Boston Police Strike
In the Boston Police Strike, Boston police officers went on strike on September 9, 1919. They sought recognition for improvements in wages and working conditions. Police Commissioner Edwin Upton Curtis denied that police officers had any right to form a union, much less one affiliated with a larger organization like the American Federation of Labor. Attempts at reconciliation between the Commissioner and the police officers on the part of Boston's Mayor Andrew James Peters, failed. During the strike, Boston experienced several nights of lawlessness. Several thousand members of the Massachusetts State Guard, supported by volunteers, restored order by force. Press reaction both locally and nationally described the strike as Bolshevik-inspired and directed at the destruction of civil society; the strikers were called "deserters" and "agents of Lenin." Samuel Gompers of the AFL recognized that the strike was damaging the cause of labor in the public mind and advised the strikers to return to work.
Commissioner Curtis refused to re-hire the striking policemen. He was supported by Massachusetts Governor Calvin Coolidge, whose rebuke of Gompers earned him a national reputation. Nine were killed in the threat of a general strike. Eight of the nine were fatally shot by members of the State Guard; the police strike ended on September 13, when Commissioner Curtis announced the replacement of all striking workers with 1,500 new officers, given higher wages. The strike proved a setback for labor unions; the AFL discontinued its attempts to organize police officers for another two decades. Coolidge won the Republican nomination for vice president of the U. S. in the 1920 presidential election. In 1895, the Massachusetts legislature transferred control of the Boston police department from Boston's mayor to the governor of Massachusetts, whom it authorized to appoint a five-person board of commissioners to manage the department. In 1906, the legislature abolished that board and gave the governor the authority to name a single commissioner to a term of five years, subject to removal by the governor.
The mayor and the city continued to have responsibility for the department's expenses and the physical working conditions of its employees, but the commissioner controlled department operations and the hiring and discipline of the police officers. In 1918, the salary for patrolmen was set at $1,400 a year. Police officers had to buy their own uniforms and equipment which cost over $200. New recruits received $730 during their first year, which increased annually to $821.25 and $1000, to $1,400 after six years. In the years following World War I, inflation eroded the value of a police officer's salary. From 1913 to May 1919, the cost of living rose by 76%, while police wages rose just 18%. Discontent and restiveness among the Boston police force grew as they compared their wages and found they were earning less than an unskilled steelworker, half as much as a carpenter or mechanic and 50 cents a day less than a streetcar conductor. Boston city laborers were earning a third more on an hourly basis.
Police officers had an extensive list of grievances. They worked ten-hour shifts and recorded weekly totals between 75 and 90 hours, they were not paid for time spent on court appearances. They objected to being required to perform such tasks as "delivering unpaid tax bills, surveying rooming houses, taking the census, or watching the polls at election" and checking the backgrounds of prospective jurors as well as serving as "errand boys" for their officers, they complained about having to share beds and the lack of sanitation and toilets at many of the 19 station houses where they were required to live, most of which dated to before the Civil War. The Court Street station had four toilets for 135 men, one bathtub. Boston's police officers, acting with the sponsorship of the police department, had formed an association known as the Boston Social Club in 1906. In 1917, a committee of police officers representing the Social Club met with Commissioner Stephen O'Meara to ask about a raise, he advised them to wait for a better time.
They pressed the issue in the summer of 1918 and, near the end of the year, Mayor Andrew Peters offered salary increases that would affect about one-fourth of the officers. O'Meara died in December 1918, Governor Samuel McCall appointed Edwin Upton Curtis, former Mayor of Boston, as Commissioner of the Boston Police Department. After another meeting where representatives of the Social Club repeated their salary demands, Peters said: "while the word'strike' was not mentioned, the whole situation is far more serious than I realized." He made it clear to the rank and file that they were not entitled to form their own union. Curtis did not share his predecessor's or the mayor's sympathy for the police, but in February 1918 he offered a wage compromise that the police rejected. In May, Governor Coolidge announced raises, which were rejected; when the Social Club's representatives tried to raise grievances with him, Curtis set up his own grievance committee to handle management-employee disputes, based on the election of representatives from each precinct house by secret ballot, it met just once.
