John William Coltrane was an American jazz saxophonist and composer. Working in the bebop and hard bop idioms early in his career, Coltrane helped pioneer the use of modes and was at the forefront of free jazz, he led at least fifty recording sessions and appeared on many albums by other musicians, including trumpeter Miles Davis and pianist Thelonious Monk. Over the course of his career, Coltrane's music took on an spiritual dimension, he remains one of the most influential saxophonists in music history. He received many posthumous awards, including canonization by the African Orthodox Church and a Pulitzer Prize in 2007, his second wife was harpist Alice Coltrane. Their children Ravi Coltrane, John Coltrane Jr. are all musicians. Coltrane was born in his parents' apartment at 200 Hamlet Avenue in Hamlet, North Carolina, on September 23, 1926, his father was John R. Coltrane and his mother was Alice Blair, he attended William Penn High School. Beginning in December 1938, his father and grandparents died within a few months of each other, leaving him to be raised by his mother and a close cousin.
In June 1943, he moved to Philadelphia. In September, his mother bought him an alto, he played alto horn in a community band before beginning alto saxophone in high school. From early to mid-1945 he had his first professional work: a "cocktail lounge trio" with piano and guitar. To avoid being drafted by the Army, Coltrane enlisted in the Navy on August 6, 1945, the day the first U. S. atomic bomb was dropped on Japan. He was trained as an apprentice seaman at Sampson Naval Training Station in upstate New York before he was shipped to Pearl Harbor, where he was stationed at Manana Barracks, the largest posting of African-American servicemen in the world. By the time he got to Hawaii in late 1945, the Navy was downsizing. Coltrane's musical talent was recognized, he became one of the few Navy men to serve as a musician without having been granted musician's rating when he joined the Melody Masters, the base swing band; as the Melody Masters was an all-white band, Coltrane was treated as a guest performer to avoid alerting superior officers of his participation in the band.
He continued to perform other duties when not playing with the band, including kitchen and security details. By the end of his service, he had assumed a leadership role in the band, his first recordings, an informal session in Hawaii with Navy musicians, occurred on July 13, 1946. He played alto saxophone on a selection of jazz standards and bebop tunes. After being discharged from the Navy as a seaman first class in August 1946, Coltrane returned to Philadelphia, where he "plunged into the heady excitement of the new music and the blossoming bebop scene." After touring with King Kolax, he joined a band led by Jimmy Heath, introduced to Coltrane's playing by his former Navy buddy, trumpeter William Massey, who had played with Coltrane in the Melody Masters. He studied jazz theory with guitarist and composer Dennis Sandole and continued under Sandole's tutelage through the early 1950s. Although he started on alto saxophone, he began playing tenor saxophone in 1947 with Eddie Vinson. Coltrane called this a time.
There were many things that people like Hawk, Ben and Tab Smith were doing in the'40s that I didn't understand, but that I felt emotionally." A significant influence, according to tenor saxophonist Odean Pope, was the Philadelphia pianist and theorist Hasaan Ibn Ali. "Hasaan was the clue to... the system. Hasaan was the great influence on Trane's melodic concept." Coltrane became fanatical about practicing and developing his craft, practicing "25 hours a day" according to Jimmy Heath. Heath recalls an incident in a hotel in San Francisco when after a complaint was issued, Coltrane took the horn out of his mouth and practiced fingering for a full hour; such was his dedication it was common for him to fall asleep with the horn still in his mouth or practice a single note for hours on end. An important moment in the progression of Coltrane's musical development occurred on June 5, 1945, when he saw Charlie Parker perform for the first time. In a DownBeat magazine article in 1960 he recalled, "the first time I heard Bird play, it hit me right between the eyes."
Parker became an idol, they played together in the late 1940s. He was a member of groups led by Dizzy Gillespie, Earl Bostic, Johnny Hodges in the early to mid-1950s. In the summer of 1955, Coltrane was freelancing in Philadelphia while studying with guitarist Dennis Sandole when he received a call from Davis; the trumpeter, whose success during the late forties had been followed by several years of decline in activity and reputation, due in part to his struggles with heroin, was again active and about to form a quintet. Coltrane was with this edition of the Davis band from October 1955 to April 1957. During this period Davis released several influential recordings that revealed the first signs of Coltrane's growing ability; this quintet, represented by two marathon recording sessions for Prestige in 1956, resulted in the albums Cookin', Relaxin', Workin', Steamin'. The "First Great Quintet" disbanded due in part to Coltrane's heroin addiction. During the part of 1957 Coltrane worked with Thelonious Monk at New York's Five Spot Café, played in Monk's quartet, owing to contractual conflicts, took part in only one official studio recording session with this group.
