Chicago City Council
The Chicago City Council is the legislative branch of the government of the City of Chicago in Illinois. It consists of 50 aldermen elected from 50 wards to serve four-year terms; the Chicago City Council is gaveled into session usually monthly, to consider ordinances and resolutions whose subject matter includes code changes, utilities and many other issues. The presiding officer of the council is the Mayor of Chicago; the secretary is the City Clerk of Chicago. Both positions are city-wide elected offices; the Chicago City Council Chambers are located in Chicago City Hall, as are the downtown offices of the individual aldermen and staff. Established in 1837 as the Common Council and renamed to the "City Council" in 1872, it assumed its modern form of 50 wards electing one alderman each in 1923. Chicago has been divided into wards beginning with 6 wards; until 1923, each ward elected two members to the city council. In 1923, the system that exists today was adopted with 50 wards, each with one council member elected by the ward.
In accordance with Illinois state law, ward borders must be shifted after every federal census. This law is intended to give the population of the ward equal representation based by the size of the population of Chicago. Chicago is unusual among major United States cities in the number of wards and representative aldermen that it maintains, it has been noted that the current ward system promotes diverse ethnic and cultural representation on the city council. Chicago Aldermen are elected by popular vote every four years, on the last Tuesday in February. A run-off election, in the event that no candidate garners more than fifty percent of the vote, is held on the first Tuesday in April; the election is held on a non-partisan basis. New terms begin at noon on the third Monday in May following the election; the council, in conjunction with the Mayor of Chicago, hears recommendations from the Commission on Chicago Landmarks and may grant individual properties Chicago Landmark status. Chicago's aldermen are given exceptional deference, called "aldermanic privilege," to control city decisions and services within their ward.
Aldermanic privilege includes "zoning, permits, property-tax reductions, city contracts and patronage jobs". The system has been described as "50 aldermen serving as mayors of 50 wards." The Journal of the Proceedings of the City Council of the City of Chicago is the official publication of the acts of the City Council. The Municipal Code of Chicago is the codification of Chicago's local ordinances of a general and permanent nature. Between May 18, 2011 and August, 2011, the first 100 days of the first term of Mayor Rahm Emanuel, 2,845 ordinances and orders were introduced to the Council. Below is a list of current Chicago aldermen, who were elected in the 2015 Chicago aldermanic elections; the 2019 Chicago aldermanic elections took place in two rounds on February 26 and April 2, 2019. Aldermen elected in these elections will take office on May 20, 2019. Aldermanic elections are nonpartisan. * Year of appointment, not first election Chicago City Council Chambers has long been the center of public corruption in Chicago.
The first conviction of Chicago aldermen and Cook County Commissioners for accepting bribes to rig a crooked contract occurred in 1869. Between 1972 and 1999, 26 current or former Chicago aldermen were convicted for official corruption. Between 1973 and 2012, 31 aldermen were convicted of corruption. 100 aldermen served in that period, a conviction rate of about one-third. Fourteen of the Chicago's City Council's nineteen committees violated the Illinois Open Meetings Act during the last four months of 2007 by not keeping adequate written records of their meetings. Chicago City Council committees violated the Illinois Open Meetings Act and their own rules by meeting and taking actions without a quorum at least four times over the same four-month span. Less than half of the Council's 28 committees met more than six times in 1986; the budget for Council committees was $5.3 million in 1986. Over half of elected Chicago aldermen took illegal campaign contributions totalling $282,000 in 2013. Council Wars, a period of conflict within the City Council Cook County Board of Commissioners Workingmen's Party of Illinois 11th Ward, Chicago Aldermanic elections in Chicago List of Chicago aldermen since 1923 Chicago City Council Chicago City Council legislation from the City Clerk of Chicago Chicago City Council calendar from the City Clerk of Chicago Journal of the Proceedings from the City Clerk of Chicago Journal of the Proceedings from Google Books Chicago City Council meeting reports from the City Clerk of Chicago Map of Chicago Wards Your City Council: Who's who and what they can do from the Chicago Reader The Untold Stories of Alderman Don Parrillo by Anthony DeBartolo, Hyde Park Media Chicago City Council archive at the Chicago Reader
Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. Tracing its heritage back to Thomas Jefferson and James Madison's Democratic-Republican Party, the modern-day Democratic Party was founded around 1828 by supporters of Andrew Jackson, making it the world's oldest active political party; the Democrats' dominant worldview was once social conservatism and economic liberalism, while populism was its leading characteristic in the rural South. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt ran as a third-party candidate in the Progressive Party, beginning a switch of political platforms between the Democratic and Republican Party over the coming decades, leading to Woodrow Wilson being elected as the first fiscally progressive Democrat. Since Franklin D. Roosevelt and his New Deal coalition in the 1930s, the Democratic Party has promoted a social liberal platform, supporting social justice. Well into the 20th century, the party had conservative pro-business and Southern conservative-populist anti-business wings.