A few months in June 1919, the American Federation of Labor, responding to repeated requests from local police organizations, began accepting police organizations into their membership. By September, it had granted charters to police unions in 37 cities, including Washington, D. C. Los Angeles, St. Paul, though not without protests from some city officials, who opposed the unionization of police and teachers; the Boston police decided to organize under an AFL charter in order to gain support from othe
First inauguration of Calvin Coolidge
The first inauguration of Calvin Coolidge as the 30th President of the United States was held on Friday, August 3, 1923 at the Coolidge Homestead in Plymouth Notch, following the death of President Warren G. Harding the previous evening; the inauguration marked the commencement of the first term of Calvin Coolidge as President. The presidential oath of office was administered to the new president by his father, John Calvin Coolidge Sr., a Vermont notary public and justice of the peace. Vice President Coolidge was visiting his family homestead in Vermont, which did not have electricity or a telephone, when he received word by messenger of Harding's death; as the new president, Coolidge intended to take the oath of office and greet reporters who had assembled outside. He dressed in an upstairs bedroom, said a prayer, came downstairs. In front of a small group of observers, including Coolidge's wife Grace and United States Representative Porter H. Dale, his father, John Calvin Coolidge Sr. a Vermont notary public and justice of the peace, administered the oath of office.
The swearing in took place in John Coolidge's family parlor by the light of a kerosene lamp at 2:47 a.m. on August 3, 1923. Dale was campaigning for the United States Senate, he traveled to John Coolidge's home with reporter Joe Fountain, Herbert P. Thompson, the commander of Springfield's American Legion Post, labor union official L. L. Lane. Dale had intended to ensure that Calvin Coolidge was informed that Harding had died, to offer any assistance he could provide; as a result, Fountain was the only reporter present for the oath-taking. By most accounts, it was Dale who suggested persistently that Coolidge be sworn in to ensure continuity in the presidency. Dale wrote an account of this event, published as a magazine article; the ceremony was recreated for photographers the following morning. The site is now a State Park. Coolidge returned to Washington the next day, Justice Adolph A. Hoehling, Jr. of the Supreme Court of the District of Columbia administered the oath a second time, on August 21, 1923, as there was a question about whether a state official had the authority to administer the federal presidential oath.
The United States Constitution requires the President to take an oath at the beginning of his term, but it does not identify the person or officer, to administer the oath. Hoehling kept the second swearing-in a secret until confirming Harry M. Daugherty's revelation of it in 1932; when Hoehling confirmed Daugherty's story, he indicated that Daugherty serving as United States Attorney General, asked him to administer the oath at the Willard Hotel. According to Hoehling, he did not question Daugherty's reason for requesting a second oath-taking, but assumed it was to resolve any doubt about whether the first swearing-in was valid, since it had been administered by a state official. Presidency of Calvin Coolidge Second inauguration of Calvin Coolidge Inauguration of the President of the United States Coolidge Homestead Calvin Coolidge Foundation
John Calvin Coolidge Jr. was an American politician and lawyer who served as the 30th president of the United States from 1923 to 1929. A Republican lawyer from New England, born in Vermont, Coolidge worked his way up the ladder of Massachusetts state politics becoming governor, his response to the Boston Police Strike of 1919 thrust him into the national spotlight and gave him a reputation as a man of decisive action. The next year, he was elected vice president of the United States, he succeeded to the presidency upon the sudden death of Warren G. Harding in 1923. Elected in his own right in 1924, he gained a reputation as a small government conservative and as a man who said little and had a rather dry sense of humor. Coolidge restored public confidence in the White House after the scandals of his predecessor's administration, left office with considerable popularity; as a Coolidge biographer wrote: "He embodied the spirit and hopes of the middle class, could interpret their longings and express their opinions.
That he did represent the genius of the average is the most convincing proof of his strength". Scholars have ranked Coolidge in the lower half of those presidents, he is praised by advocates of smaller government and laissez-faire economics, while supporters of an active central government view him less favorably, though most praise his stalwart support of racial equality. John Calvin Coolidge Jr. was born in Plymouth Notch, Windsor County, Vermont, on July 4, 1872, the only US president to be born on Independence Day. He was the elder of the two children of John Calvin Coolidge Sr. and Victoria Josephine Moor. Coolidge Junior was called by his middle name, Calvin. Coolidge Senior engaged in many occupations and developed a statewide reputation as a prosperous farmer and public servant, he held various local offices, including justice of the peace and tax collector and served in the Vermont House of Representatives as well as the Vermont Senate. Coolidge's mother was the daughter of a Plymouth Notch farmer.
