teetotalism in the Manchester area, Cassell set off by foot for London, stopping on the way to speak about temperance to any audience that he could find, supporting himself by doing carpentry odd-jobs.

In October 1836, after 16 days of walking, he arrived in London with the princely sum of 3 pence in his pocket, unable to afford lodgings for the night. That same evening, he spoke at a temperance meeting at the New Jerusalem Schoolroom near Westminster Bridge Road, for the next 6 months was involved in temperance campaigning in the capital. In April 1837, Cassell was enrolled as a recognised agent of the "National Temperance Society", toured around England and Wales and taking total abstinence "pledges". In 1841, whilst on a temperance tour of the eastern counties, he met a Lincolnshire woman, Mary Abbott, whom he married the same year. Mary inherited a sum of money from her father which enabled the couple to settle in St. John's Wood and gave John the capital he needed to invest in a business, their home became a meeting place for writers and reformers - people such as George Cruikshank and Mary Howitt, Ellen Wood. In 1843, Cassell set himself up as a coffee merchant in Coleman Street, City of London.

The business was an immediate success, moving to larger premises in 80 Fenchurch Street. His teas and coffees were extensively advertised in the press, slogans such as "Buy Cassell's shilling coffee" made them quite a household word, he bought a second-hand printing press to produce advertising leaflets for his wares and this led him to writing and publishing his own temperance tracts. Cassell went into partnership with his brother-in-law, this allowed him to concentrate on editing and writing periodicals, the first of which, "The Teetotal Times", appeared in 1846, becoming, in 1849, "The Teetotal Times and Essayist" a monthly, which continued for a few years afterwards. In July 1848, he started publication of "Standard of Freedom", a weekly newspaper aimed at the popular market, whose principles were free-trade and freedom of religion, it only lasted until 1851, becoming incorporated into Chronicle. In 1850, he started the Working Man's Friend, a weekly magazine aiming to educate its readers without patronising them or playing to the lowest common denominator, sympathetic to the life of working-class people.

Its readers sent in hundreds of letters and articles for publication, the magazine drew praise from figures such as Richard Cobden and social reformer, the Earl of Carlisle. In 1851, in order to expand the business, Cassell purchased William Cathrell's printing plant in The Strand, bringing the printing of the "Working Man's Friend" in-house. In 1851, "The Illustrated exhibitor", a monthly periodical about The Great Exhibition, started publication, to great success, achieving sales of 100,000 by December; the expansion of the company meant a move to bigger premises at "La Belle Sauvage Yard" - the site of a centuries-old inn - on the north side of Ludgate Hill, in 1852. Around this time the "Cassell's Library" series started to appear. In April 1852, the weekly "Popular Educator" started publication, achieving both popular success and critical acclaim - "a school, a library and a university" was how one commentator described it; the magazine inspired readers to contin

Stale seed bed

A false or stale seed bed is a seedbed created some weeks before seed is due to be sown. The early seedbed is used a weed control technique, it is designed to germinate weed seeds that have been disturbed and brought to the soil surface during cultivation, so that the young weeds can be eliminated. The tilled soil increases the chance of weed seed germination as the fine soil allows seed to grow than in compacted soil and dormant seeds are brought to the surface; the weeds must be destroyed before they can create new seeds. By destroying them early, the farmer eliminates most of that season's annual weeds, nominally increases soil nutrient content. A stale seed bed technique of weed control creating a seedbed some weeks before seed is due to be sown; the early seedbed is designed to germinate weed seeds that have been disturbed and brought to the soil surface during cultivation, so that the young weeds can be eliminated before they can propagate. The technique can be utilized in early spring, when the weather is still too cold for proper seed germination.

Several passes are made with a power harrow, such as an R2 Rinaldi, rototiller or plow weed seeds are allowed to germinate as weather permits. By tilling, the farmer increases the chance of weed seed germination by the same method as one would for favorable vegetable/crops: the fine soil allows weed seed to grow by allowing the seed to open and the roots to spread easier than in compacted soil. Deep tilling will bring dormant seed to the surface for germination. After weeds have sprouted, they are hoed off or eliminated with the other means before sowing of the actual crop. Timing is important. By destroying them early, the farmer eliminates most of that season's annual weeds. Turning the dead weeds back into the soil increases soil nutrient content, although this difference is slight. In many cases, several tillings are done every two weeks beginning in early spring; this allows more weed seeds to germinate only to be killed off later. This eliminates more weeds, but care must be used to not delay planting of a desirable crop than the crop needs for a successful season's growth.

After several years, most, if not all, weeds can be eliminated from the seed bank in the soil. In some cases the effect can be noticed in the same year the process is first carried out. If the weed patch is vigorous enough, the farmer may mow the patch first before tilling; this allows for easier/quicker decomposition in the soil. Some farmers may apply a light and inexpensive fertilizer mix to the soil to hoping to cause more weed seeds to germinate and eliminate seeds earlier that otherwise would have sprouted in years

MolÄ—tai District Municipality

The Molėtai District Municipality is one of 60 municipalities in Lithuania. Molėtai is known for its many lakes. There are about 220 lakes in the district and they cover about 7% of the total territory. Since it is only about 60 km north of Vilnius, many Vilnians own summer homes there; the area offers many recreational opportunities. It is easy to reach Molėtai because there is a highway connecting Vilnius and Utena which divides the district into two equal parts. Since there is little industry, the district is proud of its lack of pollution; the land is not fertile, therefore the district's government is focused on developing tourism. Another natural resource of the district are its forests. District structure: 1 city – Molėtai. Population of largest Molėtai District Municipality elderships: Molėtai – 6434 Giedraičiai – 684 Naujasodis – 496 Suginčiai – 426 Toliejai – 379 Videniškiai – 368 Alanta – 348 Balninkai – 319 Joniškis – 258 Inturkė – 237