The New Deal Coalition of 1932–1964 attracted strong support from voters of recent European extraction—many of whom were Catholics based in the cities. After Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal of the 1930s, the pro-business wing withered outside the South. After the racial turmoil of the 1960s, most Southern whites and many Northern Catholics moved into the Republican Party at the presidential level; the once-powerful labor union element became less supportive after the 1970s. White Evangelicals and Southerners became Republican at the state and local level since the 1990s. People living in metropolitan areas, women and gender minorities, college graduates, racial and ethnic minorities in the United States, such as Jewish Americans, Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans, Arab Americans and African Americans, tend to support the Democratic Party much more than they support the rival Republican Party; the Democratic Party's philosophy of modern liberalism advocates social and economic equality, along with the welfare state.
It seeks to provide government regulation in the economy. These interventions, such as the introduction of social programs, support for labor unions, affordable college tuitions, moves toward universal health care and equal opportunity, consumer protection and environmental protection form the core of the party's economic policy. Fifteen Democrats have served as President of the United States; the first was President Andrew Jackson, the seventh president and served from 1829 to 1837. The most recent was President Barack Obama, the 44th president and held office from 2009 to 2017. Following the 2018 midterm elections, the Democrats held a majority in the House of Representatives, "trifectas" in 14 states, the mayoralty of numerous major American cities, such as Boston, Los Angeles, New York City, San Francisco, Portland and Washington, D. C. Twenty-three state governors were Democrats, the Party was the minority party in the Senate and in most state legislatures; as of March 2019, four of the nine Justices of the Supreme Court had been appointed by Democratic presidents.
Democratic Party officials trace its origins to the inspiration of the Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and other influential opponents of the Federalists in 1792. That party inspired the Whigs and modern Republicans. Organizationally, the modern Democratic Party arose in the 1830s with the election of Andrew Jackson. Since the nomination of William Jennings Bryan in 1896, the party has positioned itself to the left of the Republican Party on economic issues, they have been more liberal on civil rights issues since 1948. On foreign policy, both parties have changed position several times; the Democratic Party evolved from the Jeffersonian Republican or Democratic-Republican Party organized by Jefferson and Madison in opposition to the Federalist Party of Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. The party favored republicanism; the Democratic-Republican Party came to power in the election of 1800. After the War of 1812, the Federalists disappeared and the only national political party left was the Democratic-Republicans.
The era of one-party rule in the United States, known as the Era of Good Feelings, lasted from 1816 until the early 1830s, when the Whig Party became a national political group to rival the Democratic-Republicans. However, the Democratic-Republican Party still had its own internal factions, they split over the choice of a successor to President James Monroe and the party faction that supported many of the old Jeffersonian principles, led by Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren, became the modern Democratic Party. As Norton explains the transformation in 1828: Jacksonians believed the people's will had prevailed. Through a lavishly financed coalition of state parties, political leaders, newspaper editors, a popular movement had elected the president; the Democrats became the nation's first well-organized national party and tight party organization became the hallmark of nineteenth-century American politics. Opposing factions led by Henry Clay helped form the Whig Party; the Democratic Party had a small yet decisive advantage over the Whigs until the 1850s, when the Whigs fell apart over the issue of slavery.
In 1854, angry with the Kansas–Nebraska Act, anti-slavery Dem
Free silver was a major economic policy issue in late-19th-century America. Its advocates were in favor of an expansionary monetary policy featuring the unlimited coinage of silver into money on demand, as opposed to strict adherence to the more fixed money supply implicit in the gold standard. Supporters of an important place for silver in a bimetallic money system making use of both silver and gold, called "Silverites", sought coinage of silver dollars at a fixed weight ratio of 16-to-1 against dollar coins made of gold; because the actual price ratio of the two metals was higher in favor of gold at the time, most economists warned that the less valuable silver coinage would drive the more valuable gold out of circulation. While all agreed that an expanded money supply would raise prices, at issue was whether or not this inflationary tendency would be beneficial; the issue peaked from 1893 to 1896, when the economy was wracked by a severe depression—remembered as the Panic of 1893—characterized by falling prices, high unemployment in industrial areas, severe distress for farmers.