She was chronically ill and died from tuberculosis, when Coolidge was twelve years old. His younger sister, Abigail Grace Coolidge, died at the age of 15 of appendicitis, when Coolidge was 18. Coolidge's father married a Plymouth schoolteacher in 1891, lived to the age of 80. Coolidge's family had deep roots in New England. Another ancestor, Edmund Rice, arrived at Watertown in 1638. Coolidge's great-great-grandfather named John Coolidge, was an American military officer in the Revolutionary War and one of the first selectmen of the town of Plymouth, his grandfather Calvin Galusha Coolidge served in the Vermont House of Representatives. Coolidge was a descendant of Samuel Appleton, who settled in Ipswich and led the Massachusetts Bay Colony during King Philip's War. Coolidge attended Black River Academy and St. Johnsbury Academy, before enrolling at Amherst College, where he distinguished himself in the debating class; as a senior, he graduated cum laude. While at Amherst, Coolidge was profoundly influenced by philosophy professor Charles Edward Garman, a Congregational mystic, with a neo-Hegelian philosophy.
Coolidge explained Garman's ethics forty years later: here is a standard of righteousness that might does not make right, that the end does not justify the means, that expediency as a working principle is bound to fail. The only hope of perfecting human relationships is in accordance with the law of service under which men are not so solicitous about what they shall get as they are about what they shall give, yet people are entitled to the rewards of their industry. What they earn is theirs, no matter how small or how great, but the possession of property carries the obligation to use it in a larger service... At his father's urging after graduation, Coolidge moved to Northampton, Massachusetts to become a lawyer. To avoid the cost of law school, Coolidge followed the common practice of apprenticing with a local law firm, Hammond & Field, reading law with them. John C. Hammond and Henry P. Field, both Amherst graduates, introduced Coolidge to law practice in the county seat of Hampshire County.
In 1897, Coolidge was admitted to the Massachusetts bar. With his savings and a small inheritance from his grandfather, Coolidge opened his own law office in Northampton in 1898, he practiced commercial law. As his reputation as a hard-working and diligent attorney grew, local banks and other businesses began to retain his services. In 1903, Coolidge met Grace Anna Goodhue, a University of Vermont graduate and teacher at Northampton's Clarke School for the Deaf, they married on October 4, 1905 at 2:30 p.m. in a small ceremony which took place in the parlor of Grace's family's house, following a vain effort at postponement by Grace's mother. The newlyweds went on a honeymoon trip to Montreal planned for two weeks but cut short by a week at Coolidge's request. After 25 years he wrote of Grace, "for a quarter of a century she has borne with my infirmities and I have rejoiced in her graces"; the Coolidges had two sons: John and Calvin Jr.. Calvin Jr. died at age 16 from blood poisoning. On June 30, 1924 Calvin Jr had played tennis with his brother on the White House tennis courts without putting on socks and developed a blister on one of his toes.
The blister subsequently
Grace Anna Goodhue Coolidge was the wife of the 30th President of the United States, Calvin Coolidge. She was the First Lady of the United States from 1923 to 1929 and the Second Lady of the United States from 1921 to 1923, she graduated from the University of Vermont in 1902 with a bachelor of arts degree in teaching and joined the Clarke Schools for Hearing and Speech in Northampton, Massachusetts, to teach deaf children to communicate by lip reading, rather than by signing. She met Calvin Coolidge in 1904, the two were married the following year; as her husband advanced his political career, Coolidge avoided politics. When Calvin Coolidge was elected Governor of Massachusetts in 1919, she remained at home in Northampton with their children. After her husband's election as vice president in 1920, the family moved to Washington, D. C. living at the Willard Hotel. Coolidge did not speak out on political issues including women's rights. Instead, she dedicated herself to supporting popular causes and organizations, such as the Red Cross and the Visiting Nurse Association.