Irish Workers' Group

See Workers Power for the Irish Workers' Group, a member of the League for a Fifth International. The Irish Workers' Group was a Marxist political party in Ireland, it originated as the Irish Workers Union, which called itself the Irish Communist Group, contained a variety of people who all considered themselves to be Marxists. Some were from an Irish Republican background, some, including Gerry Lawless became involved in Saor Éire. In time the group developed distinct Maoist wings; the latter broke away to form the Irish Communist Organisation, which evolved into the British and Irish Communist Organisation. The former became the Irish Workers' Group, set up by Lawless; the IWG produced a theoretical journal An Solas/Workers' Republic. By 1967 the IWG based in London among exiled political activists, was failing and handed over their journal to Sean Matgamna and Rachel Lever who were about to launch Workers Fight. A section with support in Ireland formed the League for a Workers Republic which entered discussions with the Socialist Labour League, British affiliate of the International Committee of the Fourth International.

Other members of the IWG influential in the Irish far-left were Eamonn McCann, a leader of the Socialist Workers Party, Michael Farrell, a leader of the now defunct People's Democracy. This group seems to have ceased to exist in the late 1960s. A Irish Workers' Group was an organisation that split from the Socialist Workers Movement in 1976, it maintained links with the British Workers Power group and the League for a Fifth International

1973 Leeds City Council election

The first elections to the newly created Leeds City Council were held on 10 May 1973, with the entirety of the 96 seat council - three seats for each of the 32 wards - up for vote. The Local Government Act 1972 stipulated that the elected members were to shadow and take over from the predecessor corporation on 1 April 1974; the order in which the councillors were elected dictated their term serving, with third-place candidates serving two years and up for re-election in 1975, second-placed three years expiring in 1976 and 1st-placed five years until 1978. As well as replacing the County Borough of Leeds, the new council included: Municipal Borough of Morley Municipal Borough of Pudsey Aireborough Urban District Horsforth Urban District Otley Urban District Garforth Urban District Rothwell Urban District Tadcaster Rural District Wetherby Rural District Wharfedale Rural DistrictThe election resulted in no overall control; this result has the following consequences for the total number of seats on the Council after the elections

Cheltenham railway station, Melbourne

Cheltenham railway station is located on the Frankston railway line in Victoria, Australia. Opened in 1881, the station serves the south-eastern Melbourne suburb of Cheltenham. Cheltenham railway station was one of the earliest railway stations on the Frankston railway line, having opened on 19 December 1881; the current dock platform was provided in 1956. A siding existed at this dock platform. Boom barriers were provided at the Park Road level crossing, located at the Up end, in 1966. A signal panel was installed in the station building in 1972, to control trains terminating at Platform 1; this coincided with the introduction of automatic signalling between Cheltenham. Boom barriers were provided at the Charman Road level crossing, located at the Down end of the station, in 1972. A fourth track was laid into the bitumen of the Park St level crossing in preparation for triplication, but it was never connected. There was a siding on the eastern side of the station, at the Flinders Street end; the wiring for the siding was deactivated by 1980 when most of the siding was replaced with car parking, was removed altogether by 1985.

The station was designated as a Premium station on 8 March 1996. In 2010, Cheltenham station was identified as a key part of the Cheltenham Major Activity Centre by the then-Brumby State Government, as part of their Melbourne 2030 strategic planning policy framework. In 2010, Kingston City Council proposed a major redevelopment of the station environs, including a new station forecourt with a terraced plaza, giving more prominence to the heritage listed buildings at the station, a new taxi rank, similar to that at Mentone; the proposal had not been implemented. More in October 2015, the station toilets were refurbished. In February 2017, it was announced that as part of the Andrews State Government's crossings removal project, Cheltenham station will be redeveloped into a rail trench – as to negate the rail crossings at Charman and Park Roads; the trench, at 1.26 kilometres in length, will be at least 30 metres wide. Road bridges will be constructed over the rail-line for both Park Roads. Furthermore, a multi–deck car-park will be built within the station's existing car–park.

The station was located between Mentone and Highett since its opening in 1881, until the opening of Southland station in 2017. Southland replaced Highett as the closest station to Cheltenham towards the city. On 10 May 2008, former The Saddle Club actress Jessica Jacobs died from her injuries after she was hit by a train. In 2012, a motorist was killed. Cheltenham is served by Metro Trains' Frankston line services, it has one dock platform. The latter was served by one afternoon terminating service from Flinders Street, that returned empty to the city, but from 12 October 2014, extra weekday Flinders Street bound services began to use the platform. Platform 1: Frankston line: terminating services from Flinders StreetPlatform 2: Frankston line: all stations and limited stops services to Flinders StreetPlatform 3: Frankston line: all stations services to Frankston Transdev Melbourne operates three bus routes via Cheltenham station: 600: Westfield SouthlandSt Kilda station 922: Westfield Southland – St Kilda station 923: Westfield Southland – St Kilda stationVentura Bus Lines operates four bus routes via Cheltenham station: 811: Dandenong stationBrighton 812: Dandenong station – Brighton 822: Chadstone Shopping CentreSandringham station 828: Hampton StationBerwick Station Melway map