The "free silver" debate pitted the pro-gold financial establishment of the Northeast, along with railroads and businessmen, who were creditors deriving benefit from deflation and repayment of loans with valuable gold dollars, against farmers who would benefit from higher prices for their crops and an easing of credit burdens. Free silver was popular among farmers in the Wheat Belt and the Cotton Belt, as well as silver miners in the West, it had little support among farmers in the Corn Belt. Free silver was the central issue for Democrats in the presidential elections of 1896 and 1900, under the leadership of William Jennings Bryan, famed for his Cross of Gold speech in favor of free silver; the Populists endorsed Bryan and free silver in 1896, which marked the effective end of their independence. In major elections free silver was defeated, after 1896 the nation moved to the gold standard; the debate over silver lasted from the passage of the Fourth Coinage Act in 1873, which demonetized silver and was called the "Crime of'73" by opponents, until 1913, when the Federal Reserve Act overhauled the U.
S. monetary system. Under the gold specie standard, anyone in possession of gold bullion could deposit it at a mint where it would be processed into gold coins. Less a nominal seigniorage to cover processing costs, the coins would be paid to the depositor; the objective of the free silver movement was that the mints should accept and process silver bullion according to the same principle, notwithstanding the fact that the market value of the silver in circulating coins of the United States was less than face value. As a result, the monetary value of silver coins was based on government fiat rather than on the commodity value of their contents, this became true following the huge silver strikes in the West, which further depressed the silver price. From that time until the early 1960s the silver content in United States dimes, half dollars and silver dollars was worth only a fraction of their face values. Free coinage of silver would have amounted to an increase in the money supply, with inflation as the result.
Many populist organizations favored an inflationary monetary policy on the grounds that it would enable debtors to pay their debts off with cheaper, more available dollars. The most vocal and best organized supporters were the silver mine owners and workers, the western states and territories as most U. S. silver production was based there and the region had a great number of indebted farmers and ranchers. Outside the mining states of the West, the Republican Party steadfastly opposed free silver, arguing that the best road to national prosperity was "sound money", or gold, central to international trade, they argued that inflation meant guaranteed higher prices for everyone, real gains chiefly for the silver interests. In 1896 Senator Henry M. Teller of Colorado led many western Republicans to bolt and form a third party that supported William Jennings Bryan, the short-lived Silver Republican Party; the Sherman Silver Purchase Act of 1890, while falling short of free silver's goals, required the U.
S. government to buy millions of ounces of silver for money. However, the U. S. government paid for that silver bullion in gold notes—and reduced their coinage of silver. The result was a "run" on the Treasury's gold reserves, one of the many reasons for the Panic of 1893 and the onset of the 1890s Depression. Once he regained power, after the Panic of 1893 had begun, Grover Cleveland engineered the repeal of the Act, setting the stage for the key issue of the next presidential election; the Populist Party had a strong free-silver element. Its subsequent combination with the Democratic Party moved the latter from the support of the gold standard, the hallmark of the Cleveland administration to the free-silver position epitomized by 1896 presidential nominee William Jennings Bryan in his Cross of Gold speech. Bryan's 1896 candidacy was supported by Populists and "silver Republicans" as well as by most Democrats; the issue was over. The two options were: silver. Unbacked paper (wanted b
The Chicago Tribune is a daily newspaper based in Chicago, United States, owned by Tribune Publishing. Founded in 1847, self-styled as the "World's Greatest Newspaper", it remains the most-read daily newspaper of the Chicago metropolitan area and the Great Lakes region, it is the eighth-largest newspaper in the United States by circulation. Traditionally published as a broadsheet, on January 13, 2009, the Tribune announced it would continue publishing as a broadsheet for home delivery, but would publish in tabloid format for newsstand, news box, commuter station sales; this change, proved to be unpopular with readers and in August 2011, the Tribune discontinued the tabloid edition, returning to its traditional broadsheet edition through all distribution channels. The Tribune's masthead is notable for displaying the American flag, in reference to the paper's motto, "An American Paper for Americans"; the motto is no longer displayed on the masthead. The Tribune was founded by James Kelly, John E. Wheeler, Joseph K. C.