After the death of her son Calvin in 1924, she won the sympathy of the country. Unlike previous first ladies, who had withdrawn entirely from the public spotlight after personal tragedies, Coolidge resumed her official duties after a few months. In 1929, Calvin Coolidge's term as president ended, the couple retired to Northampton. After her husband's death in 1933, Coolidge continued her work with the deaf and wrote for several magazines, she served on the boards of the Clarke School. After the start of World War II, Grace joined a local Northampton committee dedicated to helping Jewish refugees from Europe, loaned her house to WAVES. In 1957, she died of heart disease, was buried in Plymouth, beside her husband and her son. Grace Anna Goodhue was born on January 3, 1879, in Burlington, the only child of Andrew Issaclar Goodhue and Lemira Barrett Goodhue, she was of English ancestry. Her father, a deacon, had served as the steamboat inspector for the Lake Champlain Transportation Company, appointed to the position in 1887 by President Grover Cleveland.
Her mother was a housewife, who taught her many domestic skills, including knitting, cooking and gardening. She began her education at age five at a local public grade school in Burlington, attended Burlington Public Grammar School, it was during this time that she took private piano lessons. In 1893, she entered Burlington High School. There she studied Latin and French, as well as geology and chemistry, she took a private course on elocution. She enrolled in 1898 at the University of Vermont, where she founded the Vermont chapter of the Pi Beta Phi sorority, acted in productions of Shakespeare's Much Ado About Nothing and Twelfth Night, joined the college's glee club, she would become the first First Lady to have earned a four-year undergraduate degree. From 1902 to 1904, inspired by a childhood friend who had pursued a career teaching deaf children, she studied lip reading at Clarke Schools for Hearing and Speech and became a teacher there; the education of deaf children remained her lifelong passion.
Grace dated several young men during college. One relationship, that with Frank Joyner, was serious enough, she ended the relationship in 1903 when she met Calvin Coolidge. Grace's vivacity and charm proved a perfect complement to Coolidge's reserved manner. In the summer of 1905, Coolidge proposed in the form of an ultimatum: "I am going to be married to you." Grace consented, but her mother objected and did everything she could to postpone the wedding. Coolidge never reconciled with his mother-in-law, who insisted that Grace had been responsible for Coolidge's political success. On October 4, 1905, Goodhue and Coolidge married in a simple ceremony at her parents' house in Burlington: Coolidge House, The house was restored in 1993 by Champlain College*, they honeymooned for a week in Montreal and settled in Northampton, where they occupied what is now known as the Calvin Coolidge House until 1930. Calvin Coolidge's political career took off in 1907 when he was elected to the Massachusetts General Court.
After his term in the state legislature ended, he served three consecutive one-year terms as Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts, one term as Governor of Massachusetts. In 1920, he was elected Vice President and took office in March 1921. Grace did not maintain much of a public profile; the Coolidges had two sons and Calvin In 1921, as wife of the Vice President of the United States, Grace Coolidge went from her housewife's routine into Washington society and became the most popular woman in the capital. After Harding's death and Calvin Coolidge's succession to the Presidency, Grace planned the new administration's social life as her husband wanted it: unpretentious and dignified; as First Lady, she was a popular hostess. She was the first First Lady to speak in sound newsreels; the social highlight of the Coolidge years was the party for Charles Lindbergh following his transatlantic flight in 1927. The Coolidges were a devoted couple, although the president never discussed state matters with her.
She did not know that he had decided not to seek re-election in 1928 until he announced it to the press. She received a gold medal from the National Institute of Social Science. In 1931 she was voted one of America's twelve greatest living women. Calvin Coolidge summed up his marriage to Grace in his autobiography: "For a quarter of a century she has borne with my infirmities, I have rejoiced i
Lebanon, New Hampshire
Lebanon locally is a city in Grafton County, New Hampshire, United States. The population was 13,151 at the 2010 census and an estimated 13,522 as of 2017. Lebanon is located in western New Hampshire, south of Hanover, near the Connecticut River, it is the home to Dartmouth–Hitchcock Medical Center and Dartmouth Medical School, together comprising the largest medical facility between Boston and Burlington, Vermont. Together with Hanover, New Hampshire, White River Junction, Lebanon today is at the center of a Micropolitan Statistical Area, encompassing nearly 30 towns along the upper Connecticut River valley. Lebanon was chartered as a town by Colonial Governor Benning Wentworth on July 4, 1761, one of 16 along the Connecticut River, it was named for Lebanon, from where many early settlers had come or would come, including the Rev. Eleazar Wheelock, who arrived in 1770 and founded Dartmouth College. Lebanon, Connecticut was the original home of Moor's Indian Charity School, the antecedent of Dartmouth College.