The Musket 250 is a NASCAR Whelen Modified Tour race at New Hampshire Motor Speedway. The Whelen Modified Series has been racing since September 2, 1990; this race was 125 laps, but in 1997 was reduced to 100 laps. This race was held during the ISM Connect 300 race weekend until 2017 when Las Vegas replaced Loudon in the NASCAR playoffs; as a result, starting in 2018, the September race at Loudon now features the Modifieds as the feature division, with a 250 lap, 264.5 mile event, the all-time record of distance of Whelen Modified Tour in the touring format. In 1969 and 1970, Martinsville Speedway ran the NASCAR Modified Division with 263-mile races; the ARCA Menards Series East will continue to be part of the schedule, but the NASCAR Pinty's Series from Canada replaces the Cup Series on that weekend. The Modified cars during this race use a restrictor plate; this plate is similar to what the NASCAR Xfinity Series uses at Daytona International Speedway and Talladega Superspeedway
The Pittsburgh Maulers were a team that competed in the 1984 season of the United States Football League. Their most prominent player was first pick overall in the 1984 USFL Draft, running back Mike Rozier of Nebraska, who won the Heisman Trophy, collegiate football's most prestigious individual award, they were owned by shopping mall magnate Edward J. DeBartolo, Sr. the father of Edward J. DeBartolo, Jr. then-owner of the San Francisco 49ers of the National Football League and the Pittsburgh Penguins of the National Hockey League. The Maulers played at Three Rivers Stadium. No one was surprised when two groups filed for a Pittsburgh franchise in the winter of 1983, it did come as a considerable surprise that DeBartolo, Sr. was one of them, given his son's ownership of the 49ers. However, while the other group contented itself with holding a rally to demonstrate support for a potential franchise, DeBartolo stole a march by securing an all-important lease for Three Rivers Stadium. A few days DeBartolo's longtime right-hand man, former Steeler Paul Martha, informed the other owners and Commissioner Chet Simmons that his boss was not only applying for a franchise, but had a lease.
There was some debate over whether to approve DeBartolo's bid, with some fearing that they were allowing an NFL owner into their circle. It was an open secret that Eddie, Sr. and Eddie, Jr. worked together. The owners realized that DeBartolo would lend the upstart league instant credibility and unanimously approved his bid, making him the first owner of a USFL expansion team. Unusually, DeBartolo applied for the franchise in his own name, rather than setting up a corporation or partnership, he paid the full $6.25 million expansion fee up front. A name-the-team contest yielded the nickname "Maulers," after the sledgehammer-wielding workers in steel foundries; the NFL itself threatened an investigation over a possible Cleveland Spiders-style conflict of interest due to the father owning a USFL team and the son owning an NFL team, an accusation both father and son insisted was not the case. The NFL asked Eddie, Jr. to leave the room during any USFL discussions. DeBartolo made waves by beginning talks with Dan Marino, the quarterback for the hometown Pitt Panthers.
Joe Pendry, the offensive coordinator for the 1983 finalist Philadelphia Stars, became head coach. The Maulers opened their home season with a March 11, 1984 sellout crowd at Three Rivers Stadium facing the Birmingham Stallions, a team led by Cliff Stoudt, who had spent much of the previous season as the starter for the Pittsburgh Steelers, had been Terry Bradshaw's backup for years before then. Fans bombarded Stoudt with snowballs and ice; the Maulers lost, 30-18, in. The team finished 3–15, tying the Washington Federals for the worst record in the league. However, while undermanned, they were not nearly as bad, they were in part victims of a tough schedule. They played nine games against playoff teams and caught a lot of the other teams when they were hot—Oklahoma and New Orleans early and San Antonio and Jacksonville late. Seven of their losses were by fewer than 10 points; the team was built around the idea that Dallas Cowboys longtime third-string QB Glenn Carano would be a strong starter in the USFL.
To support Carano, the team had RB Mike Rozier–the second straight Heisman Trophy winner to sign with a USFL team–and WR Greg Anderson, who caught 63 passes. Carano had his moments but he struggled overall, completing only 53.7% of his passes with 13 touchdowns and 19 interceptions. Backup Tom Rozantz was expected to carry a clipboard, but he ended up playing a lot and he struggled as well. However, either would have been a disappointment, as most fans expected the Maulers to pick Steve Young rather than Mike Rozier. Bringing in former Arizona Wranglers star WR Jackie Flowers did not turn around the offense; the defense, led by CB Jerry Holmes and DE Sam Clancy finished a respectable eighth in points allowed. In spite of this, they were hobbled by a low-octane offense. In the middle of a 17-7 loss to the Memphis Showboats, DeBartolo told general manager George Heddleston to tell Pendry to yank Carano in favor of backup Tom Rozantz. Pendry refused to do so when Carano dislocated his right arm and could not throw without "tremendous pain" shooting through it.
A fuming DeBartolo ordered Heddleston and Pendry to meet with him at his office in Youngstown, Ohio the next morning. Pendry refused to come, quit rather than be fired. Offensive line coach Ellis Rainsberger took over as interim coach for the rest of the season, they closed the season against Jacksonville in a torrential rainstorm. Sources Despite losing millions of dollars and only winning three games, the Maulers were competitive in most games, they attracted 22,858 per game, a respectable figure—at least by USFL standards—for an expansion team. DeBartolo was determined to stick it out going as far as hiring Hank Bullough away from the Green Bay Packers to become the new head coach; the fan support in such a strong sports town such as Pittsburgh can be attributed to a combination of factors. At the time the Maulers arrived, the Steelers were in the middle of an on-field decline following their 1970s dominance; the Penguins were all but invisible in the Pittsburgh market. The Pittsburgh Pirates were experiencing an on- and off-field collapse that would be topped off by the 1985 Pittsburgh drug trials and the team nearly relocating to Denver.
However, just a few days after Bullough's hi