Forrest, publishing the first edition on June 10, 1847. Numerous changes in ownership and editorship took place over the next eight years; the Tribune was not politically affiliated, but tended to support either the Whig or Free Soil parties against the Democrats in elections. By late 1853, it was running xenophobic editorials that criticized foreigners and Roman Catholics. About this time it became a strong proponent of temperance; however nativist its editorials may have been, it was not until February 10, 1855 that the Tribune formally affiliated itself with the nativist American or Know Nothing party, whose candidate Levi Boone was elected Mayor of Chicago the following month. By about 1854, part-owner Capt. J. D. Webster General Webster and chief of staff at the Battle of Shiloh, Dr. Charles H. Ray of Galena, through Horace Greeley, convinced Joseph Medill of Cleveland's Leader to become managing editor. Ray became editor-in-chief, Medill became the managing editor, Alfred Cowles, Sr. brother of Edwin Cowles was the bookkeeper.
Each purchased one third of the Tribune. Under their leadership, the Tribune distanced itself from the Know Nothings, became the main Chicago organ of the Republican Party. However, the paper continued to print anti-Catholic and anti-Irish editorials, in the wake of the massive Famine immigration from Ireland; the Tribune absorbed three other Chicago publications under the new editors: the Free West in 1855, the Democratic Press of William Bross in 1858, the Chicago Democrat in 1861, whose editor, John Wentworth, left his position when elected as Mayor of Chicago. Between 1858 and 1860, the paper was known as the Chicago Tribune. On October 25, 1860, it became the Chicago Daily Tribune. Before and during the American Civil War, the new editors supported Abraham Lincoln, whom Medill helped secure the presidency in 1860, pushed an abolitionist agenda; the paper remained a force in Republican politics for years afterwards. In 1861, the Tribune published new lyrics by William W. Patton for the song "John Brown's Body".
These rivaled the lyrics published two months by Julia Ward Howe. Medill served as mayor of Chicago for one term after the Great Chicago Fire of 1871. Under the 20th-century editorship of Colonel Robert R. McCormick, who took control in the 1920s, the paper was isolationist and aligned with the Old Right in its coverage of political news and social trends, it used the motto "The American Paper for Americans". Through the 1930s to the 1950s, it excoriated the Democrats and the New Deal of Franklin D. Roosevelt, was resolutely disdainful of the British and French, enthusiastic for Chiang Kai-shek and Sen. Joseph McCarthy; when McCormick assumed the position of co-editor in 1910, the Tribune was the third-best-selling paper among Chicago's eight dailies, with a circulation of only 188,000. The young cousins added features such as advice columns and homegrown comic strips such as Little Orphan Annie and Moon Mullins, they promoted political "crusades", with their first success coming with the ouster of the Republican political boss of Illinois, Sen. William Lorimer.
At the same time, the Tribune competed with the Hearst paper, the Chicago Examiner, in a circulation war. By 1914, the cousins succeeded in forcing out Managing Editor William Keeley. By 1918, the Examiner was forced to merge with the Chicago Herald. In 1919, Patterson left the Tribune and moved to New York to launch his own newspaper, the New York Daily News. In a renewed circulation war with Hearst's Herald-Examiner, McCormick and Hearst ran rival lotteries in 1922; the Tribune won the battle. In 1922, the Chicago Tribune hosted an international design competition for its new headquarters, the Tribune Tower; the competition worked brilliantly as a publicity stunt, more than 260 entries were received. The winner was a neo-Gothic design by New York architects John Mead Howells and Raymond Hood; the newspaper sponsored a pioneering attempt at Arctic aviation in 1929, an attempted round-trip to Europe across Greenland and Iceland in a Sikorsky amphibious aircraft. But, the aircraft was destroyed by ice on July 15, 1929, near Ungava Bay at the tip of Labrador, Canada.
The crew were rescued by the Canadian science ship CSS Acadia. The Tribune's reputation for innovation extended to radio—it bought an early station, WDAP, in 1924 and renamed it WGN, the station call letters standing for the paper's self-description as the "Worl
The Associated Press is a U. S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City. Founded in 1846, it operates as a unincorporated association, its members are U. S. newspapers and broadcasters. Its Statement of News Values and Principles spells out its practices; the AP has earned 52 Pulitzer Prizes, including 31 for photography, since the award was established in 1917. The AP has counted the vote in U. S. elections since 1848, including national and local races down to the legislative level in all 50 states, along with key ballot measures. AP collects and verifies returns in every county, parish and town across the U. S. and declares winners in over 5,000 contests. The AP news report, distributed to its members and customers, is produced in English and Arabic. AP content is available on the agency's app, AP News. A 2017 study by NewsWhip revealed that AP content was more engaged with on Facebook than content from any individual English-language publisher; as of 2016, news collected by the AP was published and republished by more than 1,300 newspapers and broadcasters.