Early settlement concentrated along the Connecticut River in what is now West Lebanon, along the Mascoma Lake region near Enfield. In the mid-19th century, a mill district developed at falls on the Mascoma River. Industries included, at various times, furniture mills, a tannery, several machine shops, a woolen textile mill and a clothing factory. In the mid-19th century, this district attracted many French workers from Canada's Quebec province; this became the center of town, although West Lebanon grew into a railroad hub with a separate identity after lines entered from Boston. This rail center would become known as Westboro after two trains collided when West Lebanon was mistaken for Lebanon; the mill district, like the railroad, declined into the 1960s. The town suffered two major fires. Reconstruction resulted in a controversial urban renewal project featuring a closed-off district, called The Mall, built to replace the destroyed Hanover Street area. In defiance of economic decline, to counter a movement by West Lebanon to declare itself an independent town, Lebanon re-incorporated as a city in 1958.
The routing of Interstates 89 and 91 through Lebanon and nearby White River Junction, Vermont, in addition to the growth of Dartmouth College, led to the area's economic revival. The former mill town now has a mixed economy based on education, medical services, high-technology and retail. Just south of the village of West Lebanon, a major shopping district has sprung up at the intersection of Route 12A and I-89. Lebanon has undertaken improvements to its recreational facilities, including miles of hiking trails, a municipal ski area, a swimming pool and several sports fields. In 1991, the Dartmouth–Hitchcock Medical Center, along with most departments of Dartmouth Medical School, moved from Hanover to a new campus just south of the Lebanon-Hanover town line. A number of medical and high-tech firms have located facilities near the medical center campus. Tele Atlas, a leading worldwide developer of mapping databases, has its North American headquarters in Lebanon. Novo Nordisk and Microsoft have major facilities here.
Lebanon is located at 43°38′38″N 72°15′19″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 41.4 square miles, of which 40.3 square miles is land and 1.0 square mile is water, comprising 2.45% of the city. The western boundary of Lebanon is the Connecticut River, the state boundary with Vermont; the village of West Lebanon occupies the western part of the city, along the Connecticut River. Downtown Lebanon is 3 miles to the east, along the Mascoma River, a tributary of the Connecticut; the city is within the Connecticut River watershed. The southern end of Moose Mountain is in the northeast; the highest point in Lebanon is the northern end of Shaker Mountain, at 1,657 feet above sea level, on the eastern border of the city. As of the census of 2010, there were 13,151 people, 6,186 households, 3,269 families residing in the city; the population density was 326.2 people per square mile. There were 6,649 housing units at an average density of 164.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 88.4% White, 1.6% African American, 0.30% Native American, 6.8% Asian, 0.00% Pacific Islander, 0.80% some other race, 2.10% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.9% of the population. There were 6,186 households out of which 24.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.5% were married couples living together, 8.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.4% had a male householder with no wife present, 47.2% were non-families. 36.8% of all households were made up of individuals, 12.4% were someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.10, the average family size was 2.76. In the city, the population was spread out with 20.5% from age 0-19, 6.3% from 20 to 24, 30.3% from 25 to 44, 27.6% from 45 to 64, 15.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39.4 years. The male population was 47.4% of the total, while the female population was 52.6%. For the period 2011-15, the estimated median annual income for a household in the city was $53,004, the median income for a family was $75,511. Male full-time workers had a median income of $51,735 versus $48,836 for females.
The per capita income for the city was $36,370. About 8.7% of families and 12.3% of the entire population were below the poverty line, including 22.6% of those under 18 and 5.0% of those age 65 and over. Lebanon has its own elementary schools, junior high school, high school. Students from neighboring