The AP operates 263 news bureaus in 106 countries. It operates the AP Radio Network, which provides newscasts twice hourly for broadcast and satellite radio and television stations. Many newspapers and broadcasters outside the United States are AP subscribers, paying a fee to use AP material without being contributing members of the cooperative; as part of their cooperative agreement with the AP, most member news organizations grant automatic permission for the AP to distribute their local news reports. The AP employs the "inverted pyramid" formula for writing which enables the news outlets to edit a story to fit its available publication area without losing the story's essentials. Cutbacks at rival United Press International in 1993 left the AP as the United States' primary news service, although UPI still produces and distributes stories and photos daily. Other English-language news services, such as the BBC, Reuters and the English-language service of Agence France-Presse, are based outside the United States.
The Associated Press was formed in May 1846 by five daily newspapers in New York City to share the cost of transmitting news of the Mexican–American War. The venture was organized by Moses Yale Beach, second publisher of The Sun, joined by the New York Herald, the New York Courier and Enquirer, The Journal of Commerce, the New York Evening Express; some historians believe. The New York Times became a member shortly after its founding in September 1851. Known as the New York Associated Press, the organization faced competition from the Western Associated Press, which criticized its monopolistic news gathering and price setting practices. An investigation completed in 1892 by Victor Lawson and publisher of the Chicago Daily News, revealed that several principals of the NYAP had entered into a secret agreement with United Press, a rival organization, to share NYAP news and the profits of reselling it; the revelations led to the demise of the NYAP and in December 1892, the Western Associated Press was incorporated in Illinois as The Associated Press.
A 1900 Illinois Supreme Court decision —that the AP was a public utility and operating in restraint of trade—resulted in AP's move from Chicago to New York City, where corporation laws were more favorable to cooperatives. When the AP was founded, news became a salable commodity; the invention of the rotary press allowed the New York Tribune in the 1870s to print 18,000 papers per hour. During the Civil War and Spanish–American War, there was a new incentive to print vivid, on-the-spot reporting. Melville Stone, who had founded the Chicago Daily News in 1875, served as AP General Manager from 1893 to 1921, he embraced the standards of accuracy and integrity. The cooperative grew under the leadership of Kent Cooper, who built up bureau staff in South America, Europe and, the Middle East, he introduced the "telegraph typewriter" or teletypewriter into newsrooms in 1914. In 1935, AP launched the Wirephoto network, which allowed transmission of news photographs over leased private telephone lines on the day they were taken.
This gave AP a major advantage over other news media outlets. While the first network was only between New York and San Francisco AP had its network across the whole United States. In 1945, the Supreme Court of the United States held in Associated Press v. United States that the AP had been violating the Sherman Antitrust Act by prohibiting member newspapers from selling or providing news to nonmember organizations as well as making it difficult for nonmember newspapers to join the AP; the decision facilitated the growth of its main rival United Press International, headed by Hugh Baillie from 1935 to 1955. AP entered the broadcast field in 1941. In 1994, it established a global video newsgathering agency. APTV merged with WorldWide Television News in 1998 to form APTN, which provides video to international broadcasters and websites. In 2004, AP moved its world headquarters from its longtime home at 50 Rockefeller Plaza to a huge building at 450 West 33rd Street in Manhattan—which houses the New York Daily News and the studios of New York's public television station, WNET.
In 2009, AP had more than 240 bureaus globally. Its mission—"to gather with economy and efficiency an accurate and impartial report of the news"—has not changed since its founding, but digital technology has made the distribution of the AP news report an interact
George Bell Swift
George Bell Swift served as mayor of Chicago, Illinois for the Republican Party. He was selected to replace the assassinated Carter Harrison, Sr. as Mayor pro tem in 1893 and lost his re-election bid. He was re-elected when he ran in 1895. Swift was born in Ohio to Samuel W. Swift and Elizabeth Swift, his family moved to Illinois when he was young. By his teenage years, the family was living in Chicago. Prior to serving as mayor of Chicago, Swift served two terms as an alderman. From 1887 to 1889, he was the city's Commissioner of Public Works. Swift was a proponent of the City Beautiful movement. Media related to George Bell Swift at Wikimedia Commons Mayor George Bell Swift Inaugural Address, 1895, Chicago Public Library
Alphonse Gabriel Capone, sometimes known by the nickname "Scarface", was an American gangster and businessman who attained notoriety during the Prohibition era as the co-founder and boss of the Chicago Outfit. His seven-year reign as crime boss ended when he was 33. Capone was born to Italian immigrants, he was a Five Points Gang member. In his early twenties, he moved to Chicago and became a bodyguard and trusted factotum for Johnny Torrio, head of a criminal syndicate that illegally supplied alcohol—the forerunner of the Outfit—and was politically protected through the Unione Siciliana. A conflict with the North Side Gang was instrumental in Capone's fall. Torrio went into retirement after North Side gunmen killed him, handing control to Capone. Capone expanded the bootlegging business through violent means, but his mutually profitable relationships with mayor William Hale Thompson and the city's police meant he seemed safe from law enforcement. Capone reveled in attention, such as the cheers from spectators when he appeared at ball games.
He made donations to various charities and was viewed by many as "modern-day Robin Hood". However, the Saint Valentine's Day Massacre, in which seven gang rivals were murdered in broad daylight, damaged Chicago's and Capone's image, leading influential citizens to demand government action and newspapers to dub Capone "Public Enemy No. 1". The federal authorities prosecuted him in 1931 for tax evasion. During a publicized case, the judge admitted as evidence Capone's admissions of his income and unpaid taxes during prior negotiations to pay the government taxes he owed, he was sentenced to 11 years in federal prison. After conviction, he replaced his defense team with experts in tax law, his grounds for appeal were strengthened by a Supreme Court ruling, but his appeal failed. Capone showed signs of neurosyphilis early in his sentence and became debilitated before being released after eight years of incarceration. On January 25, 1947, Capone died of cardiac arrest after suffering a stroke. Al Capone was born in Brooklyn, New York on January 17, 1899.
His parents were Teresa Capone. His father was a barber and his mother was a seamstress, both born in Angri, a town in the Province of Salerno. Gabriele and Teresa had nine children: Alphonse "Al" Capone. Ralph and Frank worked with him in his criminal empire. Frank did so until his death on April 1, 1924. Ralph ran the bottling companies early on, was the front man for the Chicago Outfit for some time until he was imprisoned for tax evasion in 1932; the Capone family immigrated to the United States, after first moving to nearby Fiume in Austria-Hungary in 1893. From that port city they traveled on a ship to the U. S. where they settled in the Navy Yard section of downtown Brooklyn. Gabriele Capone worked at a nearby barber shop at 29 Park Avenue; when Al was 11, the Capone family moved to 38 Garfield Place in Brooklyn. Capone showed promise as a student, but had trouble with the rules at his strict parochial Catholic school, his schooling ended at the age of 14, after he was expelled for hitting a female teacher in the face.
He worked at odd jobs including a candy store and a bowling alley. During this time, Capone was influenced by gangster Johnny Torrio, whom he came to regard as a mentor. Capone became involved with small-time gangs that included the Junior Forty Thieves and the Bowery Boys, he joined the Brooklyn Rippers, the powerful Five Points Gang based in Lower Manhattan. During this time, he was employed and mentored by fellow racketeer Frankie Yale, a bartender in a Coney Island dance hall and saloon called the Harvard Inn. Capone inadvertently insulted a woman while working the door at a Brooklyn night club and was slashed by her brother Frank Gallucio; the wounds led to the nickname "Scarface". When he was photographed, he hid the scarred left side of his face, saying that the injuries were war wounds, he was called "Snorky" by a term for a sharp dresser. Capone married Mae Josephine Coughlin at age 19 on December 30, 1918, she was Irish Catholic and earlier that month had given birth to their son Albert Francis "Sonny" Capone.
Capone was under the age of 21, his parents had to consent in writing to the marriage. By all accounts, the two had a happy marriage despite his gang life. At about 20 years of age, Capone left New York for Chicago at the invitation of Johnny Torrio, imported by crime boss James "Big Jim" Colosimo as an enforcer. Capone began in Chicago as a bouncer in a brothel. Timely use of Salvarsan could have cured the infection, but he never sought treatment. In 1923, he purchased a small house at 7244 South Prairie Avenue in the Park Manor neighborhood on the city's south side for US$5,500. In the early years of the decade, his name began appearing in newspaper sports pages where he was described as a boxing promoter. Torrio took over Colosimo's crime empire after Colosimo's murder on May 11, 1920